Betuline cone Conus betulinus, copyright Pengchao-BGI.

Belongs within: Conidae.
Contains: Conus (Plicaustraconus), Conus (Stephanoconus), Conus (Strategoconus), Conus (Turriconus), Conus (Dauciconus), Conus (Floraconus), Conus (Splinoconus), Conus (Rhizoconus), Conus (Pionoconus), Conus (Textilia), Conus (Phasmoconus), Conus (Virroconus), Conus (Lividoconus), Conus (Virgiconus), Conus (Lautoconus), Conus (Leptoconus), Conus (Darioconus), Conus (Cylinder).

Conus, the cone shells, is a genus of cone-shaped predatory gastropods in which the radula has been modified into a venom delivery apparatus via the expansive proboscis. In some species, the venom is strong enough to harm or even kill humans that harrass live individuals. The circumscription of this genus has varied significantly between authors, from the entirety to only a small part of the Conidae. As recognised by Puillandre et al. (2014), Conus corresponds to a clade supported by molecular data that includes the majority of conid species, divided between close to sixty subgenera.

Characters (from Wilson & Gillett 1971): Shells usually covered by thick periostracum, outline a straight-sided inverted cone (obconical), spire low and pointed, aperture long, narrow and straight. Columella without plaits. Tiny chitinous operculum sometimes present. Venom apparatus present with long coiled secretory duct running between muscular venom storage sac and proboscis (venom a neurotoxin); radula consisting of series of single hollow barbed shafts constructed in radular sac, individual shafts extended as necessary into proboscis cavity and bathed in venom coming from secretory duct before delivering venom to prey; proboscis very elastic and able to be extended and expanded for prey location and capture.

