Eucalyptus

Thick-leaved mahogany Eucalyptus carnea, copyright Ian Brooker & David Kleinig.


Belongs within: Myrtaceae.

Eucalyptus is a large genus of more than 700 species of trees and shrubs, mostly native to Australia (with a very few reaching into insular south-east Asia). Many species in the genus are also grown outside their native range as timber trees. Many species of the genus are commonly known as 'gum trees' for their production of copious gum through breaks in the bark. Eucalyptus species that are multi-stemmed from ground level are commonly referred to as 'mallees'. Many species of Eucalyptus have well-developed oil glands on the leaves that give them a very characteristic scent, and vapour from this oil has long been used to relieve colds and other mucus build-ups. However, the flammability of eucalyptus oil can exacerbate the spread of fire in eucalyptus forests; the trees themselves can often recover from fires by the production of epicormic growth from beneath burnt bark.

The name 'Eucalyptus', meaning 'true covering', refers to the operculum formed of fused sepals that covers the stamens and ovary in many species during flower development before being shed at maturity. In members of the subgenus Symphomyrtus, a double operculum is present with the outer operculum being shed early in development. In the subgenus Eucalyptus, only a single operculum is present at any point in development. Species of a number of subgenera, including the subgenus Angophora, retain unfused sepals instead of an operculum; these subgenera may be separated as the genus Angophora. The subgenus Corymbia has also sometimes been recognised as a distinct genus; members of subgenus Corymbia bear compound inflorescences with bioperculate buds in which the outer operculum is retained until near flowering (Brooker 2000).

