Vetigastropoda

Temnotropis carinata, from Knight et al. (1960).


Belongs within: Gastropoda.
Contains: Seguenziidae, Chilodontaidae, Eucyclidae, Pleurotomarioidea, Porcellioidea, Pseudophoridae, Planitrochidae, Ptychomphalidae, Murchisoniidae, Plethospiridae, Gosseletinidae, Luciellidae, Eotomariinae, Neilsoniinae, Lepetelloidea, Fissurellidae, Lepetodriloidea, Scissurellidae, Anatomidae, Haliotis, Holopeidae, Proconulidae, Microdomatidae, Trochidae, Ataphridae, Angariidae, Arene, Conradiidae, Margaritidae, Skeneidae, Liotiidae, Nododelphinulidae, Anomphalinae, Pycnomphalinae, Turbininae, Calliostomatinae, Margarella, Solariella, Colloniinae, Crossostomatinae, Tegula (Chlorostoma), Tegula (Omphalius), Phasianella, Tricolia.

The Vetigastropoda are a major clade within the gastropods that contains the greater part of the paraphyletic 'Archaeogastropoda' of older classifications. Living members of the clade do not undergo a planktotrophic stage in the life cycle, and have a paucispiral protoconch (Bouchet et al. 2005). Many vetigastropods have a nacreous inner layer to the shell. Specialised epipodial sensory organs are present on the foot.

The shell of many vetigastropods bears an exhalant opening in the form of a slit or selenizone. The Pleurotomariida are primarily fossil forms, represented in the modern fauna only by members of the Pleurotomariidae. Members of the Lepetellida have few-whorled shells with a more or less expanded aperture, with the shell becoming entirely limpet-like in some lineages.

Members of the Trochoidea lack any trace of an exhalant slit. They have a single ctenidium whereas Pleurotomariida and Lepetellida have paired ctenidia albeit with the right ctenidium variously reduced (Knight et al. 1960). The Trochoidea have historically been divided between superfamilies Trochoidea and Turbinoidea on the basis of whether the operculum is corneous or calcareous, respectively, but this division is not currently supported. The Seguenzioidea, small to medium-sized deep-sea vetigastropods, resemble Trochoidea in the presence of a single ctenidium but retain a number of plesiomorphic characters such as the presence of separate epipodial and sensory-organ bearing tentacles on the foot (in Trochoidea, the epipodial sensory organs are borne directly on the epipodial tentacles).

