Apoditrysia

Codling moth Cydia pomonella, copyright Tony Morris.


Belongs within: Ditrysia.
Contains: Phalaena, Archipini, Tortrix, Eucosmini, Sesioidea, Cossoidea, Zygaenoidea, Alucitoidea, Pterophoridae, Copromorphoidea, Macrolepidoptera, Thyrididae, Pyraloidea.

The Apoditrysia is a large clade of Lepidoptera characterised by the presence of two specialised apodemes with short, large bases on the abdominal sternum. Major lineages within the Apoditrysia include the Obtectomera, members of which have pupae with abdominal segments 1–4 immobile and without a dorsal row of spines on the tergites (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). The Tortricidae, leafrollers, are small moths whose vernacular name comes from the habit of larvae of many species of joining together the leaves of their food plant with silk.

<==Apoditrysia [Phalaenites, Pyralites, Tortrices] GE05
    |  i. s.: Oligostigma [Hypocampidae] WM66
    |           `--O. orbitalis WM66
    |         Spilomelidae WM66
    |           |--Lepyrodes geometralis WM66
    |           `--Zebronia WM66
    |                |--Z. abdicalis WM66
    |                `--Z. perspicualis WM66
    |         Phalaena L02
    |--Urodidae [Urodoidea] GE05
    |--Schrecksteiniidae [Schreckensteinoidea] GE05
    |--Tortricidae [Tortricoidea] GE05
    |    |  i. s.: Pandemis V09
    |    |           |--P. corylana V09
    |    |           `--P. pyrusana MC02
    |    |         Tortricites skalskii Z02
    |    |         Capua M83
    |    |           |--C. intractana P27
    |    |           |--C. plagiatana L27
    |    |           `--C. semiferana M83
    |    |         Sperchia intractana M83
    |    |         Cacoecia A71
    |    |           |--C. australana P27
    |    |           |--C. polygraphana P27
    |    |           `--C. rosana A71
    |    |         Cnephasia J-PWM04
    |    |           |--C. incessana L27
    |    |           |--C. jactatana J-PWM04
    |    |           |--C. latomana M27
    |    |           |--C. melanophaea Meyrick 1927 M27
    |    |           `--C. rupicolana P27
    |    |         Ctenopseustis obliquana WFS04
    |    |         Choristoneura MC02
    |    |           |--C. fumiferana MC02
    |    |           `--C. rosaceana MC02
    |    |         Thaumatotibia KN03
    |    |         Lasiognatha leveri KN03
    |    |         Procalyptis parooptera KN03
    |    |         Centroxena KN03
    |    |         Catamacta M27
    |    |           |--C. calligypsa M27
    |    |           |--C. gavisana P27
    |    |           `--C. lotinana L27
    |    |         Epichorista M27
    |    |           |--E. emphanes P27
    |    |           |--E. siriana M27
    |    |           `--E. triorthota Meyrick 1927 M27
    |    |         Harmologa M27
    |    |           |--H. amplexana P27
    |    |           `--H. columella Meyrick 1927 M27
    |    |         Gelophaula siraea P27
    |    |         Epalxiphora axenana P27
    |    |         Pyrgotis pyramidias P27
    |    |         Scolioplecta comptana P27
    |    |          Argyrotaenia GE05
    |    |         Peraglyphis AY04
    |    |         Syllomatia AY04
    |    |         Ericodesma AY04
    |    |         Agapeta V09
    |    |           |--A. hamana [=Exuanthis hamana] V09
    |    |           `--A. zoegana CLB99
    |    |         Ophiorrhabda phaeosigma ZS10
    |    |         Zeiraphera diniana G84
    |    |         Rhyacionia pinicolana V09
    |    |         Proeulia Clarke 1962 C62
    |    |           |--*P. robinsoni (Aurivillius in Skottsberg 1922) [=Eulia robinsoni] C62
    |    |           `--P. griseiceps (Aurivillius in Skottsberg 1922) [=Eulia griseiceps] C62
    |    |         Eulia pinitubana C62, G17
    |    |         Ecdytolopha G10
    |    |         Tanychaeta NC91
    |    |         Petrova resinella BJ02
    |    |         Isochorista cosmota Meyrick 1887 M87
    |    |--Chlidanotinae NC91
    |    |    |--Polyorthini NC91
    |    |    |--Hilarographini NC91