Eucalyptus L’Héritier de Brutelle 1789 Bro00
    |--E. subg. Eucalyptus WFM06
    |    |--E. sect. Eucalyptus Bro00
    |    |--E. sect. Amentum Brooker 2000 Bro00
    |    |    |--+--E. (sect. *A.) umbra Bro00
    |    |    |  `--E. carnea Bro00
    |    |    `--+--E. acmenoides Bro00
    |    |       |--E. apothalassica Bro00
    |    |       `--E. psammitica Bro00
    |    |--E. sect. Aromatica Bro00
    |    |--E. sect. Capillulus Bro00
    |    |--E. sect. Cineraceae Bro00
    |    |--E. sect. Insolitae Brooker 2000 [=E. ser. Planchonianae Chippendale 1988] Bro00
    |    |    `--E. (sect. *I.) planchoniana [=E. (ser. *Planchonianae) planchoniana] Bro00
    |    |--E. sect. Longistylus Bro00
    |    |--E. ser. Longitudinales (Blakely) Brooker 2000 (see below for synonymy) Bro00
    |    |    |--E. mitchelliana Bro00
    |    |    `--+--E. (sect. *L.) stellulata [=E. (subser. *Cylindriformes) stellulata] Bro00
    |    |       `--E. moorei Bro00
    |    |--E. sect. Nebulosa Brooker 2000 [=E. ser. Olsenianae Chippendale 1988] Bro00
    |    |    `--E. (sect. *N.) olsenii [=E. (ser. *Olsenianae) olsenii] Bro00
    |    |--E. sect. Pedaria Johnson ex Brooker 2000 Bro00
    |    |    `--E. (sect. *P.) brevistylis Bro00
    |    `--E. sect. Pseudophloius Brooker 2000 Bro00
    |         |--E. (sect. *P.) pilularis Bro00
    |         `--E. pyrocarpa Bro00
    |--E. subg. Acerosae Brooker 2000 [=E. ser. Curtisianae Chippendale 1988] Bro00
    |    `--E. (subg. *A.) curtisii [=E. (ser. *Curtisianae) curtisii] Bro00
    |--E. subg. Alveolata (Maiden) Brooker 2000 (see below for synonymy) Bro00
    |    `--E. (subg. *A.) microcorys [=E. (ser. *Alveolatae) microcorys, E. (ser. *Steatoxylon) microcorys] Bro00
    |--E. subg. Angophora (Cavanilles) Brooker 2000 [=Angophora Cavanilles 1797] Bro00
    |    |--E. ser. Angophora (Cavanilles) Brooker 2000 Bro00
    |    |    |--E. subser. Angophora (Cavanilles) Brooker 2000] Bro00
    |    |    |    |--E. hispida (Smith) Brooker 2000 (see below for synonymy) Bro00
    |    |    |    `--E. subvelutina (Muell.) Brooker 2000 [=Angophora subvelutina Muell. 1858] Bro00
    |    |    `--E. subser. Melanoxylon Brooker 2000 Bro00
    |    |         `--E. (subser. *M.) melana Brooker 2000 (see below for synonymy) Bro00
    |    |--E. ser. Costatitae (Thiele & Ladiges) Brooker 2000 (see below for synonymy) Bro00
    |    |    `--E. (ser. *C.) apocynifolia (Salisb.) Brooker 2000 (see below for synonymy) Bro00
    |    `--E. ser. Floribundinae (Thiele & Ladiges) Brooker 2000 (see below for synonymy) Bro00
    |         |--E. (ser. *F.) florida Brooker 2000 (see below for synonymy) Bro00
    |         |--E. angustata Brooker 2000 (see below for synonymy) Bro00
    |         `--E. woodsiana (Bailey) Brooker 2000 (see below for synonymy) Bro00
    |--E. subg. Blakella Pryor & Johnson ex Brooker 2000 Bro00
    |    |--E. sect. Abbreviatae Bro00
    |    `--E. sect. Extensae Brooker 2000 [=E. subser. Tessellatae Blakely 1934] Bro00
    |         |--E. (sect. *E.) tessellaris Bro00 (see below for synonymy)
    |         |--E. bella (Hill & Johnson) Brooker 2000 [=Corymbia bella Hill & Johnson 2000] Bro00
    |         `--E. papuana Bro00 [incl. E. tesselaris var. dallachiana M16, E. clavigera var. dallachiana M16]
    |--E. subg. Corymbia (Hill & Johnson) Brooker 2000 (see below for synonymy) Bro00
    |    |--E. sect. Notiales Brooker 2000 Bro00
    |    |    |--E. ser. Cymbiformes Brooker 2000 Bro00
    |    |    |    |--E. (sect. *N. ser. *C.) gummifera [=*Corymbia gummifera, E. (subser. *Corymbosae) gummifera] Bro00
    |    |    |    `--+--E. calophylla Bro00 [=Corymbia calophylla JK08]
    |    |    |       |    |--E. c. var. calophylla R35
    |    |    |       |    `--E. c. var. rosea R35
    |    |    |       `--E. haematoxylon Bro00
    |    |    `--E. ser. Disjunctae Brooker 2000 Bro00
    |    |         `--E. (ser. *D.) ficifolia Bro00
    |    `--E. sect. Septentrionales Bro00
    |--E. subg. Cruciformes Brooker 2000 (see below for synonymy) Bro00
    |    `--E. (subg. *C.) guilfoylei [=E. (subsect. *Papilionantherae subser. *Ochroxylon) guilfoylei] Bro00
    |--E. subg. Cuboidea Brooker 2000 Bro00
    |    `--E. (subg. *C.) tenuipes Bro00
    |--E. subg. Eudesmia (Brown) Johnson & Hill 1998 (see below for synonymy) Bro00
    |    |--E. sect. Limbatae Bro00
    |    |--E. sect. Complanatae Brooker 2000 [=E. ser. Tetrodontae Chippendale 1988] Bro00
    |    |    `--E. (sect. *C.) tetrodonta [=E. (ser. *Tetrodontae) tetrodonta] Bro00
    |    |--E. sect. Ebbanoenses (Chippendale) Brooker 2000 [=E. ser. Ebbanoenses Chippendale 1988] Bro00
    |    |    `--E. (sect. *E.) ebbanoensis Bro00
    |    |         |--E. e. ssp. ebbanoensis G04a
    |    |         `--E. e. ssp. glauciramula G04a
    |    `--E. sect. Reticulatae Bro00
    |--E. subg. Idiogenes Pryor & Johnson ex Brooker 2000 [=E. subser. Megalanthae Blakely 1934] Bro00
    |    `--E. (subg. *I.) cloeziana [=E. (subser. *Megalanthae) cloeziana] Bro00
    |--E. subg. Minutifructus Brooker 2000 Bro00
    |    |--E. sect. Domesticae Brooker 2000 (see below for synonymy) Bro00
    |    |    |--E. (subg. *M. sect. *D.) brachyandra [=E. (subsect. *Brachyandrae) brachyandra] Bro00
    |    |    |--E. howittiana [=E. (ser. *Howittianae) howittiana] Bro00
    |    |    `--E. raveretiana Bro00
    |    `--E. sect. Equatoria Pryor & Johnson ex Brooker 2000 [=E. ser. Myrtiformes Blakely 1934] Bro00
    |         `--E. (sect. *E.) deglupta [=E. (ser. *Myrtiformes) deglupta] Bro00
    |--E. subg. Primitiva Brooker 2000 [=E. ser. Rubiginosae Chippendale 1988] Bro00
    |    `--E. (subg. *P.) rubiginosa [=E. (ser. *Rubiginosae) rubiginosa] Bro00
    `--E. subg. Symphyomyrtus (Schauer) Brooker 2000 [=Symphyomyrtus Schauer in Lehmann 1844] Bro00
         |--E. sect. Bisectae Bro00
         |--E. sect. Adnataria B00
         |--E. sect. Bolites Brooker 2000 Bro00
         |    `--E. (sect. *B.) gomphocephala Bro00
         |--E. sect. Dumaria Bro00
         |--E. sect. Exsertaria Bro00
         |--E. sect. Inclusae (Benth.) Chippendale 1988 [=E. subser. Inclusae Benth. 1867] Bro00
         |    `--E. (sect. *I.) diversicolor Bro00
         |--E. sect. Incognitae (Nicolle) Brooker 2000 [=E. ser. Incognitae Nicolle 1995] Bro00
         |    |--E. (sect. *I.) cosmophylla Bro00
         |    `--E. paludicola Bro00
         |--E. sect. Latoangulatae Bro00
         |--E. sect. Liberivalvae (Blakely) Brooker 2000 [=E. subser. Liberivalvae Blakely 1934] Bro00
         |    |--E. parramattensis Bro00
         |    |--+--E. (sect. *L.) bancroftii Bro00
         |    |  `--E. prava Bro00
         |    `--+--E. interstans Bro00
         |       `--E. seeana Maiden 1904 Bro00, M16
         |--E. sect. Maidenaria Bro00
         |--E. sect. Platysperma Brooker 2000 [=E. ser. Brevifoliae Brooker & Slee 1994] Bro00
         |    |--E. rupestris Bro00
         |    |--E. umbrawarrensis Bro00
         |    `--+--E. (sect. *P.) brevifolia Bro00 (see below for synonymy)
         |       |--E. confluens Fitzgerald in Maiden 1916 Bro00, M16
         |       |--E. leucophloia Bro00
         |       `--E. ordiana Bro00
         |--E. sect. Pumilio Brooker 2000 [=E. ser. Pumilae Chippendale 1988] Bro00
         |    `--E. (sect. *P.) pumila [=E. (ser. *Pumilae) pumila] Bro00
         |--E. sect. Racemus Brooker 2000 [=E. ser. Michaelianae Chippendale 1988] Bro00
         |    `--E. (sect. *R.) michaeliana [=E. (ser. *Michaelianae) michaeliana] Bro00
         |--E. sect. Sejunctae Brooker 2000 [=E. ser. Microcorythae Blakely 1934] Bro00
         |    `--E. (sect. *S.) cladocalyx Bro00 [=E. (ser. *Microcorythae) cladocalyx Bro00; incl. E. corynocalyx H93]
         `--E. sect. Similares Brooker 2000 Bro00
              `--E. (sect. *S.) longifolia Bro00

