Gastropoda

Pisinna zosterophila, copyright Eddie Hardy.


Belongs within: Mollusca.
Contains: Scoliostomatidae, Caseolus, Leiostyla, Clisospiroidea, Bellerophontoidea, Archinacelloidea, Pelagielloidea, Macluritida, Neomphaliones, Patellogastropoda, Vetigastropoda, Neritimorpha, Loxonematoidea, Heterobranchia, Peruneloidea, Cyclophoroidea, Ampullariidae, Viviparoidea, Orthonematoidea, Subulitoidea, Soleniscidae, Meekospiridae, Cerithiimorpha, Hypsogastropoda.

The Gastropoda, snails and slugs, are a major clade of molluscs characterised by the process of torsion during larval development with the visceral mass and mantle becoming turned 180° relative to the head and foot. The shell (if present) has a single valve and is often spirally coiled; an operculum is also often present that closes the aperture of the shell when the body is withdrawn. Both of these features may be modified in derived subgroups: the shell may be lost or coiling reduced, and torsion may be secondarily reversed over the course of continued development. Gastropods are ancestrally aquatic but a number of derived lineages have become terrestrial.

Historically, gastropods have often been divided between three major groupings—the Prosobranchia (possessing a gill and torted anatomy at maturity), Opisthobranchia (gilled but with torsion not evident at maturity), and Pulmonata (respiring via a lung)—but the 'prosobranchs' are recognised as paraphyletic to the last two groups (which together form part of the broader clade Heterobranchia). The 'prosobranchs' have in turn been historically divided between the grades Archaeogastropoda, Mesogastropoda and Neogastropoda but, again, the 'archaeogastropods' are now regarded as paraphyletic with the Neogastropoda and most 'mesogastropods' forming the clade Caenogastropoda. The Caenogastropoda and Heterobranchia together form a clade Apogastropoda, supported by a number of synapomorphies such as the presence of a single columellar muscle, loss of the right auricle, and the oesophagus originating at the posterior end of the buccal mass (Simone 2011).

Various Early Palaeozoic fossils such as Bellerophontoidea and Pelagielloidea resemble modern gastropods in the possession of a coiled shell but have not been universally accepted as gastropods due to uncertainty whether or not they exhibited torsion. Thomas et al. (2020) argued for the presence of torsion in Pelagielloidea on the basis of functional interpretations of preserved chaetae and internal grooves on the shell.

