Male and female of Arcturella dilatata, from here.

Belongs within: Scuticoxifera.
Contains: Mesidoteinae, Idothea.

The Valvifera are a group of aquatic isopods found in both marine and freshwater habitats. They are characterised by having the uropods rotated ventrally to form a branchial chamber enclosing the pleopods (Brandt & Poore 2003).

Characters (from Brandt & Poore 2003): Antenna 1 without scale. Mandibular lacinia mobilis present; mandibular molar a cylindrical process with triturative flat end, occasionally obsolete; mandibular palps absent. Dorsal coxal plate 7 similar to others (rarely narrower). Pleonite 6, usually more pleonites, fused to pleotelson, pleonite 1 similar to others (rarely reduced). Pleotelson underside vaulted, branchial chamber defined by ridges along mesial margin of lateral edge. Pleopod 3 endopod roughly triangular (or at least with inner angle sharper than outer). Uropods lateral to margin of pleotelson, peduncle and short rami enclosing pleopods in branchial chamber.

<==Valvifera [Idoteides, Idoteoidea, Idotheoidea]
    |  i. s.: Ronalea Menzies & Bowman 1956 MK83
    |         Eusymmerus Richardson 1899 MK83
    |--Antarcturus MK83 [Antarcturidae BP03]
    |--Arcturides MK83 [Arcturididae BP03]
    |--Austracturellidae BP03
    |--Holidoteidae BP03
    |--Pseudidotheidae BP03
    |--Rectarcturidae BP03
    |--Xenarcturellidae BP03
    |--Saduria [Chaetiliidae] BP03
    |    `--S. entomon BP03
    |--Holognathus [Holognathidae] BP03
    |    `--H. karamea BP03
    |--Arcturidae [Amesopodidae] BP03
    |    |--Arcturus MK83
    |    |    |--A. deshayesii Lucas 1846 E12
    |    |    `--A. floridanus Richardson 1900 MK83
    |    |--Thermoarcturus venezuelensis Paul & Menzies 1971 MK883
    |    |--Dolichisus MK83
    |    |--Neoarcturus MK83
    |    |--Pseudarcturella MK83
    |    |--Microarcturus MK83
    |    |--Edwinjoycea Menzies & Kruczynski 1983 MK83
    |    |    `--*E. horologium Menzies & Kruczynski 1983 MK83
    |    |--Arcturella Sars 1899 MK83
    |    |    |--*A. dilatata (Sars 1882) [=Astacilla dilatata] MK83
    |    |    |--A. bispinata Menzies & Kruczynski 1983 MK83
    |    |    `--A. spinata Menzies & Kruczynski 1983 MK83
    |    `--Astacilla MK83
    |         |--A. cymodocea Menzies & Glynn 1968 MK83
    |         |--A. lasallae Paul & Menzies 1971 MK83
    |         `--A. lauffi Menzies & Frankenberg 1966 MK83
    `--Idoteidae N37
         |  i. s.: Cleantis MK83
         |           |--C. planicauda Benedict in Richardson 1899 MK83
         |           `--C. tubicola HS01
         |         Edotea triloba (Say 1818) MK83
         |         Tropedotea Menzies & Kruczynski 1983 MK83
         |           `--*T. lyonsi Menzies & Kruczynski 1983 MK83
         |         Chiridotea N37
         |           |--C. arenicola Wigley 1960 MK83
         |           |--C. coeca (Say 1818) MK83
         |           |--C. excavata Harper 1974 MK83
         |           `--C. stenops Menzies & Frankenberg 1966 MK83
         |         Erichsonella MK83
         |           |--E. attenuata (Harger 1873) MK83
         |           |--E. filiformis (Say 1818) MK83
         |           |    |--E. f. filiformis MK83
         |           |    |--E. f. isabelensis Menzies 1951 MK83
         |           |    `--E. f. tropicalis Menzies & Glynn 1968 MK83
         |           `--E. floridana Benedict in Richardson 1901 MK83
         |         Synidotea N37
         |           |--S. angulata H47
         |           |--S. bicuspida [=Edotea bicuspida, Edotia bicuspida] H47
         |           |--S. consolidata H47
         |           |--S. hirtipes N37
         |           |--S. nebulosa H47
         |           |--S. nodulosa [=Edotea nodulosa] H47
         |           |--S. pettiboneae Hatch 1947 H47
         |           `--S. ritteri H47
         |         Symmius N37
         |         Paridotea N37
         |         Pentidotea N37
         |           |--P. resecata N37 [=Idotaea resecata H47, Idotea resecata H47]
         |           |--P. rotunda N37
         |           |--P. stenops H47
         |           |--P. whitei N37 [=Idothea whitei H47, Idotea whitei H47]
         |           `--P. wosnesenskii N37 (see below for synonymy)
         |         Synisoma F05
         |           |--S. albertoi Castellanos & Junoy 2005 F05
         |           `--S. capito BBB-S95
         |--Mesidoteinae N37
         |--Glyptonotus [Glyptonotinae] N37
         |    |--G. acutus N37
         |    `--G. antarcticus Eights 1852 FZA07
         `--Idothea N37

Pentidotea wosnesenskii N37 [=Idotaea wosnesenskii H47, Idotea wossnessenskii H47; incl. Pentidotea wosnesenskii var. exlineae Hatch 1947 H47]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BBB-S95] Boubezari, K., G. Bitar & D. Bellan-Santini. 1995. Structure et organisation de trois moulières (Mytilus galloprovincialis et Perna perna) de la région d'Alger. Mésogée 54: 63–72.

[BP03] Brandt, A. & G. C. B. Poore. 2003. Higher classification of the flabelliferan and related Isopoda based on a reappraisal of relationships. Invertebrate Systematics 17: 893–923.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[FZA07] Fiege, D., H. Zibrowius & P. M. Arnaud. 2007. New deep-water records of cocoons of undescribed species of Fecampiidae from Antarctica to the Bay of Biscay (Platyhelminthes, Turbellaria, Rhabdocoela). Senckenbergiana Biologica 87 (1): 1–6.

[H47] Hatch, M. H. 1947. The Chelifera and Isopoda of Washington and adjacent regions. University of Washington Publications in Biology 10 (5): 155–274.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45–80.

[MK83] Menzies, R. J., & W. L. Kruczynski. 1983. Isopod Crustacea (exclusive of Epicaridea). Memoirs of the Hourglass Cruises 6 (1): 1–126.

[N37] Nicholls, G. E. 1937. On the freshwater Idoteidae of New Zealand (Crustacea, Isopoda). Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 10, 19: 113–136.

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