Cymatiinae

Triton Cymatium sp., copyright Jason Marks.


Belongs within: Cassoidea.

The Cymatiinae, tritons and trumpet shells, are a group of predatory marine snails with usually thick and strongly sculptured shells. Some members of this group are very large; the giant triton Charonia tritonis is the second-largest living gastropod. They lay egg capsules in cup-shaped clusters in crevices or on the underside of stones (Wilson & Gillett 1971).

Characters (from Wilson & Gillett 1971, as Cymatiidae): Shell usually thick, heavy, strongly sculptured with nodules and spiral ribs, strong varices, teeth on outer lip, folds or ridges on columellar side of aperture; periostracum hairy, scaly or bristly; operculum horny.

Cymatiinae [Aquillidae, Cymatiidae, Cymatioidea, Lampusiidae, Lotoriidae, Nyctilochidae, Septidae, Tritonidae]
    |--Aquillus Montfort 1810 BR05
    |--Lotorium Montfort 1810 BR05
    |--‘Tritonium’ Röding 1798 non Müller 1776 [Tritoniacea] BR05
    |--Neptunella Gray 1854 [Neptunellina, Neptunellinae] BR05
    |--Austrotriton parkinsonianum (Perry 1811) F27
    |--Gutturnium Mörch 1852 WG71
    |    `--G. muricinum Röding 1798 WG71
    |--Turritriton Dall 1904 WG71
    |    `--T. tabulatus Menke 1843 WG71
    |--Negyrina Iredale 1929 WG71
    |    `--N. subdistorta Lamarck 1822 WG71
    |--Austrosassia Finlay 1931 WG71
    |    `--*A. parkinsonia (Perry 1811) [=Septa parkinsonia] P61
    |--Gondwanula Finlay 1927 F27
    |    `--*G. tumida [=Ranella tumida] F27
    |--Particymatium Iredale 1936 P61
    |    `--*P. strangei (Angas 1864) [incl. P. labiosa Powell 1933] P61
    |--Cabestanimorpha Iredale 1936 P61
    |    `--*C. exarata (Reeve 1844) P61
    |--Lampusia Schumacher 1817 BR05
    |    |--L. nicobaricum Röding 1798 WG71
    |    `--L. pileare Linnaeus 1758 WG71
    |--Cymatona Iredale 1929 P61
    |    |--*C. kampyla (Watson 1885) [=Nassaria kampyla] P61
    |    `--C. tomlini Powell 1955 P61
    |--‘Triton’ Montfort 1810 nec Linnaeus 1758 nec Laurenti 1768 [Tritoninae] BR05
    |    |--T. davidsoni d’Archiac & Haime 1854 [=Cancellaria davidsoni] PH90
    |    |--T. lacunatum Mighels 1845 J49
    |    `--T. woodsii Tenison-Woods 1879 F71
    |--Cymatiella Iredale 1924 F27
    |    |--C. gaimardi M54
    |    |--C. octoserrata (Finlay 1924) [=Cymatium octoserratum] F27
    |    `--C. quoyi [=Cymatium quoyi] F27
    |--Septa Perry 1810 BR05
    |    |--S. aquatile (Reeve 1844) [=Triton aquatilis] H09
    |    |--S. hepatica Röding 1798 WG71
    |    `--S. rubecula Linnaeus 1758 WG71
    |--Fusitriton Cossmann 1903 WG71
    |    |--*F. cancellatum [=Triton cancellatum] P61
    |    |--F. laudandus Finlay 1927 P61
    |    |--F. magellanicus (Röding 1798) S11
    |    |--F. oregonensis (Redfield 1848) [=Triton oregonensis, Argobuccinum (Fusitriton) oregonense] O27
    |    `--F. retiolus (Hidley 1914) S11 [=Priene retiolum F27]
    |--Cabestana Röding 1798 WG71
    |    `--C. (Cymatilesta Iredlae 1936) P61
    |         |--C. (*C.) spengleri (Perry 1811) P61
    |         |--C. (C.) bolteniana (Adams 1854) P61
    |         |--C. (C.) otagoensis Powell 1954 P61
    |         `--C. (C.) waterhousei Adams & Angas 1864 P61, WG71
    |              |--C. w. waterhousei P61
    |              `--C. w. segregata Powell 1933 P61
    |--Mayena Iredale 1917 WG71
    |    |--*M. australasia (Perry 1811) F27, WG71 [=Biplex australasia P61, Argobuccinum australasia F27]
    |    |    |--M. a. australasia P61
    |    |    |--M. a. blacki Powell 1954 P61
    |    |    `--M. a. vossi Powell 1952 P61
    |    |--M. intercostalis [=Triton intercostale] F27
    |    |--M. kaiparaensis [=Cymatium kaiparaense] F27
    |    |--M. sculpturata [=Cymatium sculpturatum] F27
    |    `--M. zelandica Finlay 1927 F27
    |--Charonia Gistel 1847 [Charoniacea, Charoniidae, Charoniinae] BR05
