Stand of cork oak Quercus suber, photographed by Guiliano Campus.

Belongs within: Faganae.
Contains: Castanopsis.

The Fagaceae (including beech, oaks and chestnuts) are a family of trees found in a band across the Americas and Eurasia, with species in northernmost Africa and New Guinea. Many species are dominant forest trees in parts of their ranges, and the chestnuts of the genus Castanea are important food plants. As well as chestnuts, important genera in the family include the beeches Fagus and the oaks Quercus. Species of Fagus and Castanea produce one or more nuts enclosed in a spiny or prickled cupule; Quercus species produce a single acorn contained in a scaly cup (K. C. Nixon). Many oak species are used as sources as wood; the thick bark of the cork oak Quercus suber is used as the source for natural cork. Lithocarpus, the stone oaks, are a genus similar to Quercus but with erect male spikes, found in southeast and east Asia. The Trigonobalanoideae is a small group found in south-east Asia and northern South America producing one to seven trigonous nuts in an open cupule.

Characters (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Hairs often stellate/branched; sclereid nests in bark, cells with large rhomboidal crystals; stomata also cyclocytic; leaves conduplicate-plicate; inflorescence branched or not; flowers often trimerous; perianth biseriate or not, 4-6(-7)-lobed; staminate flowers: bract; pollen prolate-spheroidal, not spiny, tectum with more or less flat-lying and fused rod-like elements, pistillode present; carpellate flowers: staminodes present; cupule of valves more or less spiny, fruit nut-like, trigonous; endocarp hairy inside; seed pachychalazal.