Conus Linnaeus 1758 BK11 (see below for synonymy)
    |--C. (Fraterconus Tucker & Tenorio 2013) PD14
    |    `--C. (*F.) distans Hwass in Bruguière 1792 PD14
    `--+--C. (Stephanoconus) PD14
       `--+--C. (Strategoconus) PD14
          `--+--+--C. (Klemaeconus Tucker & Tenorio 2013) [incl. Continuconus Tucker & Tenorio 2013] PD14
             |  |    |--C. (*K.) klemae (Cotton 1953) [=Rhizoconus klemae] PD14
             |  |    |--C. (K.) estivali Moolenbeek & Richard 1995 PD14
             |  |    |--C. (K.) plinthis Richard & Moolenbeek 1988 [=*Continuconus plinthis] PD14
             |  |    |--C. (K.) rufimaculosus Macpherson 1959 PD14
             |  |    `--C. (K.) sugimotonis Kuroda 1928 PD14 [incl. C. whiteheadae da Motta 1985 BC01]
             |  `--+--C. (Turriconus) PD14
             |     `--+--+--C. (Dauciconus) PD14
             |        |  `--+--C. (Ductoconus da Motta 1991) [incl. Arubaconus Petuch 2013] PD14
             |        |     |    |--C. (*D.) princeps Linnaeus 1758 PD14
             |        |     |    `--C. (D.) hieroglyphus Duclos 1833 [=*Arubaconus hieroglyphus] PD14
             |        |     `--C. (Pyruconus Olsson 1967) PD14, BK11
             |        |          |--C. (*P.) patricius Hinds 1843 PD14
             |        |          `--C. (P.) fergusoni Sowerby 1873 PD14
             |        `--+--C. (Monteiroconus da Motta 1991) [incl. Gladioconus Tucker & Tenorio 2009] PD14
             |           |    |--C. (*M.) ambiguus Reeve 1844 PD14
             |           |    |--C. (M.) bellocqae van Rossum 1996 PD14
             |           |    |--C. (M.) gladiator Broderip 1833 [=*Gladioconus gladiator] PD14
             |           |    |--C. (M.) mus Hwass in Bruguière 1792 PD14
             |           |    `--C. (M.) tabidus Reeve 1844 PD14
             |           `--+--C. (Floraconus) PD14
             |              `--+--C. (Splinoconus) PD14
             |                 `--C. (Leporiconus Iredale 1930) PD14, BK11
             |                      |--C. (*L.) glans Hwass in Bruguière 1792 PD14
             |                      |--C. (L.) coffeae Gmelin 1791 PD14
             |                      |--C. (L.) granum Röckel & Fischöder 1985 PD14
             |                      |--C. (L.) luteus Sowerby 1833 PD14
             |                      `--C. (L.) tenuistriatus Sowerby 1858 PD14
             `--+--+--C. (Rhizoconus) PD14
                |  `--C. (Sciteconus da Motta 1991) PD14, BK11
                |       |--C. (*S.) algoensis Sowerby 1834 PD14
                |       |--C. (S.) bairstowi Sowerby 1889 PD14
                |       |--C. (S.) brianhayesi Korn 2001 PD14
                |       |--C. (S.) gradatulus Weinkauff 1875 PD14
                |       |--C. (S.) infrenatus Reeve 1848 PD14
                |       `--C. (S.) pictus Reeve 1843 PD14
                `--+--C. (Puncticulis Swainson 1840) PD14
                   |    |--C. (*P.) arenatus Hwass in Bruguière 1792 PD14
                   |    |--C. (P.) caracteristicus Fischer von Waldheim 1807 PD14
                   |    |--C. (P.) pulicarius Hwass in Bruguière 1792 PD14
                   |    |--C. (P.) vautieri Kiener 1847 PD14
                   |    `--C. (P.) zeylanicus Gmelin 1791 PD14
                   `--+--+--+--+--C. (Pionoconus) PD14
                      |  |  |  `--+--C. (Textilia) PD14
                      |  |  |     `--C. (Afonsoconus Tucker & Tenorio 2013) PD14
                      |  |  |          |--C. (*A.) kinoshitai Kuroda 1956 PD14
                      |  |  |          `--C. (A.) bruuni Powell 1958 PD14
                      |  |  `--C. (Asprella Schaufuss 1869) PD14, BK11 (see below for synonymy)
                      |  |       |--C. (A.) sulcatus Hwass in Bruguière 1792 PD14 (see below for synonymy)
                      |  |       |--C. (A.) fijisulcatus Moolenbeek, Röckel & Bouchet 2008 PD14
                      |  |       |--C. (A.) gigasulcatus Moolenbeek, Röckel & Bouchet 2008 PD14
                      |  |       |--C. (A.) grangeri Sowerby 1900 PD14
                      |  |       |--C. (A.) helgae Blöcher 1992 PD14
                      |  |       |--C. (A.) iodostoma Reeve 1843 PD14
                      |  |       |--C. (A.) rolani Röckel 1986 PD14
                      |  |       `--C. (A.) sulcocastaneus Kosuge 1981 PD14
                      |  `--+--C. (Phasmoconus) PD14
                      |     `--+--C. (Embrikena Iredale 1937) PD14, BK11
                      |        |    |--C. (*E.) pergrandis (Iredale 1937) [=*Embrikena pergrandis] PD14
                      |        |    |--C. (E.) darkini Röckel, Korn & Richard 1993 PD14
                      |        |    |--C. (E.) kostini Filmer, Monteiro et al. 2012 PD14
                      |        |    |--C. (E.) moncuri Filmer 2005 PD14
                      |        |    `--C. (E.) tisii Lan 1978 PD14
                      |        `--C. (Gastridium Modeer 1793) (see below for synonymy) PD14
                      |             |--C. (*G.) geographus Linnaeus 1758 (see below for synonymy) PD14
                      |             |--C. (G.) cuvieri Crosse 1858 PD14
                      |             |--C. (G.) eldredi Morrison 1955 PD14
                      |             |--C. (G.) fragilissimus Petuch 1979 PD14
                      |             |--C. (G.) obscurus Sowerby 1833 [=*Protostrioconus obscurus] PD14
                      |             `--C. (G.) tulipa Linnaeus 1758 (see below for synonymy) PD14
                      `--+--+--C. (Virroconus) PD14
                         |  `--C. (Chelyconus Mörch 1852) PD14, BK11
                         |       |--C. (C.) ermineus Born 1778 (see below for synonymy) PD14