Eucalyptus incertae sedis:
  E. alipes G04b
  E. andreana MH98
  E. australiana Baker & Smith 1916 [=E. amygdalina var. australiana] BS16
  E. bicolor R35
  E. brachyphylla Bro00
  E. cajuputea M16
  E. cnerifolia M16
  E. coriacea H42
  E. corymbosa H42
  E. crassifolia (Leach) Brooker 2000 (see below for synonymy) Bro00
  ‘Corymbia’ dendromerinx LK14
  ‘Corymbia’ disjuncta LK14
  E. drepanophylla Bra00
  E. elaeophora H42
  E. erythrandra Bro00
  E. euryphylla (Johnson ex Leach) Brooker 2000 (see below for synonymy) Bro00
  E. exul (Hill) Brooker 2000 [=Angophora exul Hill 1997] Bro00
  E. fitzgeraldii LK14
  E. gigantea H42
  E. glomericassis LK14
  E. grasbyi G04a
  E. gratiae G04b
  E. hayi Ettingshausen 1886 F71
  E. hemiphloia H42
  E. houtmanni Ettingshausen 1886 F71
  E. hybrida SK02
  E. inopina (Hill) Brooker 2000 [=Angophora inopina Hill 1997] Bro00
  E. kenneallyi LK14
  E. leiocarpa (Johnson ex Leach) Brooker 2000 (see below for synonymy) Bro00
  E. mitchellii Ettingshausen 1886 F71
  E. moderata G04a
  E. myrtella B88
  E. pallidifolia C16
  E. palustris Brooker 2000 (see below for synonymy) Bro00
  E. pantoleuca LK14
  E. paucifolia F49
  E. phaeotricha W95
  E. populifolia B88
  E. repullulans EF04
  E. robur (Johnson & Hill) Brooker 2000 [=Angophora robur Johnson & Hill 1990] Bro00
  E. rostrata W95
  E. rugulata G04b
  ‘Corymbia’ semiclara EF04
  E. sporadica G04b
  E. stuartiana B88
    |--E. s. var. stuartiana M16
    `--E. s. var. parviflora M16
  E. subtenuis G04b
  E. tesselaris M16
  E. tephrodes MLP09
  E. thamnoides OS04
    |--E. t. ssp. thamnoides OS04
    `--E. t. ssp. megista OS04
  ‘Corymbia’ torta LK14
    |--C. t. ssp. torta LK14
    `--C. t. ssp. mixtifolia LK14
  E. triantha W95
  E. umbellata B88
  E. urna G04b
  ‘Corymbia’ variegata WO05
  E. xerothermica EF04