<==Gastropoda (see below for synonymy)
    |--+--Pelagielloidea TRM20
    |  `--Macluritida TRM20
    `--+--Neomphaliones BR17
       `--+--+--Patellogastropoda BR17
          |  `--Vetigastropoda S11
          `--Adenogonogastropoda [Branchiata, Ectophthalma, Teleohydrophila] S11
               |--Neritimorpha S11
               `--Apogastropoda (see below for synonymy) S11
                    |  i. s.: Protostylus Mansuy 1914 (n. d.) KC60
                    |           `--*P. lantenoisi Mansuy 1914 KC60
                    |         ‘Cyclora’ imbricata Whiteaves 1881 G88
                    |         ‘Cyclora’ valvatiformis Whiteaves 1881 G88
                    |--Loxonematoidea PC08
                    `--+--Heterobranchia S11
                       `--Caenogastropoda (see below for synonymy) S11
                            |  i. s.: Gaeatrivia millardi Cate 1979 M03
                            |         Serratovolva dondani Cate 1964 M03
                            |         Decorochilina Frýda 1999 F01
                            |         Plicatus Pan & Erwin 2002 [Plicatusidae] BR05
                            |           |--*P. scalaris Pan & Erwin 2002 PE02
                            |           `--P. multifilaris Pan & Erwin 2002 PE02
                            |         Spanionema Whidborne 1891 [Spanionematidae, Spanionematoidea] BR05
                            |           `--*S. scalaroides (Whidborne 1889) [=Loxonema scalaroides] KC60
                            |         Spirochrysalis Kittl 1894 NE02
                            |           `--S. protomicra Pan 1982 NE02
                            |         Lampanella minima PC08
                            |         Pragoscutula Frýda 1998 PC08, BR05 [Pragoscutulidae]
                            |           `--P. wareni Frýda 1998 FB01
                            |         Dendropupoidea [Anthracopupoidea, Dendropupinae, Procyclophoroida] BR05
                            |           |--Maturipupa Pilsbry 1926 KC60
                            |           |    `--*M. vermilionensis (Bradley 1872) [=Pupa vermilionensis] KC60
                            |           |--Anthracopupa Whitfield 1881 [Anthracopupidae, Anthracopupinae] BR05
                            |           |    |--*A. ohioensis Whitfield 1881 KC60
                            |           |    `--A. britannica Cox 1926 TTE93
                            |           `--Dendropupa Owen 1859 BR17 (see below for synonymy)
                            |                |--*D. vetusta (Dawson 1859) [=Pupa vetusta] KC60
                            |                |--D. grandaeva (Dawson 1880) TTE93
                            |                `--D. primaeva (Matthew 1895) TTE93
                            |         Acanthonema Grabau in Sherzer & Grabau 1909 BR05 (see below for synonymy)
                            |             `--A. newberryi (Meek 1871) TTE93 (see below for synonymy)
                            |         Ampezzanildidae BR17
                            |           |--Cassianilda Bandel 1995 NE02
                            |           |--Stuorilda Bandel 1995 NE02
                            |           `--Ampezzanilda Bandel 1994 BR05
                            |                `--*A. aialensis (Zardini 1980) [=Promathildia aialensis] BR17
                            |         Kittlidiscus Haas 1953 BR05 (see below for synonymy)
                            |           `--K. bronni (Klipstein 1845) KC60 (see below for synonymy)
                            |         Spirostylidae [Spirostylinidae] TE01
                            |           |--Spirostylus Kittl 1894 TE01
                            |           |    |--*S. subcolumnaris (Münster 1841) [=Melania subcolumnaris] TE01
                            |           |    `--S. linctus (Böhm 1895) (see below for synonymy) TE01
                            |           `--Climacina TTE93
                            |                |--C. catharinae Gemmellaro 1876 TTE93
                            |                `--C. mariae Gemmellaro 1876 TTE93
                            |         Peruneloidea BR17
                            |--Cyclophoroidea S11
                            `--Hydrogastropoda S11
                                 |--Ampullariidae S11
                                 `--Epiarthroidea [Teleobranchia, Vivipariformes, Vivipariformii] S11
                                      |--Viviparoidea S11
                                      `--Sorbeoconcha (see below for synonymy) S11
                                           |  i. s.: Globocornus Espinosa & Ortea 2010 [Globocornidae] BR17
                                           |           `--*G. darwini Espinosa & Ortea 2010 BR17
                                           |         Acteonina d’Orbigny 1850 BR05 (see below for synonymy)
                                           |           |--*A. carbonaria (de Koninck 1843) [=Chemnitzia carbonaria] BR05
                                           |           |--A. acuta (d’Orbigny 1841) [=Tornatina acuta] BR17
                                           |           `--A. obesa Stoliczka 1868 TTE93
                                           |         Orthonematoidea BR17
                                           |         Subulitina [Subulitata] GS75
                                           |           |--Subulitoidea GS75
                                           |           `--Soleniscoidea BR17
                                           |                |--Soleniscidae BR17
                                           |                |--Meekospiridae BR17
                                           |                `--Anozygidae BR17
                                           |                     |--Anozyga Hoare 1980 [Anozyginae] BR05
                                           |                     |    `--*A. bulla Hoare 1980 BR17
                                           |                     `--Tmetonema Longstaff 1912 [Tmetoneminae] BR05
                                           |                          `--*T. subsulcatum Longstaff 1912 KC60
                                           |         Pluviostilla BR17
                                           |--Cerithiimorpha S11
                                           `--Hypsogastropoda S11

