Marbled lungfish Protopterus aethiopicus, photographed by Steve.

Belongs within: Sarcopterygii.

The Dipnomorpha includes the lungfish and their fossil relatives, united by the presence of jointed radials in the pectoral fins. Members of this clade have a fossil record going back to the Early Devonian (Zhu & Yu 2002).

Synapomorphies (from Zhu & Yu 2002): Anterior margin of parietal slightly posterior to orbits; parietal-supraorbital contact absent; denticulated field of parasphenoid with spiracular groove; axis of pectoral fin skeletion with more than five axial elements; pectoral fin radials jointed, axial elements bearing symmetrical array of preaxial and postaxial radials; enamel lining present in pore canals.

    |--Porolepiformes [Porolepimorpha] ZY02
    |    |--Powichthys thorsteinssoni ZY02, S85
    |    |--Holoptychius C02
    |    |--Glyptolepis benedeni C02
    |    `--Porolepis ZY13
    `--+--Youngolepis ZY02
       `--+--Diabolepis ZY02
          `--Dipnoi TC71
               |  i. s.: Melanognathus canadensis TC71
               |         Chirodipterus wildungensis TC71
               |         Holodus TC71
               |         Griphognathus TC71
               |         Ganorhynchus splendens TC71
               |--Uranolophus Denison 1968 TC71
               |    `--U. wyomingensis TC71
               |--+--Speonesydrion TC71
               |  `--Dipnorhynchus TC71
               |       |--*D. sussmilchi (Etheridge 1906) TC71, F71 [=Ganorhynchus sussmilchi F71]
               |       `--D. lehmanni TC71
               `--+--Dipterus TC71
                  |    |--D. oervigi TC71
                  |    |--D. platycephalus TC71
                  |    `--D. valenciennesi TC71
                  |--Phaneropleuridae TC71
                  |    |--Pentlandia macropterus TC71
                  |    |--Phaneropleuron andersoni TC71
                  |    `--Scaumenacia curta TC71
                  |--+--‘Rhinodipterus’ ulrichi TC71
                  |  |--Fleurantia denticulata TC71
                  |  `--+--Soederberghia groenlandica TC71
                  |     |--Oervigia TC71
                  |     `--Jarvikia TC71
                  `--+--Rhinodipterus secans TC71
                     |--+--Tranodis castrensis TC71
                     |  |--Uronemus [Uronemidae, Uronemoidei] TC71
                     |  |    `--U. splendens TC71
                     |  `--Ctenodus Agassiz 1838 TC71, W06 [Ctenodidae, Ctenodontidae, Ctenodontoidei, Sirenoidei]
                     |       |--C. breviceps Woodward 1906 W06
                     |       `--C. cristatus W06
                     `--+--Straitonia waterstoni TC71
                        |--Conchopoma [Conchopomatidae] TC71
                        |    `--C. gadiforme TC71
                        `--+--Sagenodus [Sagenodidae] TC71
                           |--Paraceratodus geramini TC71
                           `--Ceratodontiformes [Ceratodiformes, Lepidosireniformes] TT05
                                |--Ceratodontidae [Ceratodidae] TC71
                                |    |--Neoceratodus forsteri B96
                                |    `--Ceratodus Agassiz 1838 GM01
                                |         `--C. kurri W70
                                |--Lepidosirenidae TC71
                                |    |--Gnathorhiza tatarica Minikh 1989 TT05
                                |    `--Lepidosiren Fitzinger 1837 GM01
                                |         |--L. dissimilis S66
                                |         `--L. paradoxa Fitzinger 1837 GM01
                                `--Protopterus [Protopteridae] B96
                                     |--P. aethiopicus G74
                                     |--P. amphibius B96
                                     |--P. annectans B96
                                     `--P. dolloi B96

Inorganic: Neoceratodus forsteri minilorientalus Okamura 1987 O87

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B96] Bond, C. E. 1996. Biology of Fishes 2nd ed. Saunders College Publishing: Fort Worth.

[C02] Clement, G. 2002. Large Tristichopteridae (Sarcopterygii, Tetrapodomorpha) from the late Famennian Evieux Formation of Belgium. Palaeontology 45: 577-593.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1-167.

[GM01] Gayet, M., L. G. Marshall, T. Sempere, F. J. Meunier, H. Cappetta & J-C. Rage. 2001. Middle Maastrichtian vertebrates (fishes, amphibians, dinosaurs and other reptiles, mammals) from Pajcha Pata (Bolivia). Biostratigraphic, palaeoecologic and palaeobiostratigraphic implications. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 169: 39-68.

[G74] Greenwood, P. H. 1974. The cichlid fishes of Lake Vistoria, East Africa: The biology and evolution of a species flock. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History): Zoology Suppl. 6: 1-134.

[O87] Okamura, C. 1987. New facts: Homo and all Vertebrata were born simultaneously in the former Paleozoic in Japan. Original Report of the Okamura Fossil Laboratory 15: 347-573.

[S66] Sclater, P. L. 1866. Remarks on the American lepidosiren (Lepidosiren paradoxa). Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 34-35.

[S85] Smithson, T. R. 1985. The morphology and relationships of the Carboniferous amphibian Eoherpeton watsoni Panchen. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 85: 317-410.

[TC71] Thomson, K. S., & K. S. W. Campbell. 1971. The structure and relationships of the primitive Devonian lungfish—Dipnorhynchus sussmilchi (Etheridge). Yale University Peabody Museum of Natural History Bulletin 38: 1-109.

[TT05] Tverdokhlebov, V. P., G. I. Tverdokhlebova, A. V. Minikh, M. V. Surkov & M. J. Benton. 2005. Upper Permian vertebrates and their sedimentological context in the South Urals, Russia. Earth-Science Reviews 69: 27-77.

[W70] Wills, L. J. 1970. The Triassic succession in the central Midlands in its regional setting. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 126: 225-283.

[W06] Woodward, A. S. 1906. On a Carboniferous fish fauna from the Mansfield District, Victoria. Memoirs of the National Museum, Melbourne 1: 1-32, pl. I-XI.

[ZY02] Zhu, M., & X. Yu. 2002. A primitive fish close to the common ancestor of tetrapods and lungfish. Nature 418: 767-770.

[ZY13] Zhu, M., X. Yu, P. E. Ahlberg, B. Choo, J. Lu, T. Qiao, Q. Qu, W. Zhao, L. Jia, H. Blom & Y. Zhu. 2013. A Sliurian placoderm with osteichthyan-like marginal jaw bones. Nature 502: 188-193.

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