Episcopal mitre Mitra mitra, copyright J. C. Schou.

Belongs within: Mitridae.

Mitra, the mitres, is a genus of predatory gastropods with an elongate proboscis, specialised for feeding on burrowing worms. Both their scientific and vernacular names refer to their resemblence to the mitre (pointed hat) worn by ecclesiastical figures.

See also: The bishop's Mitra.

Characters (from Oldroyd 1927): Shell fusiform, thick; spire elevated, acute at apex; aperture small, narrow, notched in front; columella obliquely plicate; outer lip thickened, smooth internally.

<==Mitra Lamarck 1798 BR05
    |--*M. episcopalis O27
    |--M. acuminata Swainson 1824 BW09
    |--M. amabilis Reeve 1845 H09
    |--M. amanda Reeve 1845 H09
    |--M. ambigua Swainson 1829 BW09
    |--M. antonelli Dohrn 1860 H09
    |--M. arenosa Lamarck 1811 H09
    |--M. armillata Reeve 1845 H09
    |--M. aurantia (Gmelin 1791) [=Voluta aurantia] H09
    |--M. aurora BW09
    |    |--M. a. aurora BW09
    |    `--M. a. floridula Sowerby 1874 BW09
    |--M. australis M54
    |--M. avenacea Reeve 1845 H09
    |--M. badia P95
    |--M. bernhardina Bolten 1798 H09
    |--M. caffra (Linnaeus 1758) [=Voluta caffra] H09
    |--M. caliginosa O27
    |--M. cancellata Bolten 1798 F27b
    |--M. ‘cancellata’ Swainson 1821 non Bolten 1798 F27b
    |--M. capricornea Hedley 1907 H09
    |--M. carbonaria F27a
    |--M. cardinalis Gmelin 1791 WG71
    |--M. catalinae Dall 1919 [=Strigatella (Atrimitra) catalinae] O27
    |--M. chrysalis Reeve 1844 BW09
    |--M. chrysostoma Broderip 1836 BW09
    |--M. circula Kiener 1839 H09
    |--M. clathrata Defrance 1824 F27b
    |--M. ‘clathrata’ Reeve 1844 non Defrance 1824 F27b
    |--M. ‘clathrata’ Reuss 1845 nec Defrance 1824 nec Reeve 1844 F27b
    |--M. coccinea F66
    |--M. coffea Schubert & Wagner 1829 [incl. M. thaanumiana Pilsbry 1921] BC01
    |--M. crassa Swainson 1822 H09
    |--M. crenifera Lamarck 1811 H09
    |--M. cruentata (Gmelin 1791) [=Voluta cruentata] H09
    |--M. cucumerina Lamarck 1811 BW09
    |--M. curvilirata Sowerby 1874 H09
    |--M. decurtata Reeve 1844 BW09
    |--M. delicata Adams 1853 H09
    |--M. deshayesii Reeve 1844 H09
    |--M. dichroa Adams 1853 H09
    |--M. diegensis Dall 1919 [=Strigatella (Atrimitra) diegensis] O27
    |--M. duplilirata Reeve 1845 H09
    |--M. ebenus [incl. M. ebenus var. uniplicatus Wood 1872] F27b
    |--M. elatior Finlay 1924 F27a
    |--M. eremitarum Roiling 1798 BW09
    |--M. eusulcata Finlay 1924 F27a
    |--M. exilis Reeve 1845 F27b
    |--M. ferruginea Lamarck 1811 BW09
    |--M. filaris (Linne 1771) [=Voluta filaris] H09
    |--M. formosa Adams 1853 H09
    |--M. fragra Quoy & Gaimard 1833 H09
    |--M. fultoni O27
    |--M. gilbertsoni (Cate 1968) [=Pterygia gilbertsoni] BC01
    |--M. glabra F27a
    |--M. granatina Lamarck 1811 H09
    |--M. hastata Sowerby 1874 H09
    |--M. hebes Reeve 1845 H09
    |--M. hectori Hutton 1904 F27a
    |--M. hedleyi Murdoch 1905 F27a
    |--M. idae Melvill 1893 O27 [incl. M. semiusta Berry 1957 BC01]
    |    |--M. i. idae O27
    |    `--M. i. montereyensis Berry 1920 O27
    |--M. imperialis Roiling 1798 BW09
    |--M. interlirata Reeve 1844 H09
    |--M. jukesii Adams 1853 H09
    |--M. lens O27
    |--M. leucodesma Reeve 1844 H09
    |--M. ligata Adams 1853 F27b
    |--M. limosa Martyn 1786 H09
    |--M. litterata Lamarck 1811 BW09