Gastropoda incertae sedis:
  Spiniplatyceras FBL02
  Serpentubina Horný 1964 FBL02
  Kiviasukkaan Peel 1975 FBL02
  Pragoserpulina Frýda 1998 [Pragoserpulinidae] BR05
    `--*P. tomasi Frýda 1998 BR17
  Luoguispira Pan & Erwin 2002 PE02
    |--*L. micra Pan & Erwin 2002 PE02
    |--L. lineata Pan & Erwin 2002 PE02
    `--L. multilinea Pan & Erwin 2002 PE02
  Luoguella Pan & Erwin 2002 PE02
    |--*L. elegantula Pan & Erwin 2002 [=Gyrospira elegantula] PE02
    `--L. diana Pan & Erwin 2002 [=Gyrospira diana] PE02
  Propupa PE02
  Extendilabrum PE02
  Tetrabubispira PE02
  Kalchreuthia Gründel & Nützel 1998 GK02
  Paladilha (Lartella Cossmann 1921) GK02
  Pseudotaphrus (Pezantia Cossmann 1896) GK02
  Chlamydarion P02
  Derjuginella rufofasciata GAS03
  Erheria vincta GAS03
  Melanochlamis GAS03
    |--M. cylindrica HS01
    `--M. diomedea GAS03
  Yokoyamia ornatissima GAS03
  Epheria turrita KBC03
  Tersiella plicosa KBC03
  Ausola angustata KBC03
  Hinia cuvieri M62
  Neritula donovani M62
  Oxytrema Rafinesque 1819 B63
    `--O. silicula B96
  Hystrivasum horridum Heilprin 1886 HP04
  Benthonella tenella (Jeffreys 1869) OT04
  Chlupacispira spinosa Blodgett & Rohr 1989 FB04
  Eulepetopsis vitrea GO06
  Purkynespira Frýda & Bandel 1997 FB01
    `--P. reticulata FB01
  Streptopelma henchmani Marwick 1926 F27a
  Latirofusus Cossmann 1889 F27b
    |--*L. funiculosus F27b
    |--L. aciformis [=Fusus aciformis] F27b
    |--L. acus [=Fusus acus] F27b
    |--L. lancea [=Fusus lancea] F27b
    |--L. optatus M. & M. 1923 F27a
    `--L. spiceri (Tenison-Woods 1877) [=Fusus spiceri; incl. L. nigrofuscus Tate 1891] F27b
  Buccinulus F27a
    |--B. albus F27a
    |--B. huttoni Kirk 1882 F27a
    `--B. kirki Hutton 1873 [incl. B. gracilis Kirk 1882] F27a
  Triploca Tate 1894 F27a
    |--T. ligata F27a
    `--T. waihaoensis Marshall & Murdoch 1923 F27a
  Leucotina F27a
    |--L. casta (Adams 1853) [=Monoptgyma casta] H09
    |--L. helva Hedley 1900 H09
    `--L. pura (Adams 1855) F27a
  Sublacuna Cossmann 1899 [=Strebloramphus Tate 1898 (preoc.)] F27b
    `--*S. mirula (Tate 1898) [=*Strebloramphus mirulus] F27b
  Coptochetus asperulus [=Fusus asperulus] F27b
  Trifora Deshayes in Blainville 1828 O27b
    |--*T. perversa O27b
    |--T. callipyrga Bartsch 1907 O27b
    |--T. carpenteri Bartsch 1903 O27b
    |--T. catalinensis Bartsch 1907 O27b
    |--T. montereyensis Bartsch 1907 O27b
    |--T. pedroana Bartsch 1907 O27b
    |--T. peninsularis Bartsch 1907 O27b
    `--T. stearnsi Bartsch 1907 O27b
  Barocospira Horný 1964 FBL02
  Ibergia Blodgett & Frýda 1999 FBL02
  Crassimarginatidae BR05
    |--Yukonoconcha Frýda, Blodgett & Lenz 2002 FBL02
    |    `--*Y. pedderi Frýda, Blodgett & Lenz 2002 FBL02
    `--Crassimarginata Jhaveri 1969 BR05
         |--*C. crassicosta Jhaveri 1969 FBL02
         `--C. tenuicosta Jhaveri 1969 FBL02
  Scoliostomatidae BR05
  Levihelix pusilla Gründel 2000 GK02
  Sinuginella pygmaea HS01
  Adelphotectonica reevi HS01
  Bouchetriphora pallida HS01
  Limulatys reliquus HS01
  Pisinna HS01
    |--P. manawatawhia HS01
    |--P. olivacea HS01
    |    |--P. o. olivacea HS01
    |    `--P. o. impressa HS01
    |--P. rekohuana HS01
    |    |--P. r. rekohuana HS01
    |    `--P. r. lactorubra HS01
    |--P. semiplicata HS01
    `--P. zosterophila HS01
  Sagenotriphora ampulla HS01
  Camita rotellina (Gould 1860) [=Trochus (Monodonata) rotellinus] H08
  Turcia H09
    |--T. maculata (Brazier 1877) [=Thalotia maculata] H09
    |--T. monilifera Adams 1855 H09
    `--T. montrouzieri (Fischer 1878) [=Tectaria montrouzieri] H09
  Mecoliotia spinosa Hedley 1902 H09
  Quoyia decollata (Quoy & Gaimard 1833) [=Planaxis decollatus] H09
  Eglisia tricarinata Adams & Reeve 1840 H09
  Couthouyia aculeata Hedley 1900 H09
  Oscilla H09
    |--O. tasmanica (Ten.-Woods 1877) [=Parthenia tasmanica] H09
    `--O. terebellum [=Cingula terebellum; incl. O. exarata, Parthenia exarata] C64
  Elusa subulata (Adams 1855) [=Pyramidella subulata] H09
