Florida worm snail Vermicularia knorri, copyright James St. John.

Belongs within: Cerithiimorpha.
Contains: Turritella, Zeacolpus, Tachyrhynchus.

The Turritellidae are a group of high-spired marine gastropods. They are generally sessile, feeding by filtering particles from the water column. Members of the subfamily Vermiculariinae become loose or disjointed in later whorls. Vermiculariines are otherwise similar to members of the Turritellinae and have sometimes been included within that subfamily. Fossils have been assigned to the Turritellidae going back as far as the Lower Devonian (Knight et al. 1960).

Characters (from Knight et al. 1960): High-spired, with 8 to 20 or more whorls, spiral ornament commonly conspicuous; shallow labral sinus usually culminating at or above mid-whorl with upper limb extending farther adaperturally than lower; siphonal notch or canal wanting.

<==Turritellidae [Turritellacea, Turritellae, Turritellea, Turritellimorpha, Turritelloidei]
    |--Orectospira Dall 1925 [Orectospiridae, Orectospirinae] BR05
    |    `--*O. babelica (Dall 1907) [=Basilissa babelica] BR17
    |--Pareora Marwick 1931 [Pareoridae, Pareorinae] BR05
    |    `--*P. striolata (Hutton 1885) [=Eglisia striolata] BR17
    |--Protoma Baird 1870 [Protominae] BR05
    |    `--*P. knockeri Baird 1870 BR17
    |--Omalaxis Deshayes 1832 BR05 [=Homalaxis Fischer 1885 BR05; Homalaxinae, Omalaxidae, Omalaxinae BR17]
    |    |--*O. disjuncta (Lamarck 1804) [=Solarium disjunctum] BR17
    |    |--O. cresnensis (Morlet 1888) TTE93
    |    |--O. deshayesi (Michaud in Deshayes 1863) TTE93
    |    |--O. disjunctus ((Lamarck 1804) TTE93
    |    |--O. laudunensis (Defrance 1828) TTE93
    |    |--O. meridionalis F27a
    |    `--O. radiata Hedley 1907 H09
    |--Turritellinae BR05
    |    |--Turritella S11
    |    |--Zeacolpus BR05
    |    |--Tachyrhynchus BR05
    |    |--Zaria Gray 1842 [Zariana, Zariinae] BR05
    |    |    `--*Z. duplicata (Linnaeus 1767) [=Turbo duplicatus] BR17
    |    `--Archimediella Sacco 1895 [Archimediellidae, Archimedielloidea] BR05
    |         |--*A. archimedis (Brongniart 1823) [=Turritella archimedis] BR17
    |         `--A. dirkhartogensis Garrard 1972 MG-H11
    `--Vermicularia Lamarck 1799 non Tode 1790 (ICBN) [Vermiculariidae, Vermiculariinae] BR05
         |--*V. lumbricalis (Linnaeus 1758) BR17 [=Serpula lumbricalis BR17, Turbo (Vermicularia) lumbricalis G20]
         |--V. caperata H08
         |--V. eburnea Reeve 1842 O27
         |--V. fewkesii B56
         |--V. frisbeyae McLean 1970 PP78
         |--V. hedleyi Finlay 1927 [=V. nodosa Hedley 1907 non Kaunhowen 1897] F27b
         |--V. knorri (Deshayes 1843) HC79
         |--V. maxima (Sowerby 1825) [=Serpula maxima] H09
         |--V. novaehollandiae H09
         |--V. ophioides Marshall & Murdoch 1921 F27a
         |--‘Siphonium’ planatum Suter 1913 F27a
         `--V. quoyi (Adams & Adams 1854) [=Cladopoda quoyi] H09