    |--M. longispira Sowerby 1874 H09
    |--M. lowei Dall 1903 O27
    |--M. lubens Reeve 1845 H09
    |--M. lucida Reeve 1845 H09
    |--M. luctuosa (Adams 1853) BW09
    |--M. lugubris Swainson 1822 WG71
    |--M. maoria Finlay 1927 F27a
    |--M. michaui Crosse & Fischer 1864 H09
    |--M. mitra (Linnaeus 1758) BW09 [=Voluta mitra H09]
    |--M. modesta Reeve 1845 H09
    |--M. multisulcata Harris 1897 F27b
    |--M. nodulosa Gmelin 1791 [incl. M. nodulosa pallida Usticke 1959 non M. pallida Adams 1851] BC01
    |--M. obeliscus Reeve 1844 H09
    |--M. othone Tenison-Woods 1879 F71
    |--M. papalis Linnaeus 1758 WG71
    |--M. patriarchalis (Gmelin 1791) [=Voluta patriarchalis] H09
    |--M. paupercula (Linnaeus 1758) BW09
    |--M. peasei Dohrn 1860 H09
    |--M. plicaria (Linnaeus 1758) [=Voluta plicaria] H09
    |--M. porphyritica Reeve 1844 H09
    |--M. procissa Reeve 1844 H09
    |--M. pura Adams 1853 H09
    |--M. ralphi Cossmann 1900 (see below for synonymy) F27b
    |--M. reticulata Adams 1853 H09
    |--M. retusa Lamarck 1811 BW09
    |--M. rhodia M54
    |--M. rotundilirata Reeve 1844 H09
    |--M. rubritincta Reeve 1844 BW09
    |--M. rufescens Adams 1853 H09
    |--M. rugosa (Gmelin 1791) [=Voluta rugosa] H09
    |--M. ruppeli F27b
    |--M. sanguisuga (Linnaeus 1758) [=Voluta sanguisuga] H09
    |--M. scabricula (Linne 1767) [=Voluta scabricula] H09
    |--M. sculptilis Reeve 1845 H09
    |--M. scutulata (Gmelin 1791) [=Voluta scutulata] H09
    |--M. semilaevis Edwards 1849 F27b
    |--M. sigillata Azuma 1965 Q89
    |--M. solida Reeve 1844 H09
    |--M. stictica (Link 1807) BW09
    |--M. subdivisa (Bolten 1798) [=Vexillum subdivisum] H09
    |--M. subruppeli Finlay 1927 [=M. multisulcata Sowerby 1914 non Harris 1897] F27b
    |--M. suturata Reeve 1845 H09
    |--M. tabanula Lamarck 1811 H09
    |--M. taeniata Lamarck 1811 H09
    |--M. tatei Angas 1879 F27b
    |--M. ticaonica Reeve 1844 WG71
    |--M. variabilis Reeve 1844 WG71
    |--M. variegata (Gmelin 1791) [=Voluta variegata] H09
    |--M. vermiculata Martyn 1786 H09
    |--M. vexillum Reeve 1844 BW09
    |--M. vulpecula (Linnaeus 1758) [=Voluta vulpecula] H09
    `--M. zephyrina Sowerby 1874 H09

Mitra ralphi Cossmann 1900 [=M. semilaevis Tate 1889 non Edwards 1849, M. tatei Cossmann 1899 non Angas 1879, Costellaria tatei, Turricula tatei] F27b

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B. & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[F66] Fraser, L. 1866. Communication of a list of mollusks collected by R. Swinhoe, Esq., in Formosa. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 146.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[M54] Macpherson, J. H. 1954. Molluscs (sea shells and snails). In: Willis, J. M. (ed.) The Archipelago of the Recherche pp. 55–63. Australian Geographical Society: Melbourne.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. II pt I. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[P95] Ponder, W. F. 1995. Book review: Australian Marine Shells. Prosobranch Gastropods. Parts 1 and 2. Molluscan Research 16: 97–102.

[Q89] Quinn, J. F., Jr. 1989. Pleioptygmatidae, a new family of mitriform gastropods (Prosobranchia: Neogastropoda). Nautilus 103 (1): 13–19.

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

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