  Scalenostoma striatum Hedley 1900 H09
  Distortrix decipiens (Reeve 1844) [=Triton decipiens] H09
  Laimodonta conica Pease 1862 H09
  Paraplysia piperata (Smith 1884) [=Aplysia piperata] H09
  Euselenops luniceps (Cuvier 1830) [=Pleurobranchus luniceps] H09
  Placomopherus insignis Smith 1884 H09
  Adiozoptyxis Dietrich 1925 [Adiozoptyxinae, Adiozoptyxisinae] BR05
    `--*A. polymorpha (Gemmellaro 1865) [=Nerinea polymorpha] BR17
  ‘Cavolinia’ Bruguière 1791 non Abilgaard 1791 BR05
  Crenea Risso 1826 BR05
  Cypraeogemmula Vredenburg 1920 [Cypraeogemmulinae, Cypraeogemmulini] BR05
    `--*C. scabriuscula (Koenen 1890) BR17 [=Trivia scabriuscula BR17, Cypraea scabriuscula H09]
  Incrispella Tasch 1963 [Incrispellidae] BR05
    `--*I. rectotortis Tasch 1963 BR17
  Japeuthria Iredale 1918 [Japeuthriinae] BR05
    `--*J. ferrea (Reeve 1847) [=Buccinum ferreum] BR17
  Kanamarua Kuroda 1951 [Kanamariidae, Kanamaruidae] BR05
    `--*K. adonis (Dall 1919) BR17 [=Colus adonis BR17, C. (Anomalosipho) adonis O27a]
  Ladamarekia Horný 1992 [Ladamarekiidae] BR05
    `--*L. miranda Horný 1992 BR17
  Megalostominae BR05
    |--Cataulus BR05
    `--Nicida BR05
  Melanioptyxis Cossmann 1896 [Melanioptyxinae] BR05
    `--*M. altararis (Cossmann 1885) [=Nerinea altararis] BR17
  Neoptyxis Wenz 1940 [Neoptyxidae] BR05
    `--*N. astrachanica (Rebinder 1902) [=Nerinea astrachanica] BR17
  Oligoptyxis Pchelintsev 1953 [Oligoptyxidae] BR05
    `--*O. turricula Pchelintsev 1953 BR17
  Yuopisthonema Nützel in Bouchet, Rocroi et al. 2017 BR17 (see below for synonymy)
    `--*Y. undulatum (Yu 1974) [=*Opisthonema undulatum] BR17
  Palaeocyclophorus Wenz 1923 BR05
  Pentaptyxis Pchelintsev 1965 [Pentaptyxidae] BR05
    `--*P. staszycii (Zeuschner 1849) [=Acteon staszycii] BR17
  Plesioplocus Pchelintsev 1953 [Plesioplocidae] BR05
    `--*P. grandis Pchelintsev 1953 BR17
  Polyodonte Fischer 1807 BR05
  Polyodonta Megerle 1811 BR05
  Protoconchoididae [Protoconchioididae] BR05
    |--Patelliconus Horný 1961 BR17, BR05 [Patelliconidae]
    |    `--*P. primulus (Perner 1903) [=Palaeacmaea primula] BR17
    `--Protoconchoides Shaw 1962 [=Protoconchioides (l. c.)] BR05
         |--*P. hermitensis (Resser 1945) [=Scenella hermitensis] BR17
         `--P. conula TS11
  Pseudobythinella Melville 1956 BR05
  Rhytidopilus Cossmann 1895 [=Rhytidophilus (l. c.); Rhytidophilidae, Rhytidopilidae] BR05
    `--*R. humbertinus (Buvignier 1852) [=Patella humbertina] KC60
  Stylocheilus Gould 1852 [Stylocheilinae, Stylochiniae] BR05
    `--*S. lineolatus (Gould 1852) [=Aplysia lineolatus] BR17
  Transovula de Gregorio 1880 [Transovulini] BR05
    `--*T. schefferi (de Gregorio 1880) [=Ovula schefferi] BR17
  Papustyla pulcherrima USDI77
  Acilia franciscae TE01
  Bathyomphalus contortus (Linnaeus 1758) L06
  Caseolus CC06
  Leiostyla CC06
  Heterostoma Filippi 1837 CC06, LT64 [=Heterostomum Diesing 1850 LT64]
    `--H. paupercula (Lowe 1831) [incl. Steenbergia duplex] CC06
  Spirorbula CC06
    |--S. depauperata (Lowe 1831) [incl. S. latinea (Paiva 1866)] CC06
    |--S. obtecta CC06
    `--S. squalida CC06
  Plagyrona placida (Shuttleworth 1852) CC06
  Staurodon saxicola CC06
  Actinella CC06
    |--A. arcinella CC06
    |    |--A. a. arcinella CC06
    |    `--A. a. papillosa CC06
    |--A. crassiuscula CC06
    |--A. effugiens CC06
    |--A. morenensis CC06
    `--A. promontoriensis CC06
  Pseudocampylaea CC06
    |--P. lowei CC06
    `--P. portosanctana CC06
  Amphorella CC06
    |--A. cimensis CC06
    |--A. gracilis CC06
    |--A. melampoides CC06
    |--A. oryza CC06
    |--A. terebella CC06
    |--A. triticea CC06
    `--A. tuberculata CC06
  Cylichnidia ovuliformis CC06
  Lemniscia michaudi CC06
  Eufenella pupoides (Adams 1860) BD86
  Clathrofenella reticulata (Adams 1860) BD86
  Allocharopa belli SC07
  Probaicalia ZZ88
    |--P. gerassimovi ZZ88
    |--P. rammelmeyeri ZZ88
    `--P. vitimensis ZZ88
  Brotiopsis wakinoensis ZZ88
