Common river snail Viviparus viviparus, copyright Roy Anderson.

Belongs within: Caenogastropoda.

The Viviparoidea are an entirely freshwater group of snails, including the living Viviparidae and the tentatively assigned Late Jurassic to Pliocene Pliopholygidae. Members of this group have thick, globose shells, often with a spiral banding pattern. Viviparidae feed via muco-ciliary filtering, as did at least some Pliopholygidae (Gray 1988).

<==Viviparoidea [Vivipariacea, Viviparoidea]
    |--Pliopholygidae BR05
    |    |--Pliopholyx Yen 1944 BR05
    |    |--Scalez G88
    |    `--Reesidella G88
    |         `--‘Amnicola’ gilloides [incl. A. jurassica] G88
    `--Viviparidae [Palaeocyclophoridae] BR05
         |  i. s.: Lioplacodes Meek & Hayden 1864 ZZ88
         |           |--L. convexiculus Yen 1946 ZZ88
         |           `--L. cholnokyi ZZ88
         |         Neothauma Smith 1880 BC01
         |           `--*N. tanganyicense Smith 1880 BC01
         |         Solemella Bandel 2002 BR05
         |         Notopala S11
         |           |--N. ampullaroides (Reeve 1863) S11
         |           `--N. essingtonensis (Frauenfeld 1862) S11
         |         Larina strangei (Adams 1854) S11
         |         Tulotoma G88
         |--Lioplacinae [Lioplaces, Lioplacidae] BR05
         |    |--Lioplax Troschel 1857 BR05
         |    |    `--L. cyclostomaformis (Lea 1841) [incl. Paludina elliotti Lea 1858] BC01
         |    `--Campeloma Rafinesque 1819 [Campelomatinae, Campelominae] BR05
         |         |--C. decisum (Say 1816) P88
         |         `--C. rufini C60
         |--Bellamyinae BR05
         |    |--Amuropaludina Moskvicheva 1979 [Amuropaludinidae] BR05
         |    `--Bellamya Jousseaume 1886 BR05
         |         |--B. clavilithiformis (Grabau 1923) (see below for synonymy) YZ83
         |         |    |--B. c. clavilithiformis ZZ88
         |         |    `--B. c. conradiformis ZZ88
         |         `--B. unicolor G91
         `--Viviparinae BR05
              |--Kosovia Zilch 1960 [Kosoviinae] BR05
              |--Paludina FĂ©russac 1812 [Paludinae, Paludinidae, Paludinoidea] BR05
              |    |--P. angularis [=Nerita angularis] TC89
              |    |--P. anthracina Mighels 1845 J49
              |    |--P. bengalensis [incl. P. digona Blanford 1869, P. doliaris] TC89
              |    |--P. dissimilis [=Nerita dissimilis; incl. P. remoissi] TC89
              |    `--P. porrecta Mighels 1845 J49
              `--Viviparus Montfort 1810 BR05
                   |--V. viviparus (Linnaeus 1758) L06 (see below for synonymy)
                   |--V. acerosus (Buirguignat 1862) S11
                   |--V. albascopularis Etheridge 1902 F71
                   |--V. anhuiensis ZZ88
                   |--V. ater D37
                   |--V. contectus (Millet 1813) L06
                   |--V. duboisiana CS77
                   |--V. garwoodi G88
                   |--V. georgianus (Lea 1834) B97
                   |--V. ionicus White 1877 W77
                   |--V. matsumotoi Suzuki 1943 [=V. (Bellamya) matsumotoi] YZ83
                   |--V. murrayensis K79
                   |--V. omogoensis Kobayashi & Suzuki 1937 (see below for synonymy) YZ83
                   |--V. pyramidalis D37
                   `--V. trochiformis (Meek & Hayden 1856) [=Paludina trochiformis] W77

Bellamya clavilithiformis (Grabau 1923) [=Campeloma clavilithiformis, Viviparus (Bellamya) clavilithiformis] YZ83

Viviparus omogoensis Kobayashi & Suzuki 1937 [=V. (Sinotaia) omogoensis; incl. V. (S.) keisyoensis Suzuki 1943] YZ83

Viviparus viviparus (Linnaeus 1758) L06 [=Helix vivipara KC60, Paludina vivipara D56; incl. *Viviparus fluviorum Montfort 1810 KC60]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[B97] Brown, K. M. 1997. Temporal and spatial patterns of abundance in the gastropod assemblage of a macrophyte bed. American Malacological Bulletin 14 (1): 27–33.

[C60] Cox, L. R. 1960. Gastropoda: general characteristics of Gastropoda. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia pp. I84–I169. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[D56] Dawes, B. 1956. The Trematoda with special reference to British and other European forms. University Press: Cambridge.

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[G91] Groves, C. P. 1991. A Theory of Human and Primate Evolution, revised ed. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

[J49] Johnson, R. I. 1949. Jesse Wedgwood Mighels with a bibliography and a catalogue of his species. Occasional Papers on Mollusks 1 (14): 213–231.

[K79] Kauffman, E. G. 1979. Cretaceous. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A418–A487. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[KC60] Knight, J. B., L. R. Cox, A. M. Keen, R. L. Batten, E. L. Yochelson & R. Robertson. 1960. Gastropoda: systematic descriptions. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia pp. I169–I331. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[L06] Lewin, I. 2006. The gastropod communities in the lowland rivers of agricultural areas—their biodiversity and bioindicative value in the Ciechanowska Upland, central Poland. Malacologia 49 (1): 7–23.

[P88] Pip, E. 1988. Niche congruency of freshwater gastropods in central North America with respect to six water chemistry parameters. Nautilus 102 (2): 65–72.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[TC89] Tapparone Canefri, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XVIII.—Molluschi terrestri e d’acqua dolce. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 295–359.

[W77] White, C. A. 1877. Report upon the invertebrate fossils collected in portions of Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, by parties of the expeditions of 1871, 1872, 1873, and 1874. U.S. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (1): 1–219, pls 1–21.

[YZ83] Yu W. & Zhu X.-G. 1983. Some Late Mesozoic gastropods from eastern Heilongjiang. In: Fossils from the Middle-Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous in Eastern Heilongjiang Province, China pp. 87–99. Heilongjiang Science and Technology Publishing House.

[ZZ88] Zhu G.-X. & Zhou Y.-Z. 1988. Fresh-water molluscan fauna across Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary in southeast Jilin. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 27 (6): 713–721.

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