Strawberry top shell Tectus conus, copyright J. C. Schou.

Belongs within: Trochidae.

The Trochinae are a group of marine gastropods with conical or turbiniform, nodose shells with a quadrangular aperture with strongly discordant lips. Their fossil record extends from the Upper Cretaceous to the present. In the Miocene to recent genus Trochus, the shell is conical and has a more or less flattened base. The New Zealand Thoristella has a small, smooth, similarly shaped shell with a rounded-carinate periphery and smooth columella. The genus Clanculus, known right back to the Upper Cretaceous, has a rather small, rounded-conical, often beaded shell with a tooth on the columella and a crenulate ridge around the umbilical pit (Knight et al. 1960).

Characters (from Knight et al. 1960): Conical or, less commonly, turbiniform, nodosely ornamented shells, narrowly phaneromphalous, or anomphalous with base excavated in middle; aperture quadrangular with strongly discordant lips; outer lip sharp, strongly prosocline; columellar lip straight, emerging from umbilicus or basal excavation, smooth, undulating or toothed, commonly forming marked angle with basal margin.

Trochinae [Trochidia, Trochini, Trochininae]
    |--Paraclanculus Finlay 1927 P61
    |    `--*P. peccatus Finlay 1927 P61 [=Clanculus (*Paraclanculus) peccatus KC60]
    |--Mesoclanculus Iredale 1924 P61
    |    `--*M. plebejus (Philippi 1851) KC60 (see below for synonymy)
    |--Dimorphotectus Cossmann 1918 MCS96
    |    `--D. fasciatus (Hoernes 1856) (see below for synonymy) KC60
    |--Discotectus Favre 1913 MCS96
    |    |--*D. massalongoi [=Trochus massalongoi] KC60
    |    `--D. crassiplicatus KC60
    |--Tectus Montfort 1810 WG71 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |  i. s.: T. niloticus Linnaeus 1767 BW09
    |    |         *Pyramis’ viridis Schumacher 1817 BR17
    |    |         T. triserialis (Lamarck 1822) BW09
    |    |--*T. (Tectus) WG71
    |    |    |--*T. (T.) mauritianus (Gmelin 1791) [=Trochus mauritianus] KC60
    |    |    `--T. (T.) pyramis (Born 1778) [=Trochus (T.) pyramis; incl. Tr. obeliscus Gmelin 1788] WG71
    |    |--T. (Cardinalia Gray 1847) KC60
    |    |    `--T. (*C.) virgatus (Gmelin 1791) [=Trochus virgatus] KC60
    |    `--T. (Rochia Gray 1857) KC60
    |         `--T. (R.) conus (Gmelin 1791) (see below for synonymy) KC60
    |--Thoristella Iredale 1915 P61
    |    |--*T. chathamensis (Hutton 1873) P61 [=Polydonta chathamensis P61, Trochus (*Thoristella) chathamensis KC60]
    |    |    |--T. c. chathamensis P61
    |    |    |--T. c. aucklandica (Smith 1902) P61
    |    |    |--T. c. benthicola Finlay 1927 P61
    |    |    |--T. c. cookiana Powell 1934 P61
    |    |    |--T. c. dunedinensis (Suter 1897) P61
    |    |    |--T. c. fossilis Finlay 1927 F27a
    |    |    `--T. c. profunda Dell 1956 P61
    |    |--T. carmesina (Webster 1908) P61 [=Monilea carmesina F27a]
    |    `--T. oppressa (Hutton 1873) P61 [=T. chathamensis oppressa F27a]
    |--Clanculus Montfort 1810 [=Fragella Swainson 1840; incl. Otavia Risso 1826] KC60
    |    |  i. s.: C. albinus Adams 1853 H09
    |    |         C. atropurpureus (Gould 1849) [=Trochus atropurpureus] H09
    |    |         C. atypicus F27a
    |    |         C. bicarinatus Angas 1880 H09
    |    |         C. clanguloides H08
    |    |         C. consobrinus M54
    |    |         C. denticulatus M54
    |    |         C. granti Hedley 1907 H09
    |    |         C. limbatus M54
    |    |         C. margaritarius (Philippi 1846) BW09
    |    |         C. maxillatus M54
    |    |         C. nodoliratus [incl. Gibbula multicarinata] P79
    |    |         C. ochroleucus M54
    |    |         C. ringens (Menke 1843) M54, F27a [=Trochus ringens F27a]
    |    |         C. stigmatarius Adams 1853 H09
    |    |         C. unedo Adams 1853 H09
    |    |--*C. (Clanculus) pharaonius (Linnaeus 1758) [=Trochus pharaonius, *Fragella pharaonia] KC60
    |    |--C. (Camitia Gray ex Adams & Adams 1854) KC60
    |    |    `--C. (*C.) pulcherrimus (Adams & Adams 1854) [=*Camitia pulcherrima] KC60
    |    |--C. (Clanculopsis Monterosato 1879) [incl. Clanculella Sacco 1896] KC60