  Tulotomoides talatziensis ZZ88
  Gyrodema etheridgei F71
  Magelia bidens Tenison-Woods 1878 F71
  Odontostomia cretacea Etheridge 1907 F71
  Lindoliva spengleri Petuch 1988 P89
  Armiger crista (Linnaeus 1758) P88
  Probythinella lacustris (Baker 1928) P88
  Bulimnea megasoma (Say 1824) P88
  Japonia AA88
    |--J. ciliata (Sowerby 1843) AA88
    `--J. stephanophora (Moellendorff 1895) AA88
  Gymnentome valida H75
  Ittibittium Houbrick 1993 BC01
    `--I. turriculum (Usticke 1969) (see below for synonymy) BC01
  Torrella Henderson & Bartsch 1920 BC01
    `--*T. torreiana (Gundlach ex Arango y Molina 1878) [=Ctenopoma torreianum] BC01
  Pseudotorinia retifera (Dall 1892) [incl. Heliacus crystallina Usticke 1969] BC01
  Bullata Jousseaume 1875 BC01
    |--B. matthewsi (van Mol & Tursch 1967) [=Marginella (Prunum) matthewsi] BC01
    `--B. ovuliformis WE63
  Boonea impressa (Say 1822) [incl. Odostomia (Menestho) beauforti Jacot 1921] BC01
  Fargoa bushiana (Bartsch 1909) [incl. Odostomia charlottae Usticke 1969] BC01
  Mesophora Laseron 1958 BC01
    `--M. novem (Usticke 1969) [=Triphora novem] BC01
  Eutriphora bermudensis (Bartsch 1911) [incl. Triphora turrissimilis Usticke 1969] BC01
  Aroapyrgus Baker 1931 BC01
    `--A. dubiosus (Adams 1852) [=Truncatella dubiosa] BC01
  Chippewaella patellitheca W01
  Moerkeia Böhm 1895 NE02
  Greggelix indigena C90
  Torquilla frumentum D56
  Sinopupoides hubeiensis NG13
  Bulgarica thessalonica (Olivier 1801) O03
  Clavilithes rugosus C60
  Partulida spiralis C60
  Ampullella bulimoides C60
  Cepatia cepacea C60
  Palaeocyclotus exaratus C60
  Pseudorhytidopilus Cox in Knight, Cox et al. 1960 KC60
    `--*P. lennieri Cox in Knight, Cox et al. 1960 (see below for synonymy) KC60
  Atlantobellerophon Trechmann 1930 KC60
    `--*A. zealandicus Trechmann 1930 KC60
  Burdikinia Knight 1937 [=Polyamma Etheridge 1917 non Kriechbaumer 1894] KC60
    `--*B. burdikiensis (Etheridge 1917) [=*Polyamma burdikiensis] KC60
  Cinctaspira Powell 1933 KC60
    `--*C. conica Powell 1933 KC60
  ‘Conchula’ Steininger 1849 non Herrmannsen 1847 (n. d.) KC60
    `--*C. cylindracea Steininger 1849 (n. d.) KC60
  ‘Geinitzia’ Dietz 1911 nec Gemmellaro 1892 nec Handlirsch 1906 KC60
    `--*G. carinata Dietz 1911 KC60
  Kebina Vologdin 1955 KC60
    `--*K. pulchra Vologdin 1955 KC60
  Ozarkina Ulrich & Bridge 1931 [=Ozarkispira Ulrich & Bridge 1931 non Walcott 1924] KC60
    `--*O. typica (Ulrich & Bridge 1931) [=*Ozarkispira typica] KC60
  Ozarkocanus Heller 1956 KC60
    `--*O. prearcuatus Heller 1956 KC60
  Pondia Oder 1932 KC60
    `--*P. powelli Oder 1932 KC60
  Pythmenema Lamont & Gilbert 1945 KC60
    `--*P. praenantium (Phillips 1848) [=Euomphalus praenantius] KC60
  Trochotremaria Ryckholt 1860 KC60
  Umbotrochus Perner 1903 [=Umbonitrochus Cossmann 1918] KC60
    `--*U. aspersus Perner 1903 KC60
  Acevina Rusconi 1952 KC60
    `--*A. cuyunchensis (Rusconi 1952) [=Helcionella (*Acevina) cuyunchensis] KC60
  Odontosagda V18
    |--O. abbotti Vanatta 1918 V18
    |--O. blandi V18
    `--O. hilli V18
  Aplysiopsis smithi (Marcus 1961) B77
  Volvaria ficoides H86
  Cassidaria H86
    |--C. senex [=Struthiolaria senex] H86
    `--C. sulcata H86
  Sorapisella Bandel 1993 B00
  Triadoskenea Bandel 1993 B00
    `--T. ampezzana Bandel 1993 B02
  Rolandomphalus Schwardt 1992 B00
  Macrophragmus tokyoensis K10
  Fascioplex neozelanica K95
  Pseudoaclisina Yoo 1994 B02
    |--*P. turgida [=Aclisina turgida] B02
    `--P. microspirulata B02
  Palaeoalvania Yoo 1994 B02
    `--*P. talenti (Yoo 1994) [=Aclisina talenti] B02
  Sinistriconcha Heidelberger & Bandel 1999 B02
    |--*S. lierli Heidelberger & Bandel 1999 B02
    `--S. minutissima (Yoo 1988) B02
  Iberus E99
    |--I. dupuydelomei E99
    `--I. marmoratus C84
  Scabrella Sacco 1890 H22
    `--*S. scabra [=Columbella scabra] H22
  Pseudaulicina Chavan 1948 BR17
    `--*P. musicalis (Lamarck 1803) [=Voluta musicalis, Volutilithes musicalis] BR17
  Kimina Yoo 1994 B02