<==Vetigastropoda (see below for synonymy)
    |--Pleurotomariida BR17
    |    |--Pleurotomarioidea GO06
    |    |--Porcellioidea BR17
    |    |--Sinuspira Perner 1907 KC60 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    `--*S. tenera Barrande 1907 BR17 [=Murchisonia (*Sinuspira) tenera KC60]
    |    |--Pseudophoroidea [Pseudophoracea] BR17
    |    |    |--Pseudophoridae BR17
    |    |    `--Planitrochidae BR17
    |    |--Ptychomphaloidea BR17
    |    |    |--Ptychomphalidae BR17
    |    |    `--Rhaphistomella Kittle 1891 KC60 [=Raphistomella Diener 1926 KC60; Rhaphistomellidae BR17]
    |    |         |--*R. radians (Wissmann 1841) [=Pleurotomaria radians] BR17
    |    |         `--R. subdecussata [=Pleurotomaria subdecussata] G31
    |    |--Schizogonioidea BR17
    |    |    |--Schizogonium Koken 1889 [Schizogoniidae] BR05
    |    |    |    `--*S. scalare (Münster 1841) [=Pleurotomaria scalaris] KC60
    |    |    `--Pseudowortheniella Bandel 2009 [Pseudowortheniellidae] BR17
    |    |         `--*P. rarissima (Kittl 1891) [=Worthenia rarissima] BR17
    |    |--Murchisonioidea [Murchisoniacea, Murchisoniina] BR17
    |    |    |--Murchisoniidae BR05
    |    |    |--Plethospiridae BR17
    |    |    |--Farewellia Frýda & Blodgett 2004 FB04 [Farewelliidae BR17]
    |    |    |    `--*F. heidelbergerae Frýda & Blodgett 2004 FB04
    |    |    `--Ptychocaulus Perner 1907 KC60 [Ptychocaulidae BR17]
    |    |         `--*P. verneuili (Barrande 1907) [=Murchisonia verneuili] BR17
    |    `--Eotomarioidea BR17
    |         |  i. s.: Devonorhineoderma orbignyana F12
    |         |         Zlichomphalina F12
    |         |--Gosseletinidae BR05
    |         |--Luciellidae BR05
    |         |--Pseudoschizogonium Kutassy 1937 KC60 [Pseudoschizogoniidae BR17]
    |         |    `--*P. turriculatum Kutassy 1937 KC60
    |         |--Wortheniella Schwardt 1992 B00 [Wortheniellidae BR17]
    |         |    `--*W. coralliophila (Kittl 1891) [=Worthenia coralliophila] BR17
    |         |--Phanerotrematidae BR05
    |         |    |--Brachytomaria Koken 1925 KC60
    |         |    |    `--*B. baltica (Verneuil 1845) KC60, TTE93 [=Pleurotomaria baltica KC60]
    |         |    `--Phanerotrema Fischer 1885 BR05
    |         |         |--*P. labrosum (Hall 1860) [=Pleurotomaria labrosa] KC60
    |         |         |--P. austrralis Etheridge 1891 F71
    |         |         `--P. ornatum Sayre 1930 TTE93
    |         `--Eotomariidae [Eotomacea] KC60
    |              |  i. s.: Zhonghuaspira Pan & Erwin 2002 PE02
    |              |           |--*Z. gibbicircella (Wang & Xi 1980) [=Guizhouspira gibbicircella] PE02
    |              |           `--Z. gibbicircelloides (Wang 1982) [=Guizhouspira gibbicircelloides] PE02
    |              |         Quadricarina Blodgett & Johnson 1992 FB04
    |              |           |--Q. (Quadricarina) FB04
    |              |           |    |--*Q. (Q.) glabrobasis Blodgett & Johnson 1992 FB04
    |              |           |    |--Q. (Q.) lenticularis (Goldfuss 1844) [=Pleurotomaria lenticularis] FB04
    |              |           |    `--Q. (Q.) noklebergi Frýda & Blodgett 2004 FB04
    |              |           `--Q. (Blodgettina) reticulata Frýda 2000 FB04
    |              |         Paraoehlertia Frýda 1998 FB04
    |              |           `--*P. parva Frýda 1998 FB04
    |              |         Balbinipleura Bandel & Frýda 1996 FB04
    |              |           |--*B. bohemica Bandel & Frýda 1996 FB04
    |              |           |--B. koninckii Bandel & Frýda 1996 FB04
    |              |           |--B. krawczynskii Frýda & Blodgett 2004 FB04
    |              |           `--B. sextalineata Heidelberger 2001 FB04
    |              |         Ulrichospira Donald 1905 FB04
    |              |           `--*U. similis Donald 1905 KC60
    |              |         Kersadiella Blodgett, Frýda & Racheboeuf 1999 FB04
    |              |         Lacunospira Batten 1958 KC60
    |              |           `--*L. alta Batten 1958 KC60
    |              |--Eotomariinae BR05
    |              `--Neilsoniinae BR05
    `--+--+--Bathymargarites symplector GO06
       |  `--Lepetellida BR17
       |       |  i. s.: Lepetelloidea BR17
       |       |--Fissurellidae GO06
       |       `--+--+--Lepetodriloidea GO06
       |          |  `--Scissurelloidea BR05
       |          |       |--Scissurellidae GO06
       |          |       |--Anatomidae BR05
       |          |       `--Larochea Finlay 1927 BR05 [Larocheidae BR17, Larocheinae]
       |          |            |--*L. miranda Finlay 1927 P61
       |          |            `--L. secunda Powell 1937 P61
