Green-lipped abalone Haliotis laevigata, copyright Peter Southwood.

Belongs within: Vetigastropoda.

Haliotis, the abalones, is a cosmopolitan genus of marine gastropods with an ear-shaped shell bearing a spiral series of openings allowing exhalation of water. A number of species are highly prized by humans as food and have been intensively harvested around the world.

Characters (from Knight et al. 1960): Shell auriform, depressed, with spire more or less strongly excentric and protruding only slightly or not at all; aperture broad, occupying most of underside; to left of aperture a broad, smooth labial area, beyond which narrow base of shell may be just exposed; shell wall with spiral row of small tremata, commonly on tubular projections, which become infilled progressively during growth, the last few (5 to 9) remaining open and serving as exhalant outlets; interior nacreous; no operculum.

<==Haliotis Linnaeus 1758 KC60 (see below for synonymy)
    |--*H. (Haliotis) asinina Linnaeus 1758 KC60 (see below for synonymy)
    |--H. (Euhaliotis Wenz 1938) KC60
    |    `--H. (*E.) midae Linnaeus 1758 KC60
    |--H. (Exohaliotis Cotton & Godfrey 1933) KC60
    |    `--H. (*E.) cyclobates Péron 1816 KC60, WG71
    |--H. (Marinauris Iredale 1927) KC60
    |    `--H. (*M.) melculus (Iredale 1927) [=*Marinauris melculus] KC60
    |--H. (Notohaliotis Cotton & Godfrey 1933) KC60
    |    `--H. (N.) ruber Leach 1814 KC60, WG71 [=H. (*N.) naevosa Martyn 1784 (non-binomial) KC60]
    |--H. (Ovinotis Cotton 1943) KC60
    |    `--H. (*O.) ovina Gmelin 1791 KC60
    |--H. (Padollus Montfort 1810) [incl. Neohaliotis Cotton & Godfrey 1933] KC60
    |    |--H. (P.) scalaris Leach 1814 KC60 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--H. (P.) parva Linnaeus 1758 KC60
    |    `--H. (P.) roberti McLean 1970 BC01
    |--H. (Paua Fleming 1952) P61
    |    `--H. (*P.) iris Gmelin 1791 P61
    |--H. (Sanhaliotis Iredale 1929) KC60
    |    |--H. (*S.) varia Linnaeus 1758 KC60
    |    `--H. (S.) coccinea [incl. H. janus, H. zealandica] T63
    |--H. (Schismotis Gray 1856) KC60
    |    `--H. (S.) laevigata Donovan 1808 [incl. H. albicans Quoy & Gaimard 1834, *Schismotis excisa Gray 1856] KC60
    `--H. (Sulculus Adams & Adams 1854) P61
         |--H. (*S.) incisa Reeve 1846 KC60
         |--H. (S.) australis Gmelin 1790 P61 [incl. H. aleata Bolten 1798 F27a, H. plicata Karsten 1789 (n. n.) F27a]
         |--H. (S.) tuberculata Linnaeus 1758 KC60, RP07
         |    |--H. t. tuberculata T63
         |    `--H. t. guineensis Gmelin 1791 [incl. H. decussata Philippi 1850, H. tuberculata rosacea] T63
         `--H. (S.) virginea Gmelin 1790 P61
              |--H. v. virginea P61
              |--H. v. crispata Gould 1847 P61
              |--H. v. huttoni Filhol 1880 P61
              `--H. v. morioria Powell 1938 P61

