Trivia europaea, copyright H. Zell.

Belongs within: Cypraeoidea.

The Triviidae are a group of small marine gastropods with globular shells similar to those of cowries, but with the apertural teeth continued over the sides and top (Wilson & Gillett 1971). As in cowries, the shell is covered in life by flaps of the mantle, leaving the shell with a glossy appearance. At least some species are known to live in association with tunicates on which they feed.

<==Triviidae [Triviacea, Triviinae]
    |--Circumscapula iota Cate 1979 BC01
    |--Proterato (Sulcerato) geralia Cate 1977 BC01
    |--Triviella Jousseaume 1884 [Triviellini] BR05
    |    |--T. porcellio Cate 1979 [=Cypraea oniscus Lamarck 1811 non Röding 1798, *T. oniscus] BR17
    |    `--T. memorata Finlay 1927 F27
    |--Niveria S11
    |    |--N. pediculus (Linné 1758) S11
    |    `--N. quadripunctata Gray 1827 M03
    |--Dolichupis FG12
    |    |--D. akroterion (Cate 1979) [=Pusula (Dolichupis) akroterion] BC01
    |    `--D. zealandica (Kirk 1882) [incl. Ellatrivia flora Marwick 1928] FG12
    |--Ellatrivia Iredale 1931 FG12
    |    |--*E. merces (Iredale 1924) FG12 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--E. goudeyi Fehse & Grego 2012 FG12
    |    `--E. memorata Finlay 1927 P61
    |--Trivirostra Jousseaume 1884 WG71
    |    |--T. edgari Shaw 1909 M03
    |    |--T. oryza (Lamarck 1810) S11
    |    `--T. thaanumi Cate 1979 BC01
    |--Pusula Jousseaume 1884 [Pusulini] BR05
    |    |--*P. radians (Lamarck 1810) BR17 [=Cypraea radians BR17, Trivia radians O27; incl. C. costata C64]
    |    |--P. carabus Cate 1979 BC01
    |    |--P. ritteri (Raymond 1903) B56, O27 [=Trivia (Pusula) ritteri B56]
    |    `--P. solandri Sowerby 1832 M03
    |--Trivellona Iredale 1931 FG12
    |    |--*T. excelsa Iredale 1931 FG12
    |    |--T. avellanoides (McCoy 1861) FG12
    |    |--T. crassicostata (Schilder 1935) FG12
    |    |--T. daphnes (Schilder 1966) FG12
    |    |--T. darraghi Fehse & Grego 2007 FG12
    |    |--T. felixlorenzi Fehse & Grego 2012 FG12
    |    |--T. kendricki Fehse & Grego 2007 FG12
    |    |--T. kiiensis (Kuroda & Cate in Cate 1979) FG08
    |    |--T. lochi Fehse & Grego 2007 FG12
    |    |--T. opalina (Kuroda & Cate in Cate 1979) FG08
    |    |--T. subtilis (Schilder 1935) FG12
    |    |--T. tatei (Schilder 1935) FG12
    |    `--T. transiens (Schilder 1935) FG12
    `--Trivia Gray 1837 [Triviini] BR05
         |  i. s.: T. californica Gray 1828 O27
         |         T. candidula PP64
         |         T. childreni G79
         |         T. corrugata G79
         |         T. exigua G79
         |         T. globosa (Gray 1832) [=Cypraea globosa] H09
         |         T. grando Gaskoin 1848 H09
         |         T. insecta G79
         |         T. minima Tenison-Woods 1879 F71
         |         T. napolini K96
         |         T. oryza (Lamarck 1810) [incl. Trivirostra boswellae Cate 1979] BC01
         |         T. pacifica C64
         |         T. pellucida Gaskoin 1846 H09
         |         T. pinguior (Marwick 1920) [=Triviella pinguior] F27
         |         T. producta (Gaskoin 1835) [=Cypraea producta] H09
         |         T. pulla C64
         |         T. pustulata C64
         |         T. sanguinea Gray 1832 O27 [incl. Cypraea rubescens C64]
         |         T. solandri (Gray 1837) [=Cypraea solandri] O27
         |         T. sphaerula G79
         |         T. subrostrata C64
         |         T. sulcata (Gaskoin 1848) [=Cypraea sulcata] H09
         |         T. vitrea (Gaskoin 1848) [=Cypraea vitrea] H09
         |         T. zelandica (Kirk 1882) [=Triviella zelandica] F27
         |--T. (Trivia) BC01
         |    |--*T. (T.) europaea (Montagu 1808) [=Cypraea europaea] BR17
         |    |--T. (T.) hispania Cate 1979 BC01
         |    `--T. (T.) tortuga Cate 1979 BC01
         `--T. (Epona) G79
              |--T. (E.) annulata G79
              |--T. (E.) cicercula G79
              |--T. (E.) globulus G79
              `--T. (E.) margarita G79

*Ellatrivia merces (Iredale 1924) FG12 [=Trivia merces P61, Triviella merces FG12, Trivia australis (Lamarck 1822) (preoc.) F27]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B56] Berry, S. S. 1956. Mollusca dredged by the Orca off the Santa Barbara Islands, California, in 1951. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (5): 150–157.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[FG08] Fehse, D., & J. Grego. 2008. New species of the genus Trivellona (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the Miocene of Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 24 (2): 205–213.

[FG12] Fehse, D., & J. Grego. 2012. Contribution to the knowledge of Triviidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) XXIII. New fossil species in the genera Ellatrivia and Trivellona. Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (1): 1–6.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[G79] Garrett, A. 1879. Annotated catalogue of the species of Cypraeidae collected in the S. Sea islands. Journal of Conchology 2: 105–128.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[K96] Kenyon, A. F. 1896. On the occurrence of callosities in Cypraea other than Cy. bicallosa and Cy. rhinocerus; and on the occurrence of a sulcus in Trivia. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 21 (1): 26–27.

[M03] Meyer, C. P. 2003. Molecular systematics of cowries (Gastropoda: Cypraeidae) and diversification patterns in the tropics. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 79: 401–459.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 2. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d'Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

Last updated: 3 October 2021.

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