    |    |    `--Trymalitis [Chlidanotini] NC91
    |    |         `--T. optima NC91
    |    |--Tortricinae NC91
    |    |    |  i. s.: Palaeotoma styphelana C70
    |    |    |         Anisogona simana C70
    |    |    |         Acropolitis rudisana C70
    |    |    |--Archipini NC91
    |    |    |--Phricanthes [Phricanthini] NC91
    |    |    |    `--P. asperana NC91
    |    |    |--Cochylini [Cochylidae, Phaloniidae] NC91
    |    |    |    |--Clysiana acrographa C70
    |    |    |    `--Heliocosma incongruana C70
    |    |    |--Proselena [Schoenotenini] NC91
    |    |    |    |--P. annosana NC91
    |    |    |    `--P. antiquana P27
    |    |    |--Epitymbia [Epitymbiini] NC91
    |    |    |    |--E. cosmota NC91
    |    |    |    `--E. eudrosa ZS10
    |    |    `--Tortricini NC91
    |    |         |--Tortrix M27
    |    |         `--Eboda exeristis NC91
    |    `--Olethreutinae [Eucosmidae] KN03
    |         |  i. s.: Piniphila Z02
    |         |         Argyroploce illepida P27
    |         |         Spilonota P27
    |         |           |--S. dolopaea L27
    |         |           |--S. infensa C70
    |         |           `--S. macropetana P27
    |         |         Acroclita erythrana C70
    |         |--Eucosmini NC91
    |         |--Bactra [Bactrini] NC91
    |         |    |--B. ablabes C70
    |         |    `--B. noteraula P27
    |         |--Gatesclarkeana [Gatesclarkeanini] NC91
    |         |    `--G. tenebrosa NC91
    |         |--Cryptaspasma [Microcorsini] NC91
    |         |    `--C. sordida NC91
    |         |--Olethreutini NC91
    |         |    |--Lobesia botrana NC91, YS10
    |         |    |--Sorolopha NC91
    |         |    `--Olethreutes C70
    |         |         |--O. euryphaea CM70
    |         |         `--O. melanocycla C70
    |         `--Grapholitini NC91
    |              |--Grapholita molesta NC91
    |              `--Cydia NC91
    |                   |--C. deshaisiana GE05
    |                   |--C. leucostoma [=Laspeyrasia leucostoma] VHK02
    |                   |--C. metallocosma NC91
    |                   |--C. molesta J01
    |                   |--C. pomonella [=Carpocapsa pomonella] V09
    |                   `--C. tricentra VHK02
    |--Homadaula NC91 [Galacticidae, Galacticoidea GE05]
    |    `--H. myriospila NC91
    |--+--Sesioidea GE05
    |  |--Cossoidea GE05
    |  `--Zygaenoidea GE05
    |--+--Alucitoidea GE05
    |  `--Pterophoroidea [Pterophorii] GE05
    |       |--Pterophoridae GE05
    |       `--Orneodes Latreille 1802 L02 [Orneodidae P27]
    |            |--*O. hexadactylus [=Pterophorus hexadactylus] L02
    |            |--O. objurgatella B88
    |            `--O. phricodes P27
    |--Epermeniidae [Epermenioidea] GE05
    |    |--Gnathifera eurybias NC91
    |    |--Paraepermenia santaliella NC91
    |    |--Epermenia [Epermeniinae] NC91
    |    |    |--E. eurybias C70
    |    |    `--E. exilis NC91
    |    `--Ochromolopis [Ochromolopinae] NC91
    |         |--O. cornutifera NC91
    |         `--O. eurybias C74
    |--Choreutidae GE05
    |    |--Asterivora lampadias NC91
    |    |--Saptha exanthista NC91
    |    |--Tebenna NC91
    |    |    |--T. bradleyi M83
    |    |    `--T. micalis NC91
    |    `--Choreutis NC91
    |         |--C. basalis NC91
    |         |--C. bjerkandrella P27
    |         `--C. lampadias C70
    `--Obtectomera [Pyralidina] GE05
         |  i. s.: Hyblaea IR05 [Hyblaeidae, Hyblaeoidea NC91]
         |           |--H. ibidias NC91
         |           `--H. pleura IR05
         |--Copromorphoidea GE05
         |--Macrolepidoptera GE05
         |--Whalleyaniidae GE05
         |--Thyrididae GE05
         |--Pyraloidea GE05
         `--Immiidae [Immoidea] GE05
              |--Birthana cleis NC91
              `--Imma NC91
                   |--I. acosma NC91
                   |--I. lyrifera NC91
                   |--I. stilbiota NC91
                   `--I. vaticina NC91