       |          `--Haliotoidea [Haliotacea] BR05
       |               |--Haliotidae [Haliotidia, Haliotinae] BR05
       |               |    |--Haliotis GO06
       |               |    `--Chelinotus Swainson 1840 [Chelinoti] BR05
       |               `--Temnotropis Laube 1868 [Temnotropidae] BR05
       |                    |--*T. carinata (Münster 1841) [=Sigaretus carinatus] KC60
       |                    |--T. bicarinata Laube 1869 TTE93
       |                    |--T. costellata Gemmellaro 1890 W63a
       |                    `--T. transitoria Gemmellaro 1890 W63a
       `--Trochoidea [Calliostomatoidei, Ciliipedata, Microdomatacea, Microdomatoidea, Trochida, Turbinoidea] PL96
            |  i. s.: ‘Fossarus’ dixoni Wrigley 1942 TTE93
            |--Holopeidae PE02
            |--Proconulidae BR05
            |--Microdomatidae BR05
            |--Trochidae BR05
            |--Ataphridae MCS96
            |--Angariidae BR17
            |--Arene BR17
            |--Conradiidae BR17
            |--Margaritidae BR17
            |--Skeneidae BR17
            |--Liotiidae BR05
            |--Nododelphinulidae BR17
            |--Tychobrahea Horný 1992 [Tychobraheidae] BR05
            |    `--*T. aerumnans Horný 1992 BR17
            |--Eucochlis Knight 1933 [Eucochlidae] BR05
            |    `--*E. perminuta Knight 1933 KC60
            |--Velainella Vasseur 1880 BR05 [=Velainiella (l. c.) KC60; Velainellidae BR05, Velainellinae, Vellainelloidea]
            |    `--*V. columnaris Vasseur 1880 KC60
            |--Araeonema Knight 1933 KC60 (see below for synonymy)
            |    `--*A. virgatum Knight 1933 KC60
            |--Epulotrochus Cossmann 1918 KC60 [Epulotrochidae BR17]
            |    `--*E. epulus (d’Orbigny 1850) [=Trochus epulus] KC60
            |--Sclarotrarda Gründel, Keupp & Lang 2017 [Sclarotrardidae] BR17
            |    `--*S. coronilla (Brösamlen 1909) [=Liotia coronilla] BR17
            |--Metriomphalus Cossmann 1918 [Metriomphalidae] BR17
            |    |--*M. davoustii (d’Orbigny 1850) [=Turbo davoustii] BR17
            |    |--M. segregatus (Hébert & Eudes-Deslongchamps 1860) GK02
            |    `--M. textorius (Broili 1907) TTE93
            |--Elasmonematidae BR05
            |    |--Elasmonema Fischer 1885 BR05 [=Callonema Hall 1879 non Conrad 1875 KC60]
            |    |    `--*E. bellatulum (Hall 1861) [=Loxonema bellatulum, *Callonema bellatulum] KC60
            |    |--Anematina Knight 1933 B79
            |    |    `--*A. proutana (Hall 1858) B79 [=Holopea proutana KC60]
            |    |--Streptotrochus Perner 1907 KC60
            |    |    `--*S. rugulosus Perner 1907 KC60
            |    `--Discordichilus Cossmann 1918 KC60
            |         `--*D. mollis (Lindström 1884) [=Trochus mollis] KC60
            |--Anomphalidae [Anomphalacea, Anomphaloidea] P84
            |    |  i. s.: Cycloscena Fletcher 1958 W63b
            |    |           |--*C. anomphala Fletcher 1958 W63b
            |    |           |--C. costata Waterhouse 1963 W63b
            |    |           |--C. glabra Waterhouse 1963 W63b
            |    |           `--‘Pleurotomaria’ rotunda Etheridge 1872 [=Platyschisma rotunda] W63b
            |    |         Eiselia Dietz 1911 P84
            |    |           `--*E. dyadica Dietz 1911 KC60
            |    |--Anomphalinae P84
            |    `--Pycnomphalinae P84
            |--Turbinidae [Astylophthalma] BR17
            |    |  i. s.: Natiria de Koninck 1881 TE01 [incl. Fritschia Picard 1904 KC60]
            |    |           |--*N. lirata (Phillips 1836) [=Natica lirata] TE01
            |    |           `--N. costata TE01
            |    |         Pterocheilos Moore 1867 [=Mooria Cossmann 1899, Tinochilus Fischer 1885] KC60
            |    |           `--*P. primus Moore 1867 [=*Mooria prima, *Tinochilus primus] KC60
            |    |--Turbininae BR05
            |    |--Moreanellus Fischer & Weber 1997 [Moreanellinae] BR05
            |    |    `--*M. moreanus (d’Orbigny 1850) [=Trochus moreanus] BR17
            |    `--Prisogaster Mörch 1850 BR05 [=Amyxa Troschel 1852 KC60; Prisogasterinae, Prisogastrinae BR05]
            |         `--*P. niger (Wood 1828) [=Turbo niger, *Amyxa nigra] KC60
            |--Calliostomatidae BR17
            |    |--Calliostomatinae BR17
            |    |--Margarella BR17
            |    |--Callotrochus Kutassy 1938 BR17 [=Mesotrochus Kutassy 1927 non Wasmann 1890 KC60; Callotrochinae BR17]
            |    |    `--*C. triadicus (Kutassy 1927) [=Trochus triadicus, *Mesotrochus triadicus] BR17
            |    |--Fautrix Marshall 1995 BR05 [Fautricinae BR17, Fautricini]