    |    |--*C. tritonis (Linnaeus 1758) P61, BW09 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--C. capax Finlay 1926 WG71 [incl. C. capax euclioides Finlay 1927 F27, P61, F27]
    |    |--C. euclia Hedley 1914 WG71
    |    |--C. laevigata (Lamarck 1816) S11
    |    |--C. lampas (Linnaeus 1758) WG71
    |    |--C. opis C60
    |    |--C. powelli Cotton 1956 WG71
    |    |--C. rubicunda (Perry 1811) WG71 [=Septa rubicunda F27, Cymatium rubicundum H09]
    |    |--C. sauliae Reeve 1844 WG71
    |    `--C. woodsi [=Austrotriton woodsi] C60
    `--Cymatium Röding 1798 [=Nyctilochus Gistel 1848] BR05
         |  i. s.: C. acclive (Hutton 1873) [=Triton acclivis] F27
         |         C. caudatum (Gmelin 1791) MG-H11
         |         C. chlorostoma (Lamarck 1822) [=Triton chlorostoma] H09
         |         C. cingulatum ZLK11
         |         C. clandestinum (Lamarck 1816) BW09
         |         C. corrugatum O27
         |           |--C. c. corrugatum O27
         |           `--C. c. tremperi Dall 1907 O27
         |         ‘Rissoa’ cruzensis Usticke 1969 BC01
         |         C. cutaceum HJ08
         |           |--C. c. cutaceum HJ08
         |           `--C. c. africanum (Adams 1854) HJ08
         |         C. cynocephalum (Lamarck 1816) S11
         |         C. decagonium A27
         |         C. elongatum (Reeve 1844) [=Triton elongatus] H09
         |         C. encausticum (Reeve 1844) [=Triton encausticus] H09
         |         C. exaratum (Reeve 1844) F27 [=Triton exaratus H09]
         |         C. femorale (Linné 1758) S11
         |         C. gemmatum (Reeve 1844) BW09 [=Triton gemmatus H09]
         |         C. gibbosum (Broderip 1833) [=Triton gibbosus] O27
         |         C. gracile (Reeve 1844) [=Triton gracilis] H09
         |         C. hepaticum (Röding 1798) BW09
         |         C. labiosum (Wood 1828) [=Murex labiosus] H09
         |         C. lotorium (Linnaeus 1758) WG71 [=Murex lotorius H09]
         |         C. marwicki A27
         |         C. moritinctum (Reeve 1844) [=Triton moritinctus] H09
         |         C. mundum (Gould 1849) MG-H11
         |         C. muricinum (Röding 1798) BW09
         |         C. nicobaricum (Röding 1798) S11
         |         C. parthenopeum (von Salis 1793) S11
         |         C. pfeifferianum (Reeve 1844) [=Triton pfeifferianus] H09
         |         C. pileare (Linné 1758) S11
         |         C. raderi D’Attilio & Myers 1984 BC01
         |         C. ranzanii (Bianconi 1851) ES88
         |         C. rubecula (Linnaeus 1758) BW09
         |         C. sacrostoma (Reeve 1844) [=Triton sacrostoma] H09
         |         C. spengleri (Chemnitz 1795) [=Murex spengleri] H09
         |         C. strangei (Adams & Angas 1864) [=Triton strangei] H09
         |         C. tuberosum (Lamarck 1822) [=Triton tuberosus] H09
         |         C. vespaceum (Lamarck 1822) MG-H11 [=Triton vespaceus H09]
         |         C. waterhousei (Adams & Angas 1865) P27
         |--*C. (Cymatium) tigrinum (Broderip 1833) O27, BR05 [=Triton tigrinum BR05, *Nyctilochus tigrinus BR05]
         |--C. (Monoplex Perry 1811) BC01, WG71
         |    |--*Monoplex’ australasiae Perry 1811 P61
         |    |--C. (M.) aquatile (Reeve 1844) [incl. C. cruzana Usticke 1959] BC01
         |    |--C. (M.) macrodon (Valenciennes 1832) [=Triton macrodon] BC01
         |    `--C. (M.) penniketi Beu 1998 BC01
         |--C. (Lotoria Emerson & Old 1963) BC01
         |    `--C. (*L.) perryi Emerson & Old 1963 BC01
         `--C. (Ranularia Schumacher 1817) BC01
              |--‘Tudicla’ gutturnium Roeding 1798 [incl. *Ranularia longirostra Schumacher 1817] C75
              |--C. (R.) armatum (Sowerby 1897) [=Lotorium armatum] C75
              |--C. (R.) boschi Abbott & Lewis 1970 BC01
              `--C. (R.) pyrum (Linnaeus 1758) H09, WG71 [=Murex pyrum H09]

