Apoditrysia

Brown plume moth Platyptilia falcatalis, photographed by Donald Hobern.


Belongs within: Ditrysia.
Contains: Tortricidae, Copromorphoidea, Macrolepidoptera, Pyralidae, Sesioidea, Cossoidea, Zygaenidae, Limacodidae.

The Apoditrysia is a large clade of Lepidoptera characterised by the presence of two specialised apodemes with short, large bases on the abdominal sternum. Major lineages within the Apoditrysia include the Obtectomera, members of which have pupae with abdominal segments 1–4 immobile and without a dorsal row of spines on the tergites (Grimaldi & Engel 2005).

<==Apoditrysia [Bombycites, Pyralites]
    |--Galacticoidea GE05
    |--Urodidae GE05
    |--Schreckensteinoidea GE05
    |--Epermeniidae GE05
    |--Choreutidae GE05
    |    |--Choreutis bjerkandrella P27
    |    `--Asterivora AY04
    |--Tortricoidea KIR02
    |    |--Phaloniidae DS73
    |    `--Tortricidae GE05
    |--+--Alucita [Alucitidae] GE05
    |  |    `--A. monospilalis P27
    |  `--Pterophoridae [Pterophoroidea] GE05
    |       |--Trichoptilus adelphodes P27
    |       |--Stenoptilia lithoxesta P27
    |       |--Sphenarches caffer P27
    |       |--Exelastis atomosa B88
    |       |--Cosmoclostis aglaodesma ZS10
    |       `--Platyptilia P27
    |            |--P. aeolodes L27
    |            `--P. falcatalis P27
    |--Obtectomera GE05
    |    |--Copromorphoidea GE05
    |    |--Macrolepidoptera GE05
    |    |--Whalleyaniidae GE05
    |    |--Immiidae GE05
    |    |--Pyraloidea GE05
    |    |    |--Pyralidae GE05
    |    |    |--Tineodidae DS73
    |    |    |--Oxychirotidae DS73
    |    |    `--Hyblaea IR05 [Hyblaeidae DS73]
    |    |         `--H. pleura IR05
    |    `--Thyrididae [Thyridoidea] GE05
    |         |--Striglina scitaria P27
    |         |--Morova subfasciata P27
    |         |--Oxycophina theorina P27
    |         |--Addaea subtessellata P27
    |         `--Meskea dyspteraria P27
    `--+--Sesioidea GE05
       |--Cossoidea GE05
       `--Zygaenoidea GE05
            |--Heterogynidae DS73
            |--Chrysopolomidae DS73
            |--Zygaenidae GE05
            |--Dalceridae GE05
            |--Limacodidae GE05
            |--Cyclotorna A71 [Cyclotornidae GE05]
            |    `--C. monocentra A71
            |--Lacturidae GE05
            |    |--Lactura egregiella P27
            |    `--Eustixis leucophthalma [=Lactura leucophthalma] ZS10
            |--Megalopygidae DS73
            |    |--Lagoa crispata P27
            |    `--Megalopyge lanata (Cramer 1780) [incl. Rhabdosia tharops (Stoll 1781)] NO08
            `--Epipyropidae GE05
                 |--Heteropsyche schawerdae A71
                 `--Fulgoraecia A71
                      |--F. cerolestes A71
                      `--F. eurybrachydis A71

Apoditrysia incertae sedis:
  Hymenia [Asopidae] WM66
    `--H. recurvalis WM66
  Oligostigma [Hypocampidae] WM66
    `--O. orbitalis WM66
  Spilomelidae WM66
    |--Lepyrodes geometralis WM66
    `--Zebronia WM66
         |--Z. abdicalis WM66
         `--Z. perspicualis WM66
  Botys [Botydae] WM66
    |--B. admensalis WM66
    |--B. damasalis [incl. B. adhaesalis] WM66
    |--B. damoalis WM66
    |--B. illisalis WM66
    |--B. sellalis WM66
    `--B. thyasalis WM66

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[AY04] Austin, A. D., D. K. Yeates, G. Cassis, M. J. Fletcher, J. La Salle, J. F. Lawrence, P. B. McQuillan, L. A. Mound, D. J. Bickel, P. J. Gullan, D. F. Hales & G. S. Taylor. 2004. Insects 'Down Under' - diversity, endemism and evolution of the Australian insect fauna: examples from select orders. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 216-234.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[DS73] Dickens, M., & E. Storey. 1973. The World of Moths. Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc.: New York.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[IR05] Idris, A. B., & A. Rizki. 2005. Notes on the tribe Ephialtini (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae) of Malaysia. Serangga 10 (1-2): 111-126.

[KIR02] Kozlov, M. V., V. D. Ivanov & A. P. Rasnitsyn. 2002. Order Lepidoptera Linné, 1758. The butterflies and moths (=Papilionida Laicharting, 1781). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 220-227. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[L27] Lindsay, S. 1927. A list of the Lepidoptera of Deans Bush, Riccarton, Canterbury. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 693-696.

[NO08] Nässig, W. A., & R. G. Oberprieler. 2008. An annotated catalogue of the genera of Eupterotidae (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Bombycoidea). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (1): 53-80.

[P27] Philpott, A. 1927. The maxillae in the Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 721-746.

[WM66] Wallace, A. R., & F. Moore. 1866. List of lepidopterous insects collected at Takow, Formosa, by Mr. R. Swinhoe. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 355-365.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P. & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

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