Grey francolin Francolinus pondicerianus interpositus, copyright Jugal Tiwari.

Belongs within: Phasianidae.

Francolinus, the francolins, is a diverse genus of quail- and partridge-like birds found in Africa and southern Asia. Members of the genus have streaked, barred or vermiculated plumage dorsally, and scutellate scalation on the rear of the tarsus (Dinesen et al. 1994). Recent phylogenetic studies indicate, however, that the genus as previously recognised is broadly polyphyletic.

<==Francolinus Stephens 1819 [Francolinini] B94
    |--F. francolinus BKB15
    |    |--F. f. francolinus L81
    |    `--F. f. asiae L81
    `--+--+--F. coqui BKB15
       |  `--F. lathami JT12
       |--+--F. sephaena BKB15
       |  `--+--F. gularis JT12
       |     `--F. pondicerianus JT12
       |          |--F. p. pondicerianus L81
       |          `--F. p. interpositus L81
       `--+--+--+--‘Gallus’ varius BKB15
          |  |  `--+--‘Gallus’ lafayetii BKB15
          |  |     `--‘Gallus’ sonneratii BKB15
          |  `--Bambusicola JT12
          |       |--B. fytchii JT12
          |       `--B. thoracica WBSJ82
          |            |--B. t. thoracica WBSJ82
          |            `--B. t. sonorivox WBSJ82
          `--+--F. levaillantii BKB15
             `--+--F. finschi BKB15
                `--+--F. shelleyi BKB15
                   `--+--F. africanus BKB15
                      `--F. levaillantoides BKB15
                           |--F. l. levaillantoides B93
                           `--F. l. jugularis (see below for synonymy) B93

Francolinus incertae sedis:
  F. ahantensis JT12
  F. albogularis DL94
  F. camerunensis JT12
  F. clappertoni Children 1826 [=Perdix clappertoni; incl. F. rueppellii Gray 1844] S05
    |--F. c. clappertoni S05
    |--F. c. koenigseggi Madarász 1914 S05
    |--F. c. nigrosquamatus Neumann 1902 S05
    `--F. c. sharpii Ogilvie-Grant 1892 S05
  F. harwoodi JT12
  F. icterorhynchus L81
  F. jacksoni JT12
  F. nobilis JT12
  F. pictus DL94
  F. pintadeanus JT12
  F. psilolaemus JT12
  F. rufopictus JT12
  F. schlegelii DL94
  F. streptophorus JT12

Francolinus levaillantoides jugularis [incl. Scleroptila jugularis cunenensis Roberts 1932, S. jugularis gilli Roberts ex Brooke 1993 (n. n.)] B93

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[B93] Brooke, R. K. 1993. Annotated catalogue of the Aves type specimens in the South African Museum. Annals of the South African Museum 102 (10): 327–349.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[DL94] Dinesen, L., T. Lehmberg, J. O. Svendsen, L. A. Hansen & J. Fjeldså. 1994. A new genus and species of perdicine bird (Phasianidae, Perdicini) from Tanzania, a relict form with Indo-Malayan affinities. Ibis 136: 2–11.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

[S05] Steinheimer, F. D. 2005. Eduard Rüppel’s avian types at the Natural History Museum, Tring (Aves). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (2): 233–264.

[WBSJ82] Wild Bird Society of Japan. 1982. A Field Guide to the Birds of Japan. Kodansha International Ltd.: Tokyo.

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