Hydropsychidae

Diplectrona sp., from Manaaki Whenua Landcare Research.


Belongs within: Trichoptera.
Contains: Hydropsyche.

The Hydropsychidae are a cosmopolitan group of often relatively large caddisflies whose larvae construct fixed retreats of plant and rock fragments in running water (Neboiss 1991).

Characters (from Neboiss 1991): Ocelli absent. Maxillary palps five-segmented in both sexes, occasionally reduced or absent; segment 5 usually as long as, or even longer than, the other 4 segments together, occasionally about the same length as segment 4. Antennae slender, filiform, usually about as long as fore wing, much longer in Macronematinae. Mesoscutum without setal warts; scutellum with one median setal wart. Wing venation complete; discoidal and median cells closed in fore wing; hind wing from slightly to much wider than fore wing. S5 in both sexes often with slender lateral filament, lobe or obtuse projection, with aperture of internal gland apically. Males occasionally with pair of large, reticulated, membranous, internal sacs in abdominal segments 6 and 7. Tibial spurs variable, 0–2:2–4:2–4. Larvae construct fixed retreats of plant and rock fragments with capture net constructed in front to strain food particles from flowing water. Thoracic segments covered with sclerites; abdominal segments with lateral and ventral abdominal gills, branched from a single basal stalk. Abdominal segments covered with fine setae; anal prolegs projecting freely from abdomen, claws with brush of long setae. Two groups of fine transverse ridges usually present on ventral surface of head; ridges produce sound when rubbed by raised edge of fore femur. Pupal chamber constructed from small stones and sand grains, sometimes incorporating plant debris; inner lining spun into soft silken cocoon.

<==Hydropsychidae BZ-M04
    |  i. s.: Homoplectra Ross 1938 R38
    |           |--*H. alseae Ross 1938 R38
    |           `--H. nigripennis [=Diplectrona nigripennis] R38
    |--Macronematinae N83
    |    |--Monopseudopsis Walker 1852 N83
    |    |--Aethaloptera Brauer 1875 N83
    |    |    |--*A. dispar Brauer 1875 N83
    |    |    `--A. sexpunctata (Kolenati 1859) [=Setodes sexpunctata] N83
    |    |--Baliomorpha N91
    |    |    |--B. banksi N91
    |    |    `--B. pulchripenne N91
    |    `--Macronema Pictet 1836 N83
    |         |--*M. lineatum Pictet 1836 N83
    |         |--M. australe McLachlan 1862 (see below for synonymy) N83
    |         |--M. banksi Mosely 1953 (see below for synonymy) N83
    |         |--M. dubium Ulmer 1905 [=Macronemum dubium] N83
    |         |--M. pulchripenne Tillyard 1922 [=Macronemum pulchripenne] N83
    |         |--M. radiatum K01
    |         `--M. torrenticola Korboot 1964 [=Macronemum torrenticola] N83
    |--Hydropsychinae BZ-M04
    |    |--Hydropsyche BZ-M04
    |    |--Hydropsychodes Ulmer 1905 N83
    |    |--Smicridea McLachlan 1871 N83
    |    |--Cheumatopsyche Wallengren 1891 BZ-M04
    |    |    |--*C. lepida (Pictet 1834) [=Hydropsyche lepida] N83
    |    |    `--C. modica (McLachlan 1871) [=Hydropsyche modica, Hydropsychodes modica] N83
    |    |--Asmicridea Mosely 1953 N83
    |    |    |--*A. grisea (Mosely 1933) [=Smicridea grisea] N83
    |    |    `--A. edwardsi (McLachlan 1866) [=Hydropsyche edwardsi, Smicridea edwardsi] N83
    |    `--Smicrophylax Neboiss 1977 N83
    |         |--*S. creektona Neboiss 1977 N83
    |         |--S. australis (Ulmer 1908) [=Smicridea australis; incl. Smicridea parva Banks 1939] N83
    |         |--S. parvula (Mosely 1953) [=Smicridea parvula] N83
    |         |--S. simplex (Jacquemart 1965) [=Diplectrona simplex] N83
    |         `--S. ulmeri (Banks 1939) [=Smicridea ulmeri] N83
    |--Arctopsyche [Arctopsychidae, Arctopsychinae] KP19
    |    `--A. palpata KP19
    `--Diplectroninae N83
         |--Austropsyche Banks 1939 N83
         |    `--*A. victoriana Banks 1939 N83
         |--Sciops McLachlan 1866 N83
         |    |--*S. unicolor McLachlan 1866 N83
         |    |--S. inermis Banks 1939 N83
         |    `--S. spinata Banks 1939 N83
         `--Diplectrona Westwood 1839 N83
              |--*D. flavomaculata (Stephens 1836) [=Aphelocheira flavomaculata] N83
              |--D. angusta Banks 1939 N83
              |--D. bifurcata Kimmins 1953 N83
              |--D. bispinosa Jacquemart 1965 N83
              |--D. bourina Mosely 1953 N83
              |--D. castanea Kimmins 1953 N83
              |--D. cognata Kimmins 1953 N83
              |--D. hystricosa Neboiss 1978 N83
              |--D. lyella Neboiss 1977 N83
              |--D. rossi Kimmins 1953 N83
              |--D. satana Mosely 1953 N83
              `--D. tasmanica Jacquemart 1965 N83

Macronema australe McLachlan 1862 [=Macronema australis, Macronemum australe; incl. Monopseudopsis incriptus Walker 1852] N83

Macronema banksi Mosely 1953 [=Macronemum banksi; incl. Macronema tristris Banks 1939 (preoc.)] N83

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BZ-M04] Bonada, N., C. Zamora-Muñoz, M. Rieradevall & N. Prat. 2004. Trichoptera (Insecta) collected in Mediterranean river basins of the Iberian Peninsula: taxonomic remarks and notes on ecology. Graellsia 60 (1): 41–69.

[KP19] Kawahara, A. Y., D. Plotkin, M. Espeland, K. Meusemann, E. F. A. Toussaint, A. Donath, F. Gimnich, P. B. Frandsen, A. Zwick, M. dos Reis, J. R. Barber, R. S. Peters, S. Liu, X. Zhou, C. Mayer, L. Podsiadlowski, C. Storer, J. E. Yack, B. Misof & J. W. Breinholt. 2019. Phylogenomics reveals the evolutionary timing and pattern of butterflies and moths. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 116 (45): 22657–22663.

[K01] Klapálek, F. 1901. Neuropteroidák [Neuropteroiden]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 203–221. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[N83] Neboiss, A. 1983. Checklist and bibliography of the Australian caddis-flies (Trichoptera). Australian Society for Limnology Special Publication 5: 1–132.

[N91] Neboiss, A. 1991. Trichoptera (caddis-flies, caddises). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 787–816. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[R38] Ross, H. H. 1938. Descriptions of new North American Trichoptera. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 40 (5): 117–124.

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