                         |       `--C. (C.) purpurascens Sowerby 1833 PD14 [incl. C. regalitalis C64]
                         `--+--C. (Dendroconus Swainson 1840) [incl. Cleobula Iredale 1930] PD14
                            |    |--C. (*D.) betulinus Linnaeus 1758 PD14
                            |    |--C. (D.) buxeus (Röding 1798) PD14
                            |    |--C. (D.) figulinus Linnaeus 1758 [=*Cleobula figulina] PD14
                            |    |--C. (D.) glaucus Linnaeus 1758 L58
                            |    |--C. (D.) medoci Lorenz 2004 PD14
                            |    `--C. (D.) suratensis Hwass in Bruguière 1792 PD14
                            `--+--+--+--+--C. (Elisaconus Tucker & Tenorio 2013) PD14
                               |  |  |  |    `--C. (*E.) litteratus Linnaeus 1758 PD14
                               |  |  |  `--C. (Hermes Montfort 1810) PD14, BK11 [incl. Theliconus Swainson 1840 BK11]
                               |  |  |       `--C. (*H.) nussatella Linnaeus 1758 [=*Theliconus nussatella] PD14
                               |  |  `--+--C. (Lithoconus Mörch 1852) PD14, BK11
                               |  |     |    `--C. (L.) leopardus Röding 1798 (see below for synonymy) PD14
                               |  |     `--+--C. (Lividoconus) PD14
                               |  |        `--C. (Virgiconus) PD14
                               |  `--+--C. (Lautoconus) PD14
                               |     `--C. (Kalloconus da Motta 1991) (see below for synonymy) PD14
                               |          |--C. (*K.) pulcher Lightfoot 1786 PD14
                               |          |--C. (K.) ateralbus Kiener 1850 PD14
                               |          |--C. (K.) atlanticoselvagem Afonso & Tenorio 2004 PD14
                               |          |--C. (K.) byssinus (Röding 1798) PD14
                               |          |--C. (K.) genuanus Linnaeus 1758 [=*Genuanoconus genuanus] PD14
                               |          |--C. (K.) pseudonivifer Monteriro, Tenorio & Poppe 2004 PD14
                               |          |--C. (K.) trochulus Reeve 1844 PD14
                               |          `--C. (K.) venulatus Hwass in Bruguière 1792 [=*Trovaoconus venulatus] PD14
                               `--+--+--C. (Lindaconus Petuch 2002) PD14, BK11 (see below for synonymy)
                                  |  |    |--C. (*L.) lindae Petuch 1987 PD14
                                  |  |    |--C. (L.) bahamensis Vink & Röckel 1995 PD14
                                  |  |    |--C. (L.) spurius Gmelin 1791 PD14 (see below for synonymy)
                                  |  |    `--C. (L.) therriaulti (Petuch 2013) PD14
                                  |  `--C. (Harmoniconus da Motta 1991) PD14
                                  |       |--C. (*H.) musicus Hwass in Bruguiere 1792 PD14
                                  |       |--C. (H.) mcbridei Lorenz 2005 PD14
                                  |       |--C. (H.) nanus Broderip 1833 PD14
                                  |       |--C. (H.) nux Broderip 1833 PD14
                                  |       |--C. (H.) parvatus Walls 1979 PD14
                                  |       |--C. (H.) paukstisi (Tucker, Tenorio & Chaney 2011) PD14
                                  |       `--C. (H.) sponsalis Hwass in Bruguiere 1792 PD14
                                  `--+--C. (Tesselliconus da Motta 1991) PD14, BK11
                                     |    |--C. (*T.) tessulatus Born 1778 PD14
                                     |    |--C. (T.) eburneus Hwass in Bruguière 1792 PD14
                                     |    |--C. (T.) edaphus Dall 1910 PD14
                                     |    |--C. (T.) sandwichensis Walls 1978 PD14
                                     |    `--C. (T.) suturatus Reeve 1844 PD14
                                     `--+--C. (Quasiconus Tucker & Tenorio 2009) PD14, BK11
                                        |    |--C. (*Q.) melvilli Sowerby 1879 PD14
                                        |    `--C. (Q.) tuticorinensis Röckel & Korn 1990 PD14
                                        `--+--C. (Conus) [incl. Coronaxis Swainson 1840] PD14
                                           |    |--*C. (C.) marmoreus Linnaeus 1758 PD14 (see below for synonymy)
                                           |    |--C. (C.) araneosus Lightfoot 1786 PD14
                                           |    |--C. (C.) bandanus Hwass in Bruguière 1792 [=*Coronaxis bandanus] PD14
                                           |    |--C. (C.) nocturnus Lightfoot 1786 PD14
                                           |    `--C. (C.) vidua Reeve 1843 PD14
                                           `--+--C. (Leptoconus) PD14
                                              `--+--+--C. (Darioconus) PD14
                                                 |  `--C. (Calibanus da Motta 1991) (see below for synonymy) PD14
                                                 |       |--C. (*C.) furvus Reeve 1843 PD14 (see below for synonymy)
                                                 |       `--C. (C.) thalassiarchus Sowerby 1834 (see below for synonymy) PD14
                                                 `--+--C. (Cylinder) PD14
                                                    `--C. (Eugeniconus da Motta 1991) PD14, BK11
                                                         |--C. (*E.) nobilis Linnaeus 1758 PD14
                                                         |--C. (E.) cordigera Sowerby 1866 PD14 (see below for synonymy)
                                                         `--C. (E.) marchionatus Hinds 1843 PD14