    |--*K. globosa Yoo 1994 B02
    |--K. australis Yoo 1994 B02
    |--K. minor Yoo 1994 B02
    `--K. yooi Frýda & Bandel 1997 B02
  Harperispira Bandel 2002 BR17
  Kiringella Rozov 1968 W01, RJ76
    |--K. kultavasaensis RJ76
    `--K. pyramidalis W01
  Palaeoniso brazieri SS16
  Burdekina JB12
  Natria JB12
  Peraubium JB12
  Stusakia pulchra F12
  Mesolanistes V-RR93
    |--M. bajanohongorensis V-RR93
    |--M. debilicostata V-RR93
    `--M. shuwalovi V-RR93
  Severynella trochlearis Hynda 1983 D94
  Lacunina Kittl 1899 TTE93
  Bullopsis Conrad 1858 TTE93
  Serradonta Okutani, Tsuchida & Fujikara 1992 AJH07
  Pleuroprocta silvatica PB27
  Trichotoxon PB27
    |--T. maculatum PB27
    |    |--T. m. maculatum PB27
    |    `--T. m. perforatum PB27
    |--T. pardus PB27
    `--T. ruwenzoriense PB27
  Bocageia PB27
    |--B. germaini PB27
    |--B. interioris PB27
    |--B. liocephala PB27
    `--B. runssorina PB27
  Africarion PB27
    |--A. copiosus PB27
    |--A. spatiosus PB27
    `--A. tenebrosus PB27
  Leucochroopsis E99
    |--L. apicalis E99
    |--L. dufrenoyi E99
    |--L. kleini E99
    |--L. leptoloma E99
    |--L. pisum E99
    `--L. valentinensis E99
         |--L. v. valentinensis E99
         `--L. v. sermenazensis E99
  Wenzia ramondi E99
  Megalotachea E99
    |--M. christoli E99
    |--M. delphinensis E99
    |    |--M. d. delphinensis E99
    |    `--M. d. tersannensis E99
    |--M. gualinoi E99
    `--M. turonensis E99
  Tudorella E99
    |--T. baudoni E99
    `--T. draparnaudi E99
         |--T. d. draparnaudi E99
         `--T. d. minor E99
  Pseudoleacina (Paraglandina) E99
    |--P. (P.) christoliana E99
    `--P. (P.) oligostropha E99
  Pseudochloritis E99
    |--P. incrassatus E99
    `--P. mollonensis E99
  Galactochilus E99
    |--G. leobersdorfensis E99
    `--G. locardi E99
  Negulus E99
    |--N. bleicheri E99
    |--N. raricostatus E99
    |--N. suturalis E99
    |    |--N. s. suturalis E99
    |    `--N. s. gracilis E99
    |--N. truci E99
    `--N. villafranchianus E99
  Eostrobilops E99
    |--E. aloisii E99
    |--E. fischeri E99
    `--E. patuliformis E99
  Macrozonites E99
    |--M. casteti E99
    `--M. collongeoni E99
  Fortuna seringi E99
  Truciella ballesioi E99
  Protodrepanostoma E99
    |--P. bernardii E99
    |--P. nordsiecki E99
    `--P. plioauriculatum E99
  Monoptychia monoptyx E99
  Serruluna anodon E99
  Cladopoda H79
    |--C. directa H79
    `--C. monilifera H79
  Carocolla bidentata G40
  Clisospiroidea F12
  Bellerophontacea [Belleromorpha, Bellerophontina, Fissidorsata, Planspiralia, Prorhipidoglossa] KC60
    |  i. s.: Patellostium Waagen 1880 (n. d.) KC60
    |           `--*P. macrostoma (Roemer 1844) [=Bellerophon macrostoma] KC60
    |         Euphemitella Tasch 1953 (n. d.) KC60
    |           `--*E. emrichi Tasch 1953 KC60
    |--Bellerophontoidea BR17
    `--Isospira Koken 1897 KC60 [Isospiridae, Isospiroidea BR05]
         `--*I. bucanioides Koken 1897 BR17
  Archinacelloidea GS75
  Utriculopsis globosa (Lovén 1846) (see below for synonymy) N79
  Patelloidea Tasch 1961 T61
    `--*P. limnensis Tasch 1961 T61
  Permoplanorboidea Tasch 1961 T61
    `--*P. primus Tasch 1961 T61
  Rugoplanorboidella Tasch 1961 T61
    `--*R. sedgwickii Tasch 1961 T61
  Wellingtonia Tasch 1961 T61
    `--*W. producta Tasch 1961 T61
  Tretospira divesuralica G31
  Sosiolites vassilievkensis G31
  Polyphemopsis G31
    |--P. inornata G31
    `--P. nitidulum G31
  Isognomostoma isognomostoma J63
  Platyla polita NB19
    |--P. p. polita NB19
    `--P. p. regina (Subai 1977) NB19
  Paleobulimulus eocenicus Parodiz 1949 P63
  Tugurium MP65
    |--T. (Tugurium) caribaeum (Petit de la Saussaye 1856) [=Xenophora caribaea] MP65
    `--T. longleyi MP65
  Sigatica semisulcata (Gray in Beechey 1839) [=Natica semisulcata] MP65
  Hemitrochus varians J65
  Plagioptycha J65
    |--P. gregoriana J65
    `--P. macrodon J65
         |--P. m. macrodon J65
         `--P. m. utowana J65