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[AY04] Austin, A. D., D. K. Yeates, G. Cassis, M. J. Fletcher, J. La Salle, J. F. Lawrence, P. B. McQuillan, L. A. Mound, D. J. Bickel, P. J. Gullan, D. F. Hales & G. S. Taylor. 2004. Insects ‘Down Under’—diversity, endemism and evolution of the Australian insect fauna: examples from select orders. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 216–234.

[BJ02] Becnel, J. J., A. Jeyaprakash, M. A. Hoy & A. Shapiro. 2002. Morphological and molecular characterization of a new microsporidian species from the predatory mite Metaseiulus occidentalis (Nesbitt) (Acari, Phytoseiidae). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 79: 163–172.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[CLB99] Callaway, R. M., T. H. DeLuca & W. M. Belliveau. 1999. Biological control herbivores may increase competitive ability of the noxious weed Centaurea maculosa. Ecology 80: 1196–1201.

[C62] Clarke, J. F. G. 1962. A new tortricid genus from South America. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 293–294.

[C70] Common, I. F. B. 1970. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 765–866. Melbourne University Press.

[C74] Common, I. F. B. 1974. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Supplement 1974 pp. 98–107. Melbourne University Press.

[G10] Gaimari, S. D. 2010. Odiniidae (odiniid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1049–1055. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[G84] Gauld, I. D. 1984. An Introduction to the Ichneumonidae of Australia. British Museum (Natural History).

[G17] Girault, A. A. 1917. Descriptiones hymenopterorum chalcidoidicarum variorum cum observationibus. III. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 102–111).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[IR05] Idris, A. B., & A. Rizki. 2005. Notes on the tribe Ephialtini (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae) of Malaysia. Serangga 10 (1–2): 111–126.

[J01] James, D. G. 2001. History and perspectives of biological mite control in Australian horticulture using exotic and native phytoseiids. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 436–443. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[J-PWM04] Jiménez-Pérez, A., Q. Wang & N. Markwick. 2004. Intrinsic rate of increase in ‘Cnephasia’ jactatana Walker (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a pest of kiwifruit. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 109–112.

[KN03] Komai, F., & Y. Nasu. 2003. Four species of Olethreutinae (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) associated with viviparous seedlings of the mangrove Rhizophoraceae in the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Invertebrate Systematics 17: 75–87.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L27] Lindsay, S. 1927. A list of the Lepidoptera of Deans Bush, Riccarton, Canterbury. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 693–696.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[M87] Meyrick, E. 1887. Descriptions of new Lepidoptera. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1037–1048.

[M27] Meyrick, E. 1927. Descriptions of New Zealand Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 697–702.

[MC02] Miliczky, E. R., & C. O. Calkins. 2002. Spiders (Araneae) as potential predators of leafroller larvae and egg masses (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in central Washington apple and pear orchards. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 78 (2): 140–150.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[P27] Philpott, A. 1927. The maxillae in the Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 721–746.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the Wild Fauna and Flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

[VHK02] Verma, M., M. Hayat & S. I. Kazmi. 2002. The species of Elasmus from India (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eulophidae). Oriental Insects 36: 245–306.

[WM66] Wallace, A. R., & F. Moore. 1866. List of lepidopterous insects collected at Takow, Formosa, by Mr. R. Swinhoe. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 355–365.

[WFS04] Winks, C. J., S. V. Fowler & L. A. Smith. 2004. Invertebrate fauna of boneseed, Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera (L.) T. Norl. (Asteraceae: Calenduleae), an invasive weed in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 61–72.

[YS10] Yefremova, Z. A., & I. S. Strakhova. 2010. A review of the species of the genus Elasmus Westwood (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae) from Russia and neighboring countries. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 89 (3): 634–661.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Ecological history of the terrestrial insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 331–388. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

Last updated: 25 August 2017.

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