Conus incertae sedis:
  C. abruptus Marshall 1918 F27a
  C. affinis Gmelin 1791 F27b
  C. archetipus Crosse 1865 S11
  C. arcuatus C64
  C. armoricus Suter 1917 F27b
  C. beddomei Sowerby 1901 [incl. C. mayaguensis Usticke 1968] BC01
  C. bertarollae Costa & Simone 1997 S11
  C. bicolor Sowerby 1833 [=C. albomaculatus Sowerby 1841, C. albimaculatus (l. c.)] ES88
  C. bifasciatus Gmelin 1791 BC01 [incl. C. fasciatus Adams 1853 nec Meuschen 1787 nec Kiener 1848 F27b]
  C. bozzettii Lauer 1991 BC01
  C. ceylanensis Hwass in Bruguiere 1792 BW09
  C. cholmondeleyi Melvill 1900 WG71
  C. cinctus Swainson 1833 H09
  C. clavus Linnaeus 1758 L58
  C. clytospira M01
  C. coxeni Brazier 1875 H09
  C. deperditus Bruguiere 1798 F27b
  C. deshayesi Reeve 1844 H09
  C. elegans B79
  C. emersoni Hanna 1963 BC01
  C. episcopus Hwass in Bruguière 1792 WG71
  ‘Utriculus’ expansus N79
  C. fasciatus Meuschen 1787 F27b
  C. floridanus D88
    |--C. f. floridanus D88
    `--C. f. floridensis Sowerby 1870 [incl. C. spurius atlanticus Clench 1942] D88
  C. fulmineus Gmelin 1791 [=C. fulgurans Hwass 1792; incl. C. optabilis Adams 1853, C. selectus Adams 1855] T77
  C. fusellinus Suter 1917 F27a
  C. gabrielae Rolán & Röckel 2000 BC01
  C. gracilis [incl. C. australis Lamarck 1810 non Holten 1802, C. duplicatus, C. laterculus] F27b
  ‘Utriculus’ hyalinus N79
  ‘Utriculus’ incultus (Gould 1855) [=Bulla (Tornatina) inculta] C64
  C. incurvus C64
  C. interruptus C64
  C. lignarius [incl. C. fasciatus Kiener 1848 non Meuschen 1787] F27b
  C. lineatus Bruguière 1792 H09
  C. liratus Reeve 1843 F27b
  C. lorenzianus C64
  C. loroisi KR75
  C. magnus Linnaeus 1758 [incl. C. cernohorskyi da Motta 1983, C. fulvobullatus da Motta 1982] BC01
  ‘Utriculus’ mammillatus N79
  C. mauryi Finlay 1927 [=C. ornatus Maury 1919 non Hutton 1873] F27b
  C. minimus Linnaeus 1758 L58
  C. novaehollandiae Adams 1854 WG71
  C. nussatellata B79
  ‘Utriculus’ obtusus N79
  C. ommaria Hwass in Bruguière 1792 [incl. C. patonganus da Motta 1982] BC01
  C. parvulus Link 1807 [incl. C. imperator Woolacott 1956] WG71
  C. parvus Lea 1833 F27b
  C. peasei (Brazier 1877) [=Lithoconus peasei] H09
  C. pseudoarmoricus M. & M. 1918 F27a
  C. pseudoaustini Usticke 1968 BC01
  C. pullulascens Tenison-Woods 1879 F71
  C. pustulosus [incl. C. mauritianus] C64
  C. ralphii Tenison-Woods 1878 F71
  C. rivertonensis Finlay 1926 F27a
  C. rusticus Linnaeus 1758 L58
  C. sannio Finlay 1927 [=C. affinis Martin 1879 non Gmelin 1791] F27b
  C. scabriusculus Dillwyn 1817 WG71 [incl. C. fabula B79]
  C. sculleti Marsh 1962 WG71
  C. segravei Gatliff 1891 WG71
  C. selenae Van Mol, Tursch & Kempf 1967 S11
  C. senator Linnaeus 1858 L58
  C. sowerbii Reeve 1849 WG71
  C. spinosus Linnaeus 1758 L58
  C. sugillatus Reeve 1844 BW09
  C. superstes Hedley 1911 (n. d.) [=*Mamiconus superstes] PD14
  C. tahuensis Allan 1926 F27a [=Conospira tahuensis A27]
  C. tenellus Dillwyn 1817 WG71 [incl. C. artopus B79, C. spectabilis B79]
  C. triangularis Finlay 1924 F27a
  ‘Utriculus’ truncatulus N79
  C. ustickei Miller in Usticke 1959 [incl. C. bifasciatus Sowerby 1857-1858 non Gmelin 1791] BC01
  C. yemanjae Van Mol et al. 1967 ES88
  C. (Atlanticonus Petuch & Sargent 2012) PD14
    |--C. (*A.) granulatus Linnaeus 1758 PD14
    |--C. (A.) cuna Petuch 1998 PD14
    |--C. (A.) glenni Petuch 1993 PD14
    `--C. (A.) ritae Petuch 1995 PD14
  C. (Attenuiconus Petuch 2013) PD14
    |--C. (*A.) attenuatus Reeve 1844 PD14
    |--C. (A.) aureonimbosus Petuch 1987 PD14
    |--C. (A.) eversoni Petuch 1987 PD14
    |--C. (A.) honkeri Petuch 1988 PD14
    `--C. (A.) poulosi Petuch 1993 PD14
  C. (Austroconus Tucker & Tenorio 2009) PD14
    |--C. (*A.) cyanostoma Adams 1855 PD14
    |--C. (A.) clarus Smith 1881 PD14
    `--C. (A.) sydneyensis Sowerby 1887 PD14
  C. (Bermudaconus Petuch 2013) PD14
    `--C. (*B.) lightbourni Petuch 1986 PD14
  C. (Brasiliconus Petuch 2013) PD14
    `--C. (*B.) scopulorum Van Mol, Tursch & Kempf 1971 PD14
  C. (Eremiconus Tucker & Tenorio 2009) PD14
    |--C. (*E.) minnamurra (Garrard 1961) PD14
    |--C. (E.) albellus Röckel & Korn 1990 PD14
    |--C. (E.) colmani Röckel & Korn 1990 PD14
    |--C. (E.) limpusi Röckel & Korn 1990 PD14
    `--C. (E.) lizardensis Crosse 1865 PD14
  C. (Kellyconus Petuch 2013) PD14
    |--C. (*K.) patae Abbott 1971 PD14 [incl. C. rudiae Magnotte 1971 BC01]
    |--C. (K.) binghamae Petuch 1987 PD14
    `--C. (K.) ignotus Cargile 1998 PD14
  C. (Lamniconus da Motta 1991) PD14
    |--C. (*L.) clerii Reeve 1844 PD14
    |--C. (L.) carcellesi Martins 1945 PD14
    |--C. (L.) lemniscatus Reeve 1849 PD14
    |--C. (L.) patriceae (Petuch & Myers 2014) PD14
    |--C. (L.) tostesi Petuch 1986 PD14
    `--C. (L.) xanthocinctus Petuch 1986 PD14
  C. (Papyriconus Tucker & Tenorio 2013) PD14
    `--C. (*P.) sculletti Marsh 1962 PD14
  C. (Plicaustraconus) PD14
  C. (Pseudolilliconus Tucker & Tenorio 2009) PD14
    |--C. (*P.) boschorum Moolenbeek & Coomans 1993 PD14
    |--C. (P.) korni Raybaudi Massilia 1993 PD14 [=C. (Leptoconus) korni BC01]
    |--C. (P.) kuiperi Moolenbeek 2006 PD14
    |--C. (P.) levis (Bozzetti 2012) PD14
    |--C. (P.) scalarispira (Bozzetti 2012) PD14
    |--C. (P.) traillii Adams 1855 PD14
    |--C. (P.) visseri Delsaerdt 1990 PD14
    `--C. (P.) wallacei (Lorenz & Morrison 2004) PD14
  C. (Pseudonoduloconus Tucker & Tenorio 2009) PD14
    `--C. (*P.) carnalis Sowerby 1879 PD14
  C. (Pseudopterygia Tucker & Tenorio 2013) PD14
    `--C. (*P.) terryni Tenorio & Poppe 2004 PD14
  C. (Rubroconus Tucker & Tenorio 2013) PD14
    `--C. (*R.) coccineus Gmelin 1791 PD14
  C. (Sandericonus Petuch 2013) PD14
    |--C. (*S.) sanderi Wils & Moolenbeek 1979 PD14
    |--C. (S.) carioca Petuch 1986 PD14
    `--C. (S.) ednae (Petuch 2013) PD14

Conus Linnaeus 1758 BK11 [=Conulus Rafinesque 1815 non Leske 1778 BR05, Cucullus Röding 1798 BK11; incl. Cucullites Herrmannsen 1847 BK11, Mamiconus Cotton & Godfrey 1932 PD14; Conianae, Coninae, Textiliinae, Textilinae]

Conus (Asprella Schaufuss 1869) PD14, BK11 [=Cylindrella Swainson 1840 (nom. rej.) non Pfeiffer 1840 PD14; incl. Sulciconus Bielz 1869 PD14]

Conus (Asprella) sulcatus Hwass in Bruguière 1792 PD14 [=*Sulciconus sulcatus PD14; incl. Conus asper Lamarck 1810 PD14, *Asprella aspera PD14, *Cylindrella aspera PD14, Conus samiae da Motta 1982 BC01]

Conus (Calibanus da Motta 1991) [incl. Thalassiconus Tucker & Tenorio 2013] PD14

Conus (*Calibanus) furvus Reeve 1843 PD14 [incl. C. nivalis da Motta 1985 BC01, C. turritinus da Motta 1985 BC01]

Conus (Calibanus) thalassiarchus Sowerby 1834 [=*Thalassiconus thalassiarchus] PD14

Conus (Chelyconus) ermineus Born 1778 [incl. Conus testudinarius Hwass 1792, *Chelyconus testudinarius] PD14

*Conus (Conus) marmoreus Linnaeus 1758 PD14 [=*Cucullus marmoreus PD14; incl. Conus crosseanus Bernardi 1861 BC01]

Conus (Eugeniconus) cordigera Sowerby 1866 PD14 [incl. C. bitleri da Motta 1984 BC01]

Conus (Gastridium Modeer 1793) [=Rollus Montfort 1810, Utriculus Schumacher 1817; incl. Tuliparia Swainson 1840, Protostrioconus Tucker & Tenorio 2009] PD14

Conus (*Gastridium) geographus Linnaeus 1758 [=*Rollus geographus, *Utriculus geographus] PD14

Conus (Gastridium) tulipa Linnaeus 1758 [incl. Coronaxis nebulosa Swainson 1840, *Tuliparia nebulosa] PD14

Conus (Kalloconus da Motta 1991) [incl. Genuanoconus Tucker & Tenorio 2009, Trovaoconus Tucker & Tenorio 2009] PD14

Conus (Lindaconus Petuch 2002) PD14, BK11 [incl. Calusaconus Petuch 2003 BK11, Spuriconus Petuch 2003 BK11]

Conus (Lindaconus) spurius Gmelin 1791 PD14 [=*Spuriconus spurius PD14; incl. C. spurius arubaensis Usticke 1968 BC01]

Conus (Lithoconus) leopardus Röding 1798 [incl. C. millepunctatus Lamarck 1822, *Lithoconus millepunctatus] PD14

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A27] Allan, R. S. 1927. The geology and palaeontology of the Lower Waihao Basin, south Canterbury, New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 265–309.

[BK11] Bouchet, P., Y. I. Kantor, A. Sysoev & N. Puillandre. 2011. A new operational classification of the Conoidea (Gastropoda). Journal of Molluscan Studies 77: 273–308.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[B79] Brazier, J. 1879. List of marine shells collected on Fitzroy Island, north coast of Australia; with notes on their geographical range. Journal of Conchology 2: 186–199.

[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[D88] D’Asaro, C. N. 1988. Micromorphology of neogastropod egg capsules. Nautilus 102 (4): 134–148.

[ES88] Emerson, W. K., & W. E. Sage III. 1988. Conus baccatus G. B. Sowerby III, 1877: a Panamic faunal constituent. Nautilus 102 (3): 110–114.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[KR75] Kohn, A. J., & A. C. Riggs. 1975. Morphometry of the Conus shell. Systematic Zoology 24 (3): 346–359.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M01] Melville, J. C. 1901. A few further remarks upon the Erythrean molluscan fauna, with descriptions of seven species from Aden, in the collection of Commander E. R. Shopland, R.I.M. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 550–556.

[N79] Norman, A. M. 1879. The Mollusca of the fiords near Bergen, Norway. Journal of Conchology 2: 8–77.

[PD14] Puillandre, N., T. F. Duda, C. Meyer, B. M. Olivera & P. Bouchet. 2014. One, four or 100 genera? A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan Studies 81: 1–23.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[T77] Tucker, J. K. 1977. The identity of Conus fulmineus Gmelin. Veliger 20 (2): 180–181.

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

Last updated: 5 June 2021.

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