            |    |    `--*F. candida Marshall 1995 BR17
            |    |--Thysanodonta Marshall 1988 BR05 [Thysanodontidae, Thysanodontinae BR17]
            |    |    `--*T. aucklandica Marshall 1988 BR17
            |    `--Xeniostoma McLean 2012 [Xeniostomatinae] BR17
            |         `--*X. inexpectans McLean 2012 BR17
            |--Solariellidae [Solariellinae] BR05
            |    |--Solariella BR05
            |    |--Cidarina Dall 1909 KC60
            |    |    `--*C. cidaris (Carpenter 1864) KC60 [=Margarita cidaris KC60, Margarites cidaris O27]
            |    `--Minolia Adams 1860 H92 [=Minosia Dunker 1882 KC60; incl. Minolops Iredale 1929 KC60; Minoliinae]
            |         |--*M. punctata Adams 1860 H92
            |         |--M. aspecta C64
            |         |--M. casta (Nevill & Nevill 1874) H92
            |         |--M. gradata Sowerby 1895 H92
            |         |--M. holdsworthana Nevill & Nevill 1871 H92
            |         |--M. nedyma Melvill 1897 BD86
            |         |--M. singaporensis (Pilsbry 1889) [=Monilea (Minolia) singaporensis] BC01
            |         |--M. strigata Tenison-Woods 1878 F71
            |         `--M. vitiliginea (Menke 1843) H92
            |--Colloniidae BR17
            |    |--Colloniinae BR05
            |    |--Crossostomatinae BR17
            |    |--Lewisiella Stoliczka 1868 KC60 [Lewisiellinae BR17]
            |    |    `--*L. conica (d’Orbigny 1853) [=Pitonnillus conicus] BR17
            |    |--Liotipoma McLean & Kiel 2007 [Liotipomatinae] BR17
            |    |    `--*L. wallisensis McLean & Kiel 2007 BR17
            |    |--Petropoma Gabb 1877 BR05 [Petropomatinae BR17, Petropominae]
            |    |    `--*P. peruanum Gabb 1877 KC60
            |    `--Moelleria Jeffreys 1865 non Scop. 1777 (ICBN) BR05 [Moelleriinae BR17]
            |         |--*M. costulata (Möller 1842) KC60 [=Margarita costulata KC60, Cyclostrema costulatum J64]
            |         |--M. drusiana Dall 1919 O27
            |         |--M. laevigata Jeffreys in Friele 1875 N79
            |         `--M. quadrae Dall 1897 O27
            |--Tegula Lesson 1832 BR05 [Tegulidae BR17, Tegulinae, Tegulini]
            |    |  i. s.: T. excavata (Lamarck 1822) HW78
            |    |         T. fasciata WE63
            |    |         T. ‘lugubris’ (Philippi 1844) [=Trochus lugubris non Gmelin 1791] F27b
            |    |--T. (Tegula) BR17
            |    |    |--*T. (T.) elegans Lesson 1832 BR17
            |    |    `--T. (T.) pellisserpentis (Wood 1828) KC60 [=Trochus pellisserpentis KC60; incl. T. strigilatus C64]
            |    |--T. (Agathistoma Olsson & Harbison 1953) KC60
            |    |    |--T. (*A.) viridula (Gmelin 1791) [=Trochus viridulus] KC60
            |    |    |--T. (A.) corteziana McLean 1970 BC01
            |    |    |--T. (A.) felipensis McLean 1970 BC01
            |    |    |--T. (A.) picta McLean 1970 BC01
            |    |    `--T. (A.) verrucosa McLean 1970 BC01
            |    |--T. (Chlorostoma) KC60
            |    |--T. (Omphalius) KC60
            |    `--T. (Promartynia Dall 1909) KC60
            |         `--T. (*P.) pulligo (Gmelin 1791) [=Trochus pulligo] KC60
            |              |--T. p. pulligo O27
            |              `--T. p. taylori Oldroyd 1922 O27
            `--Phasianellidae [Phasianelloidea] BR05
                 |  i. s.: Pseudophasianus Cossmann 1918 KC60
                 |           `--*P. elatus (Fuchs 1870) [=Turbo elatus] KC60
                 |--Phasianella BR05
                 |--Gabrieloninae BR05
                 |    |--Eugabrielona BR05
                 |    `--Gabrielona Iredale 1917 BR05
                 |         `--*G. nepeanensis (Gatliff & Gabriel 1908) [=Phasianella nepeanensis] KC60
                 `--Tricoliinae [Tricoliidae] BR05
                      |--Tricolia BR05
                      |--Pellax Finlay 1926 KC60
                      |    |--*P. huttoni (Pilsbry 1888) P61 [=Phasianella huttoni P61, Tricolia (*Pellax) huttoni KC60]
                      |    |--P. rosea [=Tricolia rosea] F27a
                      |    `--P. virgo [=Tricolia huttoni] F27a
                      `--Eulithidium Pilsbry 1898 KC60
                           |--E. dianthum (McLean 1970) [=Tricolia diantha] BC01
                           |--E. luridum (Dall 1897) [=Eucosmia lurida, Phasianella (Eulithidium) lurida] O27
                           |--E. pterocladicum (Robertson 1958) [=Tricolia affinis pterocladica] BC01
                           |--E. substriatum (Carpenter 1864) (see below for synonymy) O27
                           `--E. typicum (Dall 1908) (see below for synonymy) O27