*Charonia tritonis (Linnaeus 1758) P61, BW09 [=Tritonium tritonis P61, Murex tritonis BR05, Nyctilochus tritonis BR05, Septa tritonis H09]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A27] Allan, R. S. 1927. The geology and palaeontology of the Lower Waihao Basin, south Canterbury, New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 265–309.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

[C75] Cernohorsky, W. O. 1975. The taxonomy of some Indo-Pacific Mollusca. Part 3. With descriptions of new taxa and remarks on an Ecuadorian fossil species of Turridae. Records of the Auckland Institute and Museum 12: 213–234.

[C60] Cox, L. R. 1960. Gastropoda: general characteristics of Gastropoda. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia pp. I84–I169. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[ES88] Emerson, W. K., & W. E. Sage III. 1988. A new species of Vasum (Gastropoda: Turbinellidae) from off Somalia. Nautilus 102 (1): 36–39.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[HJ08] Huisman, J. M., D. S. Jones, F. E. Wells & T. Burton. 2008. Introduced marine biota in Western Australian waters. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 1–44.

[J49] Johnson, R. I. 1949. Jesse Wedgwood Mighels with a bibliography and a catalogue of his species. Occasional Papers on Mollusks 1 (14): 213–231.

[M54] Macpherson, J. H. 1954. Molluscs (sea shells and snails). In: Willis, J. M. (ed.) The Archipelago of the Recherche pp. 55–63. Australian Geographical Society: Melbourne.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. II pt. II. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[PH90] Petit, R. E., & M. G. Harasewych. 1990. Catalogue of the superfamily Cancellarioidea Forbes and Hanley, 1851 (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia). Nautilus Supplement 1: 1–69.

[P27] Powell, A. W. B. 1927. On a large Tonna and two other gasteropods of Australian origin. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 559–562.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

[ZLK11] Zou, S., Q. Li & L. Kong. 2011. Additional gene data and increased sampling give new insights into the phylogenetic relationships of Neogastropoda, within the caenogastropod phylogenetic framework. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61: 425–435.

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