Eucalyptus angustata Brooker 2000 [=E. (ser. *Angustatae) angustata, Angophora (ser. *Bakerinae) bakeri Hall 1913 non Eucalyptus bakeri Maiden 1913; incl. A. lanceolata var. angustifolia Gray 1854, A. intermedia var. angustifolia Cambage 1911 (n. n.)] Bro00

Eucalyptus apocynifolia (Salisb.) Brooker 2000 [=Metrosideros apocynifolia Salisb. 1796; incl. Metrosideros costata Gaertn. 1788 non Eucalyptus costata Muell. 1855, Angophora costata (Gaertn.) Britten 1916, Melaleuca costata Raeusch 1797 (n. n.), A. lanceolata var. hispida Cunn. ex Gray 1854, A. lanceolata Cav. 1797 (nom. illeg.), Metrosideros lanceolata (Cav.) Pers. 1806 (nom. illeg.), Met. splendens Gaertn. ex DC. 1828 (n. n.)] Bro00

Eucalyptus brevifolia Bro00 [=E. (ser. *Brevifoliae) brevifolia Bro00, E. tereticornis var. brevifolia C08]

Eucalyptus crassifolia (Leach) Brooker 2000 [=Angophora bakeri ssp. crassifolia Leach 1986, A. crassifolia (Leach) Johnson & Hill 1990] Bro00

Eucalyptus euryphylla (Johnson ex Leach) Brooker 2000 [=Angophora costata ssp. euryphylla Johson ex Leach 1986] Bro00

Eucalyptus florida Brooker 2000 [=Metrosideros floribunda Smith 1797 non Eucalyptus floribunda Huegel ex Endl. 1837, Angophora floribunda (Smith) Sweet 1830; incl. A. intermedia DC. 1828 non Eucalyptus intermedia] Bro00

Eucalyptus hispida (Smith) Brooker 2000 [=Metrosideros hispida Smith 1797, Angophora hispida (Smith) Blaxell 1976 non A. lanceolata var. hispida Cunn. ex Gray 1854; incl. *A. cordifolia Cavanilles 1797, Metrosideros cordifolia (Cavanilles) Pers. 1806, M. anomala Vent. 1803, M. hirsuta Andr. 1803, Eucalyptus hirsuta Link 1822] Bro00

Eucalyptus leiocarpa (Johnson ex Leach) Brooker 2000 [=Angophora costata ssp. leiocarpa Johnson ex Leach 1986, A. costata (Johnson ex Leach) Thiele & Ladiges 1988] Bro00

Eucalyptus melana Brooker 2000 [=Angophora melanoxylon Baker 1900 non Eucalyptus melanoxylon Maiden 1923] Bro00

Eucalyptus palustris Brooker 2000 [=Angophora bakeri ssp. paludosa Leach 1986 non Eucalyptus paludosa Baker 1898, A. paludosa (Leach) Thiele & Ladiges 1988] Bro00

Eucalyptus tessellaris Bro00 [=Corymbia tessellaris Bra00, E. (subser. *Tessellatae) tessellaris Bro00]

Eucalyptus woodsiana (Bailey) Brooker 2000 [=Angophora woodsiana Bailey 1882, A. intermedia var. woodsiana (Bailey) Bailey 1900] Bro00

Eucalyptus subg. Alveolata (Maiden) Brooker 2000 [=E. ser. Alveolatae Maiden 1929, E. ser. Steatoxylon Blakely 1934] Bro00