Vetigastropoda incertae sedis:
  Micromphalus Knight 1945 KC60 [Micromphalidae BR17]
    `--*M. turris Knight 1945 KC60
  Seguenzioidea [Seguenziida, Seguenziiformes, Seguenziina, Seguenzinina] PL96
    |--Seguenziidae BR05
    |--Chilodontaidae BR05
    |--Eucyclidae BR17
    |--Laubella Kittl 1891 [Laubellidae] BR05
    |    `--*L. delicata (Laube 1868) [=Pleurotomaria delicata] KC60
    |--Eudaronia Cotton 1945 [Eudaroniidae, Eudaroniinae] BR17
    |    `--*E. jaffaensis (Verco 1909) [=Cyclostrema jaffaensis] BR17
    |--Lanascala Bandel 1992 BR05 [Lanascalidae BR17]
    |    `--*L. cassiana Bandel 1992 BR17
    |--Pseudoturcica Bandel 2010 [Pseudoturcicidae] BR17
    |    `--*P. wareni (Kaim 2004) [=Turcica wareni] BR17
    |--Sabrinella Bandel 1993 [Sabrinellidae] BR17
    |    `--*S. doris (Laube 1869) [=Delphinula doris] BR17
    |--Cataegis McLean & Quinn 1987 BR05 [Cataegidae BR17, Cataeginae]
    |    |--*C. toreuta McLean & Quinn 1987 BR17
    |    `--C. meroglypta McLean & Quinn 1987 BR05
    |--Choristellidae [Choristellinae] BR17
    |    |--Bichoristes BR05
    |    `--Choristella Bush 1897 BR05
    |         `--*C. leptalea Bush 1897 BR17
    |--Eucycloscala Cossmann 1895 PE02 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--*E. binodosa (Münster 1841) [=Trochus binodosus] KC60
    |    |--E. asiatica Batten 1985 PE02
    |    `--E. medionodosus Batten 1985 PE02
    |--Eunemopsis Kittl 1891 TE01 [Eunemopsidae BR17]
    |    |--*E. epaphus (Laube 1869) [=Turbo epaphus] TE01
    |    |--E. dolomitica Kittl 1891 TE01
    |    `--E. praecurrens TE01
    |--Pendromidae BR17
    |    |--Rugulina C96
    |    `--Pendroma Dall 1927 BR05
    |         `--*P. perplexa Dall 1927 BR17
    `--Trochaclididae [Trochaclidoidea] BR17
         |--Trochaclis Thiele 1912 [Trochaclidinae] BR05
         |    `--*T. antarctica Thiele 1912 BR17
         `--Acremodonta Marshall 1983 [Acremodontinae] BR05
              `--*A. crassicosta (Powell 1937) [=Thoristella crassicosta] BR17
  Spirotomaria Koken 1925 KC60
    `--*S. rudissima (Koken 1897) [=Pleurotomaria rudissima] KC60
  Ptychozone Perner 1907 KC60
    `--*P. aberrans (Perner 1903) [=Worthenia aberrans] KC60
  Platyconus Perner 1907 KC60
    `--*P. incumbens (Perner 1907) [=Pleurotomaria (*Platyconus) incumbens] KC60
  Gyroma Oehlert 1888 KC60
    `--*G. baconnierensis (Oehlert 1888) [=Pleurotomaria baconnierensis] KC60
  Trachybembix Böhm 1895 [=Trachybembyx Diener 1916] KC60
    `--*T. junonis (Kittl 1894) [=Pleurotomaria junonis] KC60
  Transylvanella Kutassy 1937 KC60
    `--*T. acmaeiformis Kutassy 1937 KC60

