Elephant snail Scutus antipodes, copyright Leon Altoff.

Belongs within: Vetigastropoda.
Contains: Fissurella, Puncturella, Tugali, Emarginulini, Diodorini.

The Fissurellidae, keyhole and slit limpets, are a group of limpet-like gastropods in which the shell bears a slit or perforation for the exhalant current from the gills.

Characters (from Knight et al. 1960): Shell conical, porcellaneous; protoconch spiral; with perforation, slit, notch or emargination for passage of exhalant current; muscle scar horseshoe-shaped, open anteriorly.

<==Fissurellidae [Branchifera, Fissurellacea, Fissurelladae, Fissurelloidea, Patelloideae]
    |  i. s.: Leurolepas roseola McLean 1970 PP78
    |         Incisura Hedley 1904 P61
    |           `--*I. lyttletonensis (Smith 1894) [=Scissurella lyttletonensis] KC60
    |--Fissurellinae BR05
    |    |--Fissurella BR05
    |    |--Atractotrema Cossmann 1888 KC60
    |    |    `--*A. grata (Deshayes 1861) [=Fissurella grata] KC60
    |    |--Cosmetalepas Iredale 1924 KC60
    |    |    `--*C. concatenata (Crosse & Fischer 1864) F27, MG-H11 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--Megatebennus Pilsbry 1890 KC60
    |    |    `--*M. bimaculatus (Dall 1872) [=Fissurellidea bimaculata] KC60
    |    |--Lucapina Gray ex Sowerby 1835 (see below for synonymy) KC60
    |    |    |--L. sowerbii (Guilding ex Sowerby 1835) (see below for synonymy) KC60
    |    |    `--L. elisae Costa & Simone 2006 S11
    |    |--Amblychilepas Pilsbry 1890 [incl. Sophismalepas Iredale 1924] KC60
    |    |    |--A. javanicensis (Lamarck 1822) KC60 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |--‘Fissuridea’ nigrita [=*Sophismalepas nigrita] F27
    |    |    `--‘Sophismalepas’ oblonga M54
    |    |--Macroschisma Gray ex Sowerby 1839 [=Machrochisma Swainson 1840, Macrochisma Gray 1840] KC60
    |    |    |  i. s.: M. madreporaria Hedley 1907 H09
    |    |    |--*M. (Macroschisma) macroschisma (Humphrey ex Solander 1786) [=Patella macroschisma] KC60
    |    |    |--M. (Dolichoschisma Iredale 1940) KC60
    |    |    |    `--M. (*D.) producta Adams 1854 KC60
    |    |    `--M. (Forolepas Iredale 1940) KC60
    |    |         `--M. (*F.) tasmaniae Sowerby 1862 KC60
    |    `--Lucapinella Pilsbry 1890 KC60
    |         |--*L. callomarginata (Carpenter in Dall 1871) [=Clypidella callomarginata] O27
    |         |--L. gigas Usticke 1959 BC01
    |         |    |--L. g. gigas BC01
    |         |    `--L. g. oblonga Usticke 1959 BC01
    |         |--L. limatula BC01
    |         |    |--L. l. limatula BC01
    |         |    |--L. l. delicata Usticke 1969 BC01
    |         |    `--L. l. hassleri Pérez Farfante 1943 BC01
    |         `--L. nigrita (Sowerby 1834) [=Fissurella nigrita] H09
    `--Emarginulinae [Emarginulidae] BR05
         |  i. s.: Austriacopsis Haber 1932 KC60
         |           |--*A. (Austriacopsis) austriaca (Hörnes 1853) [=Rimula austriaca] KC60
         |           |--A. (Balinula Haber ex Dacqué 1933) KC60
         |           |    `--A. (*B.) triontina (Greco 1899) [=Emarginula triontina] KC60
         |           `--A. (Puncturellopsis Haber 1932) KC60
         |                `--A. (*P.) acuta (Eudes-Deslongchamps 1842) [=Fissurella acuta] KC60
         |         Emarginella Pilsbry 1891 KC60
         |           `--*E. cuvieri (Audouin 1826) [=Emarginula cuvieri] KC60
         |         Emersonia Haber 1932 KC60
         |           `--*E. costata (Emerson 1870) [=Cemoria costata] KC60
         |         Loxotoma Fischer 1885 KC60
         |           `--*L. neocomiensis (d’Orbigny 1843) [=Emarginula neocomiensis] KC60
         |         Notomella Cotton 1957 [incl. Entomella Cotton 1945 non Cossmann 1888] KC60
         |           `--*N. candida (Adams 1852) [=Emarginula candida] KC60
         |         Puncturella KC60
         |         Cranopsis Adams 1860 [incl. Rimulanax Iredale 1924] KC60
         |           |--*C. pelex Adams 1860 [=Puncturella (*Cranopsis) pelex] KC60
         |           `--C. corolla (Verco 1908) MG-H11
         |         Rimulopsis Haber 1932 KC60
         |           |--*R. (Rimulopsis) goldfussi (Roemer 1836) [=Emarginula goldfussi] KC60
         |           `--R. (Koniakaua Haber ex Dacqué 1933) KC60
         |                `--R. (*K.) multistriata (Zittel 1873) [=Rimula multistriata] KC60
         |         Tugali KC60
         |         Vacerrena Iredale 1958 P61 [=Vacerra Iredale 1924 non Godman 1900 KC60]
         |           `--*V. demissa (Hedley 1904) [=Puncturella demissa] P61
         |--Emarginulini BR05
         |--Diodorini BR05
         |--Fissurellidea d’Orbigny 1839 [Fissurellideinae, Fissurellideini, Fissurellidinae] BR05
         |    |--*F. (Fissurellidea) hiantula (Lamarck 1822) (see below for synonymy) KC60
         |    `--F. (Pupillaea Sowerby 1835) [=Papillaea (l. c.) KC60, Pupilia (l. c.)] KC60
         |         `--F. (*P.) aperta (Sowerby 1825) [=Fissurella aperta] KC60
         `--Scutus Montfort 1810 BR05 (see below for synonymy)
              |  i. s.: S. ambiguus (Chemnitz 1795) F27
              |         S. anatinus M54
              |         S. breviculus (Blainville 1817) F27
              |         S. unguis (Linnaeus 1758) [=Patella unguis] H09
              |--*S. (Scutus) antipodes Montfort 1810 KC60
              |--S. (Nannoscutum Iredale 1937) KC60
              |    `--S. (*N.) forsythi (Iredale 1937) [=*Nannoscutum forsythi] KC60
              `--S. (Proscutum Fischer 1885) KC60
                   `--S. (*P.) compressus (Deshayes 1861) [=Parmophorus compressus] KC60