Acanthonema Grabau in Sherzer & Grabau 1909 BR05 [Acanthonematidae BR17, Acanthonematinae]

Acanthonema newberryi (Meek 1871) TTE93 [=Orthonema newberryi KC60; incl. *A. holopiforme Grabau 1909 KC60, BR17]

Acteonina d’Orbigny 1850 BR05 [=Actaeonina (l. c.) BR05; Acteoninidae, Acteonininae, Acteoninoidea BR17]

Apogastropoda [Anaclodonta, Architectonicoida, Chalazaeata, Ctenobranchia, Davisianoidei, Dioecia, Discopoda, Ectobranchia, Entobranchia, Entomotaeniata, Gymnoglossa, Heterogastropoda, Heterostropha, Holonephridia, Homoestropha, Hydrocenoidei, Iniophthalma, Loxonematacea, Monopleurobranchia, Monotocardia, Murchisoniata, Musioglossata, Oligopteria, Orbacea, Paludinimorpha, Pectinibranchia, Pectinibranchiata, Peristomacea, Peristomania, Peristomidae, Pneumonobranchiata, Potamophila, Proboscidifera, Procaenogastropoda, Ptenobranchiata, Pyramidellida, Pyramidellimorpha, Pyramidelliones, Pyramidelloida, Rissoellina, Solenisciformes, Spartaebranchia, Subulitiformes, Taenioglossa, Trachelobranchia, Volumina] S11

