Coyote Canis latrans, photographed by Dawn Beattie.

Belongs within: Canidae.

The genus Canis includes the true dogs, wolves and jackals; they are relatively large and often highly social canids. Members of this genus are found in Eurasia, Africa and North America, with the dingo Canis dingo also prehistorically introduced to Australia. The domestic dog Canis familiaris and dingo C. dingo are both derivatives of the grey wolf C. lupus modified by association with humans, and are often treated as subspecies of the latter.

See also: Wolf and wolf and wolf and wolf and cub; The wolf in time.

    |--C. adustus Mo84
    |--C. africanus S78
    |--C. antiquus S78
    |--C. armbrusteri V91
    |--C. atrox S78
    |--C. aureus Mo84 [incl. C. syriacus T66]
    |--C. brevirostris S78
    |--C. davisi V91
    |--C. dingo [incl. C. hallstromi] Ma84
    |--C. dingoides Matschie 1915 R64
    |--C. dirus C77
    |--C. etruscus ME05
    |--C. familiaris R64
    |    |--C. f. familiaris R64
    |    `--C. f. novaehollandiae Voigt 1831 R64
    |--C. gallaensis S78
    |--C. gezi V91
    |--C. gregarius C77
    |--C. hartshornianus C77
    |--C. haydenii C77
    |--C. hodophilax Temminck 1839 I92
    |--C. lamperti S78
    |--C. latrans M06
    |    |--C. l. latrans MB86
    |    |--C. l. cagottis G69
    |    |--C. l. frustror GSD74
    |    |--C. l. goldmani G69
    |    |--C. l. impavidus Allen 1903 MB86
    |    |--C. l. mearnsi Merriam 1897 MB86
    |    `--C. l. thamnos Jackson 1949 B75
    |--C. lepophagus V91
    |--C. lippincottianus C77
    |--C. lupus Linnaeus 1758 K92 [incl. C. saevus Leidy 1869 C77]
    |    |--C. l. lupus H84
    |    |--C. l. albus H84
    |    |--C. l. baileyi Nelson & Goldman 1929 MB86
    |    |--C. l. campestris H84
    |    |--C. l. hattai Kishida 1931 I92
    |    |--C. l. irremotus USDI77
    |    |--C. l. monstrabilis USDI77
    |    |--C. l. mosbachensis ME05
    |    |--C. l. nubilus Say in James 1823 B75
    |    |--C. l. pallipes Ma84
    |    `--C. l. tundarum H84
    |--C. lycaon M06 [=C. lupus lycaon H84]
    |--C. macdonnellensis Matschie 1915 R64
    |--C. mesomelas Mo84
    |--C. nehringi V91
    |--C. niger B75
    |    |--C. n. niger B75
    |    `--C. n. gregoryi Goldman 1937 B75
    |--C. osorum C77
    |--C. priscolatrans V91
    |--C. rufus H84
    |--C. simensis Mo84
    |    |--C. s. simensis BP87
    |    `--C. s. citernii BP87
    |--C. temerarius C77
    |--C. terblanchei S78
    |--C. ursinus Cope 1875 C77
    |--C. vafer C77
    `--C. wheelerianus Cope 1876 C77

Inorganic: Canis familiaris protominilorientalis Okamura 1987 O87
           Canis lupus protominilorientalis Okamura 1987 O87

Nomen rejiciendum: Canis antarcticus Kerr 1792 R64

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B75] Bowles, J. B. 1975. Distribution and biogeography of mammals of Iowa. Special Publications, The Museum, Texas Tech University 9: 1–184.

[BP87] Burton, J. A., & B. Pearson. 1987. Collins Guide to the Rare Mammals of the World. Collins: London.

[C77] Cope, E. D. 1877. Report upon the extinct Vertebrata obtained in New Mexico by parties of the expedition of 1874. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (2): i–iv, 1–370.

[GSD74] Gipson, P. S., J. A. Sealander & J. E. Dunn. 1974. The taxonomic status of wild Canis in Arkansas. Systematic Zoology 23 (1): 1–11.

[G69] Goodwin, G. G. 1969. Mammals from the State of Oaxaca, Mexico, in the American Museum of Natural History. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 141 (1): 1–269, 40 pls.

[H84] Harrington, F. H. 1984. Wolves. In: Macdonald, D. (ed.) All the World’s Animals: Carnivores pp. 50–51. Torstar Books Inc.: New York.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[K92] Klompen, J. S. H. 1992. Phylogenetic relationships in the mite family Sarcoptidae (Acari: Astigmata). Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 180: i–vi, 1–154.

[Ma84] Macdonald, D. W. 1984. Other dogs. In: Macdonald, D. (ed.) All the World’s Animals: Carnivores pp. 76–77. Torstar Books Inc.: New York.

[MB86] Matson, J. O., & R. H. Baker. 1986. Mammals of Zacatecas. Special Publications, Museum of Texas Tech University 24: 1–88.

[M06] Mech, L. D. 2006. Age-related body mass and reproductive measurements of gray wolves in Minnesota. Journal of Mammalogy 87 (1): 80–84.

[Mo84] Moehlman, P. D. 1984. Jackals. In: Macdonald, D. (ed.) All the World’s Animals: Carnivores pp. 56–59. Torstar Books Inc.: New York.

[ME05] Moullé, P.-E., A. Echassoux, F. Lacombat, E. Desclaux & S. Bailon. 2005. L’environnement animal des premiers habitants de l’Europe méditerranéenne: les grands mammifères contemporains de l’homme du Vallonnet, données taxonomiques et biostratigraphiques pour la deuxième moitie du Pléistocène inférieur. BAR International Series 1364: 105–113.

[O87] Okamura, C. 1987. New facts: Homo and all Vertebrata were born simultaneously in the former Paleozoic in Japan. Original Report of the Okamura Fossil Laboratory 15: 347–573.

[R64] Ride, W. D. L. 1964. A list of mammals described from Australia between the years 1933 and 1963 (comprising newly proposed names and additions to the Australian faunal list). Australian Mammal Society Bulletin 7 (Suppl.): 1–15.

[S78] Savage, R. J. G. 1978. Carnivora. In: Maglio, V. J., & H. B. S. Cooke (eds) Evolution of African Mammals pp. 249–267. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[T66] Tristram, H. B. 1866. Report on the mammals of Palestine. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 84–93.

[USDI77] USDI (United States Department of the Interior). 1977. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants—republication of list of species. Federal Register 42: 36420–36431.

[V91] Valkenburgh, B. van. 1991. Iterative evolution of hypercarnivory in canids (Mammalia: Carnivora): evolutionary interactions among sympatric predators. Paleobiology 17 (4): 340–362.

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