Eucalyptus subg. Corymbia (Hill & Johnson) Brooker 2000 [=Corymbia Hill & Johnson 1995, E. subser. Corymbosae Benth. 1867 non Loasa ser. Corymbosae Urban & Gilg 1900] Bro00

Eucalyptus ser. Costatitae (Thiele & Ladiges) Brooker 2000 [=Angophora subser. Costatitae Thiele & Ladiges 1988] Bro00

Eucalyptus subg. Cruciformes Brooker 2000 [=E. subser. Ochroxylon Blakely 1934, E. subsect. Papilionantherae Blakely 1934] Bro00

Eucalyptus sect. Domesticae Brooker 2000 [=E. subsect. Brachyandrae Maiden 1924; incl. E. ser. Howittianae Chippendale 1988] Bro00

Eucalyptus subg. Eudesmia (Brown) Johnson & Hill 1998 [=Eudesmia Br. in Flinders 1814, Euc. subser. Eudesmiae Benth. 1867, Euc. ser. Eudesmiae Blakely 1934] Bro00

Eucalyptus ser. Floribundinae (Thiele & Ladiges) Brooker 2000 [=Angophora ser. Floribundinae Thiele & Ladiges 1988; incl. E. ser. Angustatae Brooker 2000, Angophora ser. Bakerinae Thiele & Ladiges 1988] Bro00

Eucalyptus sect. Longitudinales (Blakely) Brooker 2000 [=E. ser. Longitudinales Blakely 1934, E. subser. Cylindriformes Blakely 1934] B00

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BS16] Baker, R. T., & H. G. Smith. 1916. Eucalyptus australiana, sp. nov. ("narrow-leaved peppermint") and its essential oil. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 49 (3): 514–525.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[Bra00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[Bro00] Brooker, M. I. H. 2000. A new classification of the genus Eucalyptus L’Hér. (Myrtaceae). Australian Systematic Botany 13: 79–148.

[C08] Cambage, R. H. 1908. Notes on the native flora of New South Wales. Part VI. Deepwater to Torrington and Emmaville. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33 (1): 45–65, pls 1–2.

[C16] Cambage, R. H. 1916. Notes on the native flora of tropical Queensland. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 49 (3): 389–447, pls 57–61.

[EF04] Etten, E. J. B. van, & J. E. D. Fox. 2004. Vegetation classification and ordination of the central Hamersley Ranges, Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 63–79.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[F49] Forster, R. R. 1949. Australian Opiliones. Memoirs of the National Museum of Victoria 16: 59–89.

[G04a] Gibson, N. 2004a. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 6. Mt Manning Range. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 35–47.

[G04b] Gibson, N. 2004b. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49–62.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[H42] Hill, G. F. 1942. Termites (Isoptera) from the Australian Region (including Australia, New Guinea and islands south of the Equator between 140°E. longitude and 170°W. longitude). Commonwealth of Australia Council for Scientific and Industrial Research: Melbourne.

[JK08] Johnstone, R. E., & T. Kirkby. 2008. Distribution, status, social organisation, movements and conservation of Baudin's cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus baudinii) in south-west Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 107-118.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[M16] Maiden, J. H. 1916. Notes on Eucalyptus (with descriptions of new species) no. IV. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 49 (3): 309–331.

[MLP09] McKenzie, N. L., S. van Leeuwen & A. M. Pinder. 2009. Introduction to the Pilbara Biodiversity Survey, 2002–2007. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 78 (1): 3–89.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180–190.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19–28.

[R35] Rayment, T. 1935. A Cluster of Bees: Sixty essays on the life-histories of Australian bees, with specific descriptions of over 100 new species. Endeavour Press: Sydney.

[SK02] Sumithramma, N., A. R. V. Kumar, K. Chandrashekara & D. Rajagopal. 2002. Plant selection for nesting by Oecophylla smaragdina, Hymenoptera: Formicidae: do physical features affect the choice of the plant? Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 408–412.

[W95] Wang, Q. 1995. A taxonomic revision of the Australian genus Phoracantha Newman (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Invertebrate Taxonomy 9: 865–958.

[WFM06] Wheeler, M. A., M. M. Fairbanks & J. A. McComb. 2006. Low success of controlled pollination in Eucalyptus marginata (jarrah). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (3): 101–108.

[WO05] Wilson, P. G., M. M. O'Brien, M. M. Heslewood & C. J. Quinn. 2005. Relationships within Myrtaceae sensu lato based on a matK phylogeny. Plant Systematics and Evolution 251: 3–19.

Last updated: 6 May 2021.

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