Turritellidae incertae sedis:
  Glyptozaria Iredale 1924 F27a
    `--*G. opulenta [=Turritella opulenta] F27a
  Platycolpus Donald 1900 F27a
    |--*P. quadratus [=Turritella quadrata, Colpospira (*Platycolpus) quadrata] F27a
    `--P. guillaumei [=Colpospira guillaumei] F27a
  Maoricolpus Finlay 1927 P61
    |--*M. roseus (Quoy & Gaimard 1834) P61 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--M. r. roseus P61
    |    `--M. r. manukauensis Powell 1931 P61
    |--M. cavershamensis (Harris 1897) F27a (see below for synonymy)
    |--M. finlayi Powell 1940 P61
    `--M. murrayanus [=Turritella murrayana] F27a
  Colpospira Donald 1900 F27a
    |--*C. runcinata [=Turritella runcinata; incl. T. accisa] F27a
    |--C. cordismei [=Turritella cordismei] F27a
    |--C. platyspira (Tenison-Woods 1878) F27a, F71 [=Turritella platyspira F27a]
    `--C. sinuata [=Turritella sinuata] F27a
  Gazameda Iredale 1924 F27a
    |--*G. gunnii [=Turritella gunnii] F27a
    |--G. acricula [=Turritella acricula] F27a
    |--G. iredalei Finlay 1927 [=Turritella clathrata Kiener 1843 non Deshayes 1833] F27b
    `--G. tasmanica [=Turritella tasmanica; incl. T. subsquamosa] F27a
  Ctenocolpus Iredale 1925 F27a
    |--*C. australis [=Turritella australis] F27a
    |    |--C. a. australis F27a
    |    `--C. a. diffidens Iredale 1925 F27a
    |--C. pagodula [=Turritella pagodula] F27a
    `--C. warburtoni [=Turritella warburtoni] F27a
  Spirocolpus Finlay 1927 F27a
    |--*S. waihaoensis (Marwick 1924) [=Turritella waihaoensis] F27a
    |--S. aldingae (Tate 1882) DK08 [=Turritella aldingae F27a]
    |--S. conspicabilis (Tate 1924) [=Turritella conspicabilis] F27a
    |--S. rudis (Marshall 1919) [=Turritella rudis] F27a
    |--S. tophina (Marwick 1926) [=Turritella tophina] F27a
    `--S. tristira (Tate 1924) [=Turritella tristira] F27a
  Callispira Nelson 1947 KC60
    `--*C. quinquecostata Nelson 1947 KC60
  Torcula murryana H86
  Haustator polonicus Schröder 1995 NB00
  Calvertitella Petuch 1988 P12
    `--C. indenta (Conrad 1841) P12
  Mariacolpus Petuch 1988 P12
    `--M. plebeia (Say 1824) P12
  Torquesia TTE93
    |--T. dupiniana (Orbigny 1842) TTE93
    `--T. tamra (Abbass 1962) TTE93
  Mesalia C64
    |--M. brevialis PP64
    |--M. lactea C64
    `--M. striolata A27

Maoricolpus cavershamensis (Harris 1897) F27a [=Turritella cavershamensis F27a, T. gigantea Hutton 1873 (preoc.) F27b]

*Maoricolpus roseus (Quoy & Gaimard 1834) P61 [=Turritella rosea P61; incl. T. difficilis Suter 1908 nec d’Orbigny 1842 nec Zekeli 1852 F27b]

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[B56] Berry, S. S. 1956. Mollusca dredged by the Orca off the Santa Barbara Islands, California, in 1951. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (5): 150–157.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

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[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

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[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[H08] Hedley, C. 1908. Studies on Australian Mollusca. Part X. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 456–489, pls 7–10.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[HC79] Huff, J. A., & S. P. Cobb. 1979. Penaeoid and sergestoid shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda). Memoirs of the Hourglass Cruises 5 (4): 1–101.

[H86] Hutton, F. W. 1886. Notes on some Australian Tertiary fossils. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (2): 481–482.

[KC60] Knight, J. B., L. R. Cox, A. M. Keen, R. L. Batten, E. L. Yochelson & R. Robertson. 1960. Gastropoda: systematic descriptions. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia pp. I169–I331. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

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[P12] Petuch, E. J. 2012. Miocene asteroid impacts: proposed effects on the biogeography and extinction patterns of eastern North American gastropods. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 967–981. Springer.

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[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

Last updated: 14 September 2021.

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