    |--Trigonobalanoideae T00
    |    |--Colombobalanus T00
    |    |--Formanodendron T00
    |    `--Trigonobalanus T00
    |--Castanea B14 [Castaneoideae T00]
    |    |--C. crenata [incl. C. vulgaris] LO98
    |    |--C. dentata B14
    |    |--C. sativa G98
    |    `--C. vesca C55
    |--Fagus CD07 [Fagoideae T00]
    |    |--F. benthami Ettingshausen 1886 F71
    |    |--F. crenata TMS91
    |    |--F. cunninghamii C45
    |    |--F. engleriana LI89
    |    |--F. grandifolia Ehrh. 1788 CD07
    |    |--F. hookeri Ettingshausen 1886 F71
    |    |--F. muelleri Ettingshausen 1886 F71
    |    |--F. orientalis M06
    |    |--F. sylvatica R-CT01
    |    `--F. wilkinsoni Ettingshausen 1883 F71
    `--Quercus B14 [Quercoideae T00]
         |  i. s.: Q. acuta [=Q. aluta (l. c.)] LO98
         |         Q. × acutidens [Q. cornelius-mulleri × Q. engelmannii] H93
         |         Q. acutissima MH98
         |         Q. agrifolia M93
         |           |--Q. a. var. agrifolia H93
         |           `--Q. a. var. oxyadenia H93
         |         Q. alba Linnaeus 1753 DSA04
         |         Q. alnifolia D30
         |         Q. × alvordiana [Q. douglasii × Q. john-tuckeri] H93
         |         Q. aristata BTA75
         |         Q. arizonica BT87
         |         Q. austini Ettingshausen 1886 F71
         |         Q. berberidifolia H93
         |         Q. buckleyi HH05
         |         Q. calliprinos HF03
         |         Q. candicans RJ11
         |         Q. catesbaei C55
         |         Q. chrysolepis [incl. Q. chrysolepis var. nana] H93
         |         Q. coccinea S00
         |         Q. conzatii BT87
         |         Q. copyiensis MM96
         |         Q. cornelius-mulleri H93
         |         Q. crispula MH98
         |         Q. dalechampii R-CT01
         |         Q. dampieri Ettingshausen 1886 F71
         |         Q. darwinii Ettingshausen 1883 F71
         |         Q. delechampii RCT96
         |         Q. dentata T86
         |         Q. douglasii HH05
         |         Q. drymejoides Ettingshausen 1883 F71
         |         Q. dumosa H93
         |         Q. durata H93
         |           |--Q. d. var. durata H93
         |           `--Q. d. var. gabrielensis H93
         |         Q. engelmannii H93
         |         Q. eumoryi SZ03
         |         Q. faginea R-RR-GM-S98
         |         Q. falcata S00
         |         Q. frainetto G98
         |         Q. gambellii RJ11
         |         Q. garryiana B-PEC05
         |           |--Q. g. var. garryiana H93
         |           `--Q. g. var. breweri H93
         |         Q. glauca [incl. Q. shalassica (l. c.)] LO98
         |         Q. glaucoides FZ77
         |         Q. gravesii SZ03
         |         Q. hapaloneuron Ettingshausen 1886 F71
         |         Q. harvardi W01
         |         Q. hookeri Ettingshusen 1883 F71
         |         Q. humboldtii R96
         |         Q. humilis C55
         |         Q. incana B14
         |         Q. ithaburensis HF03
         |         Q. john-tuckeri [incl. Q. turbinella var. californica] H93
         |         Q. kelloggii H93
         |         Q. laevis CS90
         |         Q. laurina BT87
         |         Q. leucotrichophora N02
         |         Q. lobata S62
         |         Q. lusitanica R-RR-GM-S98
         |         Q. × macdonaldii [Q. berberidifolia × Q. lobata] H93
         |         Q. macrocarpa Heal03
         |         Q. magnoliaefolia BT87
         |         Q. minor G17
         |         Q. mongolica LO98
         |           |--Q. m. var. mongolica LO98
         |           `--Q. m. var. grosseserrata LO98
         |         Q. myrsinaefolia MH98
         |         Q. nigra CB06
         |         Q. palmeri [incl. Q. dunnii] H93
         |         Q. palustris B00
         |         Q. parvula H93
         |           |--Q. p. var. parvula H93
         |           `--Q. p. var. shrevei H93
         |         Q. phillyraeoides MH98 [=Q. phyllirioides LO98]
         |         Q. praephilippinensis Ettingshausen 1883 F71
         |         Q. prinus CS05
         |         Q. pubescens R-CT01
         |         Q. rotundifolia [=Q. ilex ssp. rotundifolia] R-RR-GM-S98
         |         Q. rubra HH05
         |         Q. rugosa RJ11
         |         Q. sadleriana H93
         |         Q. semecarpifolia M18
         |         Q. serrata MH98 [incl. Q. glandulifera LO98]
         |         Q. sessilis N77
         |         Q. tolimensis R96
         |         Q. tomentella RJ11
         |         Q. toza C55
         |         Q. turbinella MBJ83
         |         Q. vaccinifolia H93
         |         Q. velutina CS05
         |         Q. virens P09
         |         Q. virginiana F11
         |         Q. wilkinsoni Ettingshausen 1886 F71
         |         Q. wislizenii H93
         |           |--Q. w. var. wislizenii H93
         |           `--Q. w. var. frutescens H93
         |--Q. subg. Quercus R-RR-GM-S98
         |    |--Q. petraea R-RR-GM-S98
         |    |--Q. pyrenaica R-RR-GM-S98
         |    `--Q. robur R-RR-GM-S98 [incl. Q. pedunculata C55, Q. sessiliflora C55]
         |--Q. subg. Cerris R-RR-GM-S98
         |    |--Q. cerris R-RR-GM-S98
         |    |--Q. macrolepis R-RR-GM-S98
         |    |--Q. suber R-RR-GM-S98
         |    `--Q. trojana R-RR-GM-S98
         `--Q. subg. Sclerophyllodrys R-RR-GM-S98
              |--Q. coccifera Linnaeus 1753 R-RR-GM-S98, PL04 [incl. Q. pseudococcifera R-RR-GM-S98]
              `--Q. ilex R-RR-GM-S98
                   |--Q. i. ssp. ilex R-RR-GM-S98
                   `--Q. i. ssp. ballota R-RR-GM-S98

Fagaceae incertae sedis:
  Lithocarpus Head03
    |--L. densiflorus H93
    |    |--L. d. var. densiflorus H93
    |    `--L. d. var. echinoides H93
    |--L. edulis MH98
    `--L. henryi LI89
  Castanopsis Head03
  Pasania YY22
  Eotrigonobalanus Walther & Kvaček 1989 HL08
    |--E. andreanszkyi JD05
    `--E. furcinervis (Rossmässler) Walther & Kvaček 1989 (see below for synonymy) HL08
  Chrysolepis H93
    |--C. chrysophylla [=Castanopsis chrysophylla] H93
    |    |--C. c. var. chrysophylla H93
    |    `--C. c. var. minor [=Castanopsis chrysophylla var. minor] H93
    `--C. sempervirens [=Castanopsis sempervirens] H93

Eotrigonobalanus furcinervis (Rossmässler) Walther & Kvaček 1989 [=Phyllites furcinervis Rossmässler 1840, Dryophyllum furcinerve; incl. D. album Rüffle, Müller-Stoll & Litke 1976] HL08

*Type species of generic name indicated


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