Amblychilepas javanicensis (Lamarck 1822) KC60 [=Fissurella javanicensis KC60, Fissuridea javanicensis F27, Megatebennus javanicensis H09]

*Cosmetalepas concatenata (Crosse & Fischer 1864) F27, MG-H11 [=Fissurella concatenata KC60, Fissuridea concatenata F27]

*Fissurellidea (Fissurellidea) hiantula (Lamarck 1822) [=Fissurella hiantula; incl. *Fissurellidea megatrema d’Orbigny 1841] KC60

Lucapina Gray ex Sowerby 1835 [incl. Chlamydoglyphis Pilsbry 1890, Foraminella Guilding ex Sowerby 1835] KC60

Lucapina sowerbii (Guilding ex Sowerby 1835) [=*Foraminella sowerbii; incl. Fissurella cancellata Sowerby 1835 non Gray 1825, *Lucapina cancellata] KC60

Scutus Montfort 1810 BR05 [=Parmaphora Bowdisch 1822, Parmophora Desmarest 1859, Parmophorus deBlainville 1817 KC60, Scutum Sowerby 1842 non Schumacher 1817 KC60; incl. Aviscutum Iredale 1940; Scutinae, Scutini]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[KC60] Knight, J. B., L. R. Cox, A. M. Keen, R. L. Batten, E. L. Yochelson & R. Robertson. 1960. Gastropoda: systematic descriptions. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia pp. I169–I331. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[M54] Macpherson, J. H. 1954. Molluscs (sea shells and snails). In: Willis, J. M. (ed.) The Archipelago of the Recherche pp. 55–63. Australian Geographical Society: Melbourne.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. II pt. III. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[PP78] Poorman, F. L., & L. H. Poorman. 1978. Additional molluscan records from Bahía de Los Angeles, Baja California Norte. Veliger 20 (4): 369–374.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

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