Stand of cork oak Quercus suber, photographed by Guiliano Campus.

Belongs within: Rosidae.
Contains: Castanopsis.

The Fagaceae (including beech, oaks and chestnuts) are a family of trees found in a band across the Americas and Eurasia, with species in northernmost Africa and New Guinea. Many species are dominant forest trees in parts of their ranges, and the chestnuts of the genus Castanea are important food plants. As well as chestnuts, important genera in the family include the beeches Fagus and the oaks Quercus. Species of Fagus and Castanea produce one or more nuts enclosed in a spiny or prickled cupule; Quercus species produce a single acorn contained in a scaly cup (K. C. Nixon). Lithocarpus, the stone oaks, are a genus similar to Quercus but with erect male spikes, found in southeast and east Asia. The Trigonobalanoideae is a small group found in south-east Asia and northern South America producing one to seven trigonous nuts in an open cupule.

Characters (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Hairs often stellate/branched; sclereid nests in bark, cells with large rhomboidal crystals; stomata also cyclocytic; leaves conduplicate-plicate; inflorescence branched or not; flowers often trimerous; perianth biseriate or not, 4-6(-7)-lobed; staminate flowers: bract; pollen prolate-spheroidal, not spiny, tectum with more or less flat-lying and fused rod-like elements, pistillode present; carpellate flowers: staminodes present; cupule of valves more or less spiny, fruit nut-like, trigonous; endocarp hairy inside; seed pachychalazal.

    |  i. s.: Lithocarpus edulis Head03, MH98
    |         Castanopsis Head03
    |         Pasania YY22
    |         Eotrigonobalanus Walther & Kvaček 1989 HL08
    |           |--E. andreanszkyi JD05
    |           `--E. furcinervis (Rossmässler) Walther & Kvaček 1989 (see below for synonymy) HL08
    |--Trigonobalanoideae T00
    |    |--Colombobalanus T00
    |    |--Formanodendron T00
    |    `--Trigonobalanus T00
    |--Castanea G98 [Castaneoideae T00]
    |    |--C. crenata [incl. C. vulgaris] LO98
    |    |--C. sativa G98
    |    `--C. vesca C55
    |--Fagus CD07 [Fagoideae T00]
    |    |--F. benthami Ettingshausen 1886 F71
    |    |--F. crenata TMS91
    |    |--F. cunninghamii C45
    |    |--F. grandifolia Ehrh. 1788 CD07
    |    |--F. hookeri Ettingshausen 1886 F71
    |    |--F. muelleri Ettingshausen 1886 F71
    |    |--F. orientalis M06
    |    |--F. sylvatica R-CT01
    |    `--F. wilkinsoni Ettingshausen 1883 F71
    `--Quercus Heal03 [Quercoideae T00]
         |  i. s.: Q. acuta [=Q. aluta (l. c.)] LO98
         |         Q. acutissima MH98
         |         Q. agrifolia M93
         |         Q. alba Linnaeus 1753 DSA04
         |         Q. alnifolia D30
         |         Q. austini Ettingshausen 1886 F71
         |         Q. buckleyi HH05
         |         Q. calliprinos SM03
         |         Q. catesbaei C55
         |         Q. copyiensis MM96
         |         Q. crispula MH98
         |         Q. dalechampii R-CT01
         |         Q. dampieri Ettingshausen 1886 F71
         |         Q. darwinii Ettingshausen 1883 F71
         |         Q. dentata T86
         |         Q. douglasii HH05
         |         Q. drymejoides Ettingshausen 1883 F71
         |         Q. eumoryi SZ03
         |         Q. faginea R-RR-GM-S98
         |         Q. frainetto G98
         |         Q. garryana C84
         |         Q. glauca [incl. Q. shalassica (l. c.)] LO98
         |         Q. gravesii SZ03
         |         Q. hapaloneuron Ettingshausen 1886 F71
         |         Q. harvardi W01
         |         Q. hookeri Ettingshusen 1883 F71
         |         Q. humboldtii R96
         |         Q. humilis C55
         |         Q. ithaburensis HF03
         |         Q. laevis CS90
         |         Q. leucotrichophora N02
         |         Q. lusitanica R-RR-GM-S98
         |         Q. macrocarpa Heal03
         |         Q. minor G17
         |         Q. mongolica LO98
         |           |--Q. m. var. mongolica LO98
         |           `--Q. m. var. grosseserrata LO98
         |         Q. myrsinaefolia MH98
         |         Q. nigra CB06
         |         Q. phillyraeoides MH98 [=Q. phyllirioides LO98]
         |         Q. praephilippinensis Ettingshausen 1883 F71
         |         Q. prinus CS05
         |         Q. pubescens R-CT01
         |         Q. rotundifolia [=Q. ilex ssp. rotundifolia] R-RR-GM-S98
         |         Q. rubra HH05
         |         Q. semicarpifolia HSS13
         |         Q. serrata MH98 [incl. Q. glandulifera LO98]
         |         Q. tolimensis R96
         |         Q. toza C55
         |         Q. turbinella MBJ83
         |         Q. velutina CS05
         |         Q. wilkinsoni Ettingshausen 1886 F71
         |--Q. subg. Quercus R-RR-GM-S98
         |    |--Q. petraea R-RR-GM-S98
         |    |--Q. pyrenaica R-RR-GM-S98
         |    `--Q. robur R-RR-GM-S98 [incl. Q. pedunculata C55, Q. sessiliflora C55]
         |--Q. subg. Cerris R-RR-GM-S98
         |    |--Q. cerris R-RR-GM-S98
         |    |--Q. macrolepis R-RR-GM-S98
         |    |--Q. suber R-RR-GM-S98
         |    `--Q. trojana R-RR-GM-S98
         `--Q. subg. Sclerophyllodrys R-RR-GM-S98
              |--Q. coccifera Linnaeus 1753 R-RR-GM-S98, PL04 [incl. Q. pseudococcifera R-RR-GM-S98]
              `--Q. ilex R-RR-GM-S98
                   |--Q. i. ssp. ilex R-RR-GM-S98
                   `--Q. i. ssp. ballota R-RR-GM-S98

Eotrigonobalanus furcinervis (Rossmässler) Walther & Kvaček 1989 [=Phyllites furcinervis Rossmässler 1840, Dryophyllum furcinerve; incl. D. album Rüffle, Müller-Stoll & Litke 1976] HL08

*Type species of generic name indicated


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