Meliaceae

Melia azedarach, photographed by Forest & Kim Starr.


Belongs within: Sapindales.
Contains: Guareeae.

The Meliaceae are a pantropical family of trees. Some members of the family are significant timber trees, such as species of Cedrela (toon) and Swietenia (mahogany). Molecular data supports division of the Meliaceae into the subfamilies Cedreloideae and Melioideae: the Cedreloideae have the fruit a septifragal capsule, with the seeds usually being winged, while the Melioideae usually have the fruit a loculicidal capsule and the seeds with an aril or sarcotesta (Angiosperm Phylogeny Website).

Characters (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Trees; bark often rather bitter; secretory cells with resin, etc. present; nodes 5:5; plants often dioecious, but flowers apparently perfect, (3-)5(-8)-merous; calyx often connate, androecium 2x corolla, connate (occasionally 5-30 in a single whorl); gynoecium postgenitally united, opposite corolla, style-head discoid or capitate (occasionally more or less lobed), stigma wet; ovules with outer integument 2-5 cells across, inner integument 2-4 cells across, placental obturator common; archesporium often multicellular; seeds often pachychalazal, coat vascularised, testa undistinguished but thick, endotesta crystalliferous.

Meliaceae
    |  i. s.: Clemensia YY22
    |         Carapoxylon MS06
    |         Entandrophragma MS06
    |         Chisochetonoxylon MS06
    |--Cedreloideae [Swietenieae, Swietenioideae] MS06
    |    |--+--Schmardaea microphylla MS06
    |    |  `--Chukrasia tabularis MS06
    |    `--+--Cedreleae MS06
    |       |    |--Cedrela MS06
    |       |    |    |--C. australis H42
    |       |    |    `--C. odorata MS06
    |       |    `--Toona MS06
    |       |         |--T. ciliata F04
    |       |         `--T. sulcata MS06
    |       `--+--Khaya anthotheca MS06
    |          `--+--+--Swietenia MS06
    |             |  |    |--S. macrophylla MS06
    |             |  |    `--S. mahogani B06
    |             |  `--+--Pseudocedrela kotschyi MS06
    |             |     `--+--Lovoa swynnertonii MS06
    |             |        `--Capuronianthus [Capuronianthoideae] MS06
    |             |             `--C. mahafalensis MS06
    |             `--Xylocarpeae MS06
    |                  |--Carapa MS06
    |                  |    |--C. guianensis MS06
    |                  |    `--C. moluccensis H09
    |                  `--Xylocarpus mekongensis MS06
    `--Melioideae [Trichilieae] MS06
         |--+--Owenia vernicosa MS06
         |  `--Melieae MS06
         |       |--Melia azedarach MS06 [incl. M. azedarach var. subtripinnata LO98]
         |       `--Azadirachta indica MS06
         `--+--Astrotrichilia MS06
            `--+--+--Sandoricum [Sandoriceae] MS06
               |  |    `--S. koetjape MS06
               |  `--+--Ekebergia capensis MS06
               |     `--Quivisianthe [Quivisianthoideae] MS06
               |          `--Q. papinae MS06
               `--+--Walsura tubulata MS06
                  `--+--Vavaea [Vavaeeae] MS06
                     |    `--V. amicorum MS06
                     `--+--Guareeae MS06
                        `--+--+--Cipadessa baccifera MS06
                           |  `--Pseudoclausena chrysogyne MS06
                           `--+--Munronia pinnata MS06
                              `--+--+--Pseudobersama mosambicensis MS06
                                 |  `--Trichilia MS06
                                 |       |--T. emetica MS06
                                 |       `--T. havanensis J87
                                 `--+--+--Lepidotrichilia volkensii MS06
                                    |  `--Malleastrum mandanense MS06
                                    `--Turraeeae MS06
                                         |--Nymania capensis MS06
                                         `--+--Naregamia alata [=Turraea alata] MS06
                                            `--+--Calodecaryia crassifolia MS06
                                               `--+--Humbertioturraea MS06
                                                  `--Turraea sericea MS06

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B06] Biswas, A. 2006. Pteridophytes of Indian Botanic Garden, Howrah. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 48 (1-4): 175-188.

[F04] Ferrar, P. 2004. Australian entomology: isolated, or in touch with the rest of the world? Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 329-333.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[H42] Hill, G. F. 1942. Termites (Isoptera) from the Australian Region (including Australia, New Guinea and islands south of the Equator between 140°E. longitude and 170°W. longitude). Commonwealth of Australia Council for Scientific and Industrial Research: Melbourne.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263-276.

[MS06] Muellner, A. N., V. Savolainen, R. Samuel & M. W. Chase. 2006. The mahogany family "out-of-Africa": divergence time estimation, global biogeographic patterns inferred from plastid rbcL DNA sequences, extant, and fossil distribution of diversity. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40 (1): 236-250.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

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