Caenogastropoda [Architaenioglossa, Architaenioglossae, Basiophthalma, Cyclophoracea, Cyclophoroidei, Fusiformia, Globularioidei, Mesogastropoda, Mesogastropodida, Opisthophthalma, Palaeocyclophoridae, Procyclophoridae, Procyclophoroidea, Rostrifera, Teleogeophila] S11

Dendropupa Owen 1859 BR17 [incl. Strophella Dawson 1895 KC60, Strophites Dawson 1880 non Deshayes 1832 KC60; Dendropupidae]

Gastropoda [Abranchiata, Alata, Anentomostomata, Anisobranchia, Anisopleura, Aponotoneura, Apterygia, Archaeogastropoda, Archaeoprosobranchia, Arthrocochlides, Asiphonobranchia, Asiphonata, Aspidobranchia, Auxogastropoda, Chiastoneura, Chismobranchiata, Clypeaceae, Cocculinacea, Cocculiniformia, Cochliostraca, Conivalvia, Cricostomata, Ctenobranchiata, Cyclobranchia, Dicoeca, Dicranobranchia, Diotocardia, Eogastropoda, Fissobranchia, Fissuracea, Fornices, Galeroconcha, Gasteropoda, Gasteropodophora, Gasterozoa, Gastraeopoda, Gastropodea, Goniostomata, Gonyostomata, Gymnopoda, Helcionellina, Hemicyclostoma, Holostomata, Hyperstrophina, Lepadophora, Lepetellina, Limaces, Neurobranchia, Operculata, Orthogastropoda, Otidea, Paracephalophora, Paragastropoda, Patellina, Peristomatacea, Peristomatidae, Platyceratacea, Podophthalma, Prosobranchia, Prosobranchiata, Pselaphocephala, Raphidoglossa, Rhipidoglossa, Riphidoglossa, Scutiformia, Sinuata, Sinuopeoidei, Solenostomata, Streptoneura, Syncephala, Tectipeda, Triforidoidei, Trochacea, Trochina, Trochomorpha, Trochomorphi, Turbinimorpha, Xenophoroidei]

Ittibittium turriculum (Usticke 1969) [=Bittium varium f. turricula, Alabina turricula, B. turriculum, Cerithiodes turricula] BC01

Kittlidiscus Haas 1953 BR05 [=Schizodiscus Kittl 1891 non Hall & Clarke 1888 KC60; Kittlidiscidae BR17]

*Kittlidiscus bronni (Klipstein 1845) KC60 [=Pleurotomaria bronni KC60, Schizodiscus bronni KC60; incl. P. plana Klipstein 1845 non Münster 1844 KC60, *Kittlidiscus planus BR17, *Schizodiscus planus BR17]

*Pseudorhytidopilus lennieri Cox in Knight, Cox et al. 1960 [incl. Helcion castellana Lennier 1868 non Patella castellana Thurmann & Étallon 1861] KC60

Sorbeoconcha [Anandria, Aulobranchiata, Brevicommisurata, Eriophthalma, Neotaenioglossa, Omalaxoidea, Palaeocaenogastropoda, Siphonobranchei, Siphonobranchia, Siphonobranchiata, Tubispirantia] S11

Spirostylus linctus (Böhm 1895) [=Omphaloptycha lincta; incl. O. porrecta Böhm 1895] TE01

Utriculopsis globosa (Lovén 1846) [=Amphisphyra globosa, Utriculus globosus; incl. Utriculopsis vitrea Sars 1870] N79

Yuopisthonema Nützel in Bouchet, Rocroi et al. 2017 BR17 [=Opisthonema Yu 1974 non Gill 1862 BR05; Opisthonematidae, Yuopisthonematidae]

*Type species of generic name indicated

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Last updated: 23 October 2021.

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