Reconstruction of Pareiasaurus serridens, copyright Nobu Tamura.

Belongs within: Parareptilia.

The Procolophonia are a clade of reptiles known from the mid-Permian to the late Triassic, including the large armoured Pareiasauria and the lizard-like Procolophonoidea. Some authors have also included the modern turtles in this clade.

Synapomorphies (from Laurin & Reisz 1995): Pineal foramen close to fronto-parietal suture; postorbital far from occiput; tabular absent; anterior maxillary narial foramen present; caniniform region absent; cranio-quadrate space large; pterygoid palatal ramus not reaching level of choana; transverse flange of pterygoid directed anterolaterally; cultriform process short; supraocciptal plate reduced to sagittal pillar; paroccipital process antero-posteriorly expanded; quadrate condyle articular surfaces nearly flat and antero-posteriorly short; foramen intermandibularis posterior located below coronoid process or farther posteriorly; meckelian fossa facing dorsally; fossa meckelii short; surangular not reaching coronoid eminence; prearticular extending no farther than coronoid eminence; retroarticular process transversely broad and dorsally concave; trunk neural arches swollen with narrow zygapophyseal buttresses; transverse processes or caudal ribs present on at least thirteen caudals; interclavicle T-shaped; anteriorly directed groove on interclavicle for clavicle attachment; scapula narrow and flat; glenoid short, bipartite; acetabular buttress large, overhanging strongly above acetabulum; femoral greater trochanter present on posterior edge of femur; astragalus and calcaneum sutured or fused to each other; fifth distal tarsal absent; dorsal dermal ossifications present.

    |  i. s.: Nycteroleter [Nycteroleterida] LR95
    |--Pareiasauria [Serratidentia] MD07
    |    |  i. s.: Pareiasuchus SS02
    |    |         Anthodon pricei [=Nanoparia pricei] SS02
    |    |         Provelosaurus SS02
    |    |         Elginia Newton 1892 D07
    |    |           `--E. mirabilis D07
    |    |         Deltavjatia vjatkensis LR95
    |    |         Parasaurus LR95
    |    |         Shihtienfenia permica LR95, WH78
    |    |         Pareiasauridae TT05
    |    |           |--Proelginia permiana Hartmann-Weinberg 1937 TT05
    |    |           |--Scutosaurus Amalitzky 1922 TT05, D07
    |    |           |    `--S. karpinskii D07
    |    |           `--Pareiasaurus Owen 1876 D07
    |    |                |--P. americanus D07
    |    |                |--P. baini D07
    |    |                |--P. nasicornis D07
    |    |                |--P. omoeratus D07
    |    |                |--P. peringuegi D07
    |    |                `--P. serridens D07
    |    |--Bradysaurus MDS02
    |    `--+--Nochelesaurus MDS02
    |       `--Embrithosaurus MDS02
    `--Procolophonoidea MD07
         |  i. s.: Thelephon contritus MD07
         |--Owenettidae MD07
         |    |  i. s.: Saurodektes rogersorum MD07
         |    |--+--Owenetta rubidgei Broom 1939 MD07
         |    |  `--Barasaurus besairei MD07
         |    `--+--‘Owenetta’ kitchingorum MD07
         |       `--Candelaria barbouri MD07
         `--Procolophonidae [Telerpetidae] MD07
              |  i. s.: Burtensia MDS02
              |         Timanophon raridentatus MDS02, MD07
              |         Acadiella MDS02
              |         Haligonia MDS02
              |         Koiloskiosaurus MDS02
              |         Neoprocolophon MDS02
              |         Eumetabolodon MDS02
              |         Microtheledon MDS02
              |         Myocephalus MDS02
              |         Myognathus LR95
              |         Paoteodon LR95
              |         Sclerosaurus [Sclerosauridae] MD07
              |         Teratophon D-SMS06
              |--Coletta seca Gow 2000 MD07, MDS02
              |--Pintosaurus Piñeiro et al. 2004 D-SMS06
              |    `--*P. magnidentis Piñeiro et al. 2004 D-SMS06
              `--+--Sauropareion anoplus Modesto et al. 2001 MD07
                 `--+--Spondylolestinae MDS02
                    |    |--Contritosaurus simus MD07
                    |    |--Spondylolestes rubidgei MDS02
                    |    `--Phaanthosaurus MDS02
                    `--+--Thelerpeton oppressus MD07
                       |--+--Thelegnathus spinigenis MD07, MDS02
                       |  `--Leptopleuroninae MD07
                       |       |  i. s.: Libognathus sheddi PSH17
                       |       |--Tichvinskia vjatkensis MD07
                       |       `--+--Scoloparia glyphanodon MD07
                       |          `--+--Leptopleuron lacertinum MD07
                       |             `--Hypsognathus Gilmore 1928 MD07, D07
                       |                  `--H. fenneri MD07
                       `--Procolophoninae SS02
                            |--Orenburgia SS02
                            |--Samaria SS02
                            |--Lestanshoria SS02
                            |--Anomoiodon von Huene 1939 SS02
                            |    `--A. liliensterni von Huene 1939 SS02
                            |--Procolophon Owen 1876 MD07, D-SMS06
                            |    |--P. brasiliensis Cisneros & Schultz 2002 D-SMS06
                            |    |--P. pricei Lavina 1983 D