Nomen nudum: Callonema elevatum TTE93

Araeonema Knight 1933 KC60 [incl. Palaeoturbina Wenz 1938 KC60, Turbina deKoninck 1881 non Brown in Herrmannsen 1847 KC60; Araeonematidae BR17]

Eucycloscala Cossmann 1895 PE02 [incl. Trochoscala Koken 1897 KC60, Urceolabrum Wade 1917 KC60; Eucycloscalidae, Eucycloscalinae]

Eulithidium substriatum (Carpenter 1864) [=Eucosmia substriata, Phasianella (Eulithidium) substriata] O27

Eulithidium typicum (Dall 1908) [=Phasianela (Eulithidium) typica, Eucosmia variegata Carpenter 1864 non P. variegata Lamarck 1822] O27

Sinuspira Perner 1907 KC60 [incl. Morania Horny 1953 non Walcott 1919 KC60; Sinuspiridae, Sinuspirina, Sinuspiroidea BR17]

Vetigastropoda [Amberleyacea, Amberleyata, Amberleyoidea, Astylacea, Auriformes, Aristerobranchia, Choristelloidei, Ctenidiobranchia, Fissibranchiata, Fissurelloidei, Haliotoideae, Haliotoidei, Pleurotomariacea, Pleurotomariina, Zeugobranchia, Zygobranchia]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B00] Bandel, K. 2000. The new family Cortinellidae (Gastropoda, Mollusca) connected to a review of the evolutionary history of the subclass Neritimorpha. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie—Abhandlungen 217 (1): 111–129.

[BD86] Barash, A., & Z. Danin. 1986. Further additions to the knowledge of Indo-Pacific Mollusca in the Mediterranean Sea (Lessepsian migrants). Spixiana 9 (2): 117–141.

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