    |    |    `--C. (*C.) cruciatus (Linnaeus 1758) [=Trochus cruciatus] KC60
    |    |--C. (Euclanculus Cotton & Godfrey 1934) KC60
    |    |    `--C. (*E.) leucomphalus Verco 1905 KC60
    |    |--C. (Euriclanculus Cotton & Godfrey 1934) KC60
    |    |    `--C. (*E.) flagellatus (Philippi 1849) [=Trochus flagellatus] KC60
    |    |--C. (Isoclanculus Cotton & Godfrey 1934) KC60
    |    |    `--C. (*I.) yatesi Crosse 1863 KC60
    |    |--C. (Macroclanculus Cotton & Godfrey 1934) KC60
    |    |    `--C. (*M.) undatus (Lamarck 1816) [=Monodonta undata] KC60
    |    |--C. (Microclanculus Cotton & Godfrey 1934) KC60
    |    |    `--C. (*M.) euchelioides Tate 1893 KC60
    |    `--C. (Panocochlea Dall 1908) KC60
    |         `--C. (*P.) rubidus Dall 1908 KC60
    `--Trochus Linnaeus 1758 BR05 [=Lamprostoma Swainson 1840 KC60, Polydonta Schumacher 1817 KC60]
         |  i. s.: T. affinis N79
         |         T. amabilis N79
         |         T. anthracophilus G31
         |         T. antipodum Wilckens 1922 F27a
         |         T. astraliformis Lindström 1884 LYR78
         |         T. auripigmentum C64
         |         T. bilix M87
         |         T. byronianus [incl. T. hotessierianus] G79
         |         T. calcaratus Souverbie 1875 H09
         |         T. cinereus N79
         |         T. circinatus Hutton 1873 F27a
         |         T. digitatus C64
         |         T. excavatus G79
         |         T. fenestratus Gmelin 1791 H09
         |         T. fenneonianus K54
         |         T. hexagonus Philippi 1846 H09
         |         T. histrio Reeve 1842 BW09
         |         T. inaequalis Martyn 1784 [incl. T. diadematus] C64
         |         T. intextus Kiener 1850 H84
         |         T. millegranus N79
         |         T. montagui N79
         |         T. mutus Finlay 1924 [=T. nodosus Hutton 1885 (preoc.)] F27b
         |         T. nitens [incl. Cantharidus punctulosus Adams 1853] H08
         |         T. occidentalis Mighels & Adams 1842 J49
         |         T. pellucidus C64
         |         T. perversus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         T. punctatus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         T. radiatus C64
         |         T. solaris C64
         |         T. striatellus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         T. triserialis (Lamarck 1822) BW09
         |         T. tumidus N79
         |         T. varicosus U79
         |         T. vittatus C64
         |         T. zizyphinus N79
         |--T. (Trochus) WG71
         |    |--*T. (T.) maculatus Linnaeus 1758 [=*Lamprostoma maculatum, *Polydonta maculata] KC60
         |    |--T. (T.) lineatus Lamarck 1822 WG71
         |    `--T. (T.) niloticus G20 [incl. T. marmoratus Déshayes 1843 H08, Astralium pagodus Tenison-Wood 1879 H08]
         |--T. (Belangeria Fischer 1879) KC60
         |    `--T. (*B.) scabrosus Philippi 1850 KC60
         |--T. (Coelotrochus Fischer 1880) P61 [incl. Neozelandia Cossmann 1918 KC60]
         |    |--T. (*C.) tiaratus Quoy & Gaimard 1834 P61 [=Polydonta tiarata H79]
         |    |--T. (C.) avarus Suter 1917 [=T. (Anthora) avarus] F27a
         |    `--T. (C.) huttoni (Cossmann 1918) P61 (see below for synonymy)
         |--T. (Infundibulops Pilsbry 1889) KC60
         |    `--T. (*I.) erythraeus Brocchi 1821 KC60
         |--T. (Infundibulum Montfort 1810) [=Carinidea Swainson 1840] KC60
         |    |--T. (*I.) concavus Gmelin 1791 [=*Carinidea concava] KC60
         |    |--‘Carinidea’ aurea [incl. C. tasmanica] P79
         |    |--‘Infundibulum’ chlorostomus [incl. I. californicum] C64
         |    `--‘Infundibulum’ gabiotensis C64
         |--T. (Praecia Gray 1857) KC60
         |    `--T. (*P.) elegantulus Wood 1828 KC60
         |--T. (Scalaetrochus Etheridge 1890) F71, KC60
         |    `--T. (*S.) lindstromi Etheridge 1890 KC60, F71
         `--T. (Thorista Iredale 1915) P61 [=Anthora Gray 1857 non Doubleday 1844 KC60]
              |--T. (T.) viridis Gmelin 1791 P61 (see below for synonymy)
              `--T. (T.) camelophorus Webster 1906 P61