Haliotis incertae sedis:
  H. antiqua Binkhorst 1861 KC60
  H. assimilis Dall 1878 O27
  H. astricta Reeve 1846 H09
  H. aurantium Simone 1997 S11
  H. californiensis Swainson 1822 O27 [=H. cracherodii var. californiensis C64]
    |--H. c. californiensis O27
    `--H. c. bonita Orcutt 1900 O27
  H. coccoradiata Reeve 1846 WG71
  H. conicopora Péron 1816 [incl. H. granti Pritchard & Gatliff 1902, H. vixlirata Cotton 1943] WG71
  H. corrugata Gray 1828 O27 [incl. H. nodosa C64]
  H. cracherodii Leach 1817 O27 [incl. H. glabra Schub. 1829 C64, H. interrupta Valenciennes 1833 C64]
    |--H. c. cracherodii O27
    |--H. c. holzneri Hemphill 1907 O27
    |--H. c. lusus Finlay 1927 F27b (see below for synonymy)
    `--H. c. splendidula Williamson 1892 O27
  H. crebisculpta Sowerby 1914 BW09
  H. cretacea Lundgren 1894 KC60
  H. discus GO06
  H. diversicolor Reeve 1846 HJ08
  H. elegans Philippi 1899 WG71
  H. emmae Reeve 1846 WG71
  H. fatui Geiger 1999 BC01
  H. fulgens Philippi 1845 O27
    |--H. f. fulgens BC01
    `--H. f. guadelupensis Talmadge 1964 BC01
  H. hannai TH02
  H. hargravesi (Cox 1869) HJ08
  H. imperforata Gmelin 1791 F27b
  H. kamtschatkana Jonas 1842 T77
  H. lomaensis Anderson 1902 KC60
  H. marmorata Linnaeus 1758 L58
  H. pertusa T63
  H. planata Sowerby 1833 BW09
  H. poutalesii Dall 1881 S11
  H. pulcherrima Martyn 1784 C64
  H. pustulata Reeve 1846 BW09
    |--H. p. pustulata BD86
    `--H. p. cruenta Reeve 1846 BD86
  H. roei Gray 1826 WG71
  H. rufescens Swainson 1822 T77 [incl. H. californiana Valenciennes 1833 C64]
  H. semiplicata Menke 1843 WG71
  H. sorenseni CG99
  H. spadicea Donovan 1808 HJ08
  H. splendens C64
  H. squamata Reeve 1846 WG71
  H. striata Linnaeus 1758 L58
  H. walallensis Stearns 1891 T77

Haliotis Linnaeus 1758 KC60 [=Haleotis Binkhorst 1861 KC60, Teinotis Adams & Adams 1854 KC60, Tinotis Fischer 1885 KC60; incl. Deridobranchus Ehrenberg 1831 BR05; Deridobranchina, Deridobranchinae]

Haliotis cracherodii lusus Finlay 1927 F27b [=H. cracherodii f. imperforata Dall 1919 nec H. imperforata Gmelin 1791 nec Philippi 1887 F27b, O27]

*Haliotis (Haliotis) asinina Linnaeus 1758 KC60 [=*Teinotis asinina KC60; incl. *Deridobranchus argus Ehrenberg 1831 BR17]

Haliotis (Padollus) scalaris Leach 1814 KC60 [incl. *Padollus rubicundus Montfort 1810 non H. rubicunda Röding 1798 KC60, H. tricostalis H08]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BD86] Barash, A., & Z. Danin. 1986. Further additions to the knowledge of Indo-Pacific Mollusca in the Mediterranean Sea (Lessepsian migrants). Spixiana 9 (2): 117–141.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

[CG99] Carlton, J. T., J. B. Geller, M. L. Reaka-Kudla & E. A. Norse. 1999. Historical extinctions in the sea. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 30: 315–338.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[GO06] Giribet, G., A. Okusu, A. R. Lindgren, S. W. Huff, M. Schrödl & M. K. Nishiguchi. 2006. Evidence for a clade composed of molluscs with serially repeated structures: monoplacophorans are related to chitons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103 (20): 7723–7728.

[H08] Hedley, C. 1908. Studies on Australian Mollusca. Part X. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 456–489, pls 7–10.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[HJ08] Huisman, J. M., D. S. Jones, F. E. Wells & T. Burton. 2008. Introduced marine biota in Western Australian waters. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 1–44.

[KC60] Knight, J. B., L. R. Cox, A. M. Keen, R. L. Batten, E. L. Yochelson & R. Robertson. 1960. Gastropoda: systematic descriptions. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia pp. I169–I331. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 3. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[RP07] Rousset, V., F. Pleijel, G. W. Rouse, C. Erséus & M. E. Siddall. 2007. A molecular phylogeny of annelids. Cladistics 23: 41–63.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[T63] Talmadge, R. R. 1963. Revision of a west African haliotid. Nautilus 77 (2): 55–58.

[T77] Talmadge, R. R. 1977. Notes on a California hybrid Haliotis (Gastropoda: Haliotidae). Veliger 20 (1): 37–38.

[TH02] Thompson, F. L., B. Hoste, K. Vandemuelebroecke, K. Engelbeen, R. Denys & J. Swings. 2002. Vibrio trachuri Iwamoto et al. 1995 is a junior synonym of Vibrio harveyi (Johnson and Shunk 1936) Baumann et al. 1981. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 52: 973–976.

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

Last updated: 16 October 2021.

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