Teleostei

Fossil of Pholidophorus bechei in the Urwelt-Museum Hauff Holzmaden, photographed by Ghedoghedo.


Belongs within: Actinopteri.
Contains: Pachycormidae, Teleocephala.

The Teleostei are a clade including the majority of living ray-finned fishes. Teleosts are characterised by the presence of one or more uroneurals, modifications of the vertebral neural arches that support the caudal fin (Bond 1996).

Synapomorphies (from Friedman et al. 2010): Internal carotid foramen present through parasphenoid; symplectic articulation on inner medial surface of quadrate; uroneurals present; pectoral propterygium fused to first pectoral fin-ray.

Teleostei [Archaeophylaces, Isospondyli, Malacopterygii, Teleosteomorpha]
    |  i. s.: Ascalabos voithii S02, FS10
    |         Telestes pleurobipunctatus KKV03
    |         Membras martinicus K-M02
    |         Araripichthys KM03
    |         Tselfatoidiformes B96
    |         Platypoecilus maculatus D37
    |         Orthogonikleithrus hoelii FS10
    |--+--Pachycormidae FS10
    |  `--Dapedium [Dapediidae] A01
    `--+--Pholidophoriformes B96
       |    |--Seefeldia watsoni D01
       |    |--Pholidolepis africana D01
       |    `--Pholidophorus [Pholidophoridae] FS10
       |         |--P. bechei FS10
       |         |--P. germanicus FS10
       |         |--P. latisculus A01
       |         `--P. macrocephalus FS10
       `--+--Leptolepidae [Leptolepidiformes] D01
          |    |--Proleptolepis Nybelin 1974 D01
          |    |    |--P. elongata D01
          |    |    |--P. furcata D01
          |    |    `--P. megalops D01
          |    `--Leptolepis A01
          |         |--L. coryphaenoides D01
          |         |--L. normandica D01
          |         `--L. talbragarensis Woodward 1895 [incl. L. gregarius Woodward 1895, L. lowei Woodward 1895] F71
          `--+--Varasichthyidae A01
             `--+--Xiphactinus Leidy 1870 B96, FS10 [Ichthyodectiformes A01]
                `--Teleocephala A01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A01] Arratia, G. 2001. The sister-group of Teleostei: consensus and disagreements. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21 (4): 767-773.

[B96] Bond, C. E. 1996. Biology of Fishes 2nd ed. Saunders College Publishing: Fort Worth.

[D01] Delsate, D. 2001. L’ichthyofaune du Pliensbachian (Jurassique inferieur) de Lorraine et des Ardennes (France): Premiers resultats. Bulletin de l’Académie Lorraine des Sciences 40 (1-2): 47-69.

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1-167.

[FS10] Friedman, M., K. Shimada, L. D. Martin, M. J. Everhart, J. Liston, A. Maltese & M. Triebold. 2010. 100-million-year dynasty of giant planktivorous bony fishes in the Mesozoic seas. Science 327: 990-993.

[KM03] Kellner, A. W. A., & J. M. Moody. 2003. Pterosaur (Pteranodontoidea, Pterodactyloidea) scapulocoracoid from the Early Cretaceous of Venezuela. In Evolution and Palaeobiology of Pterosaurs (E. Buffetaut & J.-M. Mazin, eds) Geological Society Special Publications 217: 73-77. The Geological Society: London.

[K-M02] Klein-MacPhee, G. 2002. Jacks. Family Carangidae. In Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds) 3rd ed. pp. 411-427. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[KKV03] Kontula, T., S. V. Kirilchik & R. Väinölä. 2003. Endemic diversification of the monophyletic cottoid fish species flock in Lake Baikal explored with mtDNA sequencing. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 27: 143-155.

[S02] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002. Ecological history of the aquatic insects. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 388-426. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

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