‘Cantharidus’ (*Plumbelenchus) capillaceus (Philippi 1848) P61 [=Trochus capillaceus P61; incl. C. pruninus var. minor Smith 1902 F27a, P61, C. (Plumbelenchus) minor F27a]

Dimorphotectus fasciatus (Hoernes 1856) [=Scoliostoma fasciatum; incl. Tectus hoernesi Koken 1896, *Dimorphotectus hoernesi] KC60

*Mesoclanculus plebejus (Philippi 1851) KC60 [=Clanculus plebejus P61, Trochus plebejus KC60; incl. Clanculus takapunaensis Webster 1906 F27a, Mesoclanculus takapunaensis P61]

Tectus Montfort 1810 WG71 [incl. Pyramidea Swainson 1840 KC60, Pyramis Schumacher 1817 non Röding 1798 KC60; Pyramidina, Pyramidinae]

Tectus (Rochia) conus (Gmelin 1791) [=Trochus conus; incl. Tr. acutangulus (non-binomial), *Rochia acutangula] KC60

Trochus (Coelotrochus) huttoni (Cossmann 1918) P61 [=*Neozelandia huttoni F27b; incl. Anthora conica Hutton 1883 F27b, T. conicus (preoc.) F27b]

Trochus (Thorista) viridis Gmelin 1791 P61 [incl. Polydonta tuberculata Gray 1843 KC60, *Anthora tuberculata KC60, Trochus (*Thorista) tuberculatus P61]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[G31] Grabau, A. W. 1931. The Permian of Mongolia: A report on the Permian fauna of the Jisu Honguer limestone of Mongolia and its relations to the Permian of other parts of the world. American Museum of Natural History: New York.

[G79] Guppy, R. J. L. 1879. First sketch of a marine invertebrate fauna of the Gulf of Paria and its neighbourhood. Part I.—Mollusca. Journal of Conchology 2: 151–172.

[H79] Haast, J. von. 1879. Geology of the Provinces of Canterbury and Westland, New Zealand. A report comprising the results of official explorations. "Times" Office: Christchurch.

[H08] Hedley, C. 1908. Studies on Australian Mollusca. Part X. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 456–489, pls 7–10.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[H84] Hickman, C. S. 1984. Implications of radular tooth-row functional integration for archaeogastropod systematics. Malacologia 25 (1): 143–160.

[J49] Johnson, R. I. 1949. Jesse Wedgwood Mighels with a bibliography and a catalogue of his species. Occasional Papers on Mollusks 1 (14): 213–231.

[KC60] Knight, J. B., L. R. Cox, A. M. Keen, R. L. Batten, E. L. Yochelson & R. Robertson. 1960. Gastropoda: systematic descriptions. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia pp. I169–I331. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[K54] Kurtén, B. 1954. The type collection of Ictitherium robustum (Gervais, ex Nordmann) and the radiation of the ictitheres. Acta Zoologica Fennica 86: 1–26.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[LYR78] Linsley, R. M., E. L. Yochelson & D. M. Rohr. 1978. A reinterpretation of the mode of life of some Paleozoic frilled gastropods. Lethaia 11: 105–112.

[M54] Macpherson, J. H. 1954. Molluscs (sea shells and snails). In: Willis, J. M. (ed.) The Archipelago of the Recherche pp. 55–63. Australian Geographical Society: Melbourne.

[M87] Mitchell, J. 1887. Notes on the geology of Bowning, N.S.W. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1193–1204.

[MCS96] Monari, S., M. A. Conti & J. Szabó. 1996. Evolutionary systematics of Jurassic Trochoidea: the family Colloniidae and the subfamily Proconulidae. In: Taylor, J. D. (ed.) Origin and Evolutionary Radiation of the Mollusca pp. 199–204. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[N79] Norman, A. M. 1879. The Mollusca of the fiords near Bergen, Norway. Journal of Conchology 2: 8–77.

[P79] Petterd, W. F. 1879. Critical remarks on the Rev. J. E. Tenison Woods' "Census of Tasmanian shells". Journal of Conchology 2: 353–354.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[U79] d'Urban, W. S. M. 1879. The Mollusca of Barents Sea, between Spitzbergen and Novaya Zemblia. Journal of Conchology 2: 88–94.

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

Last updated: 21 October 2021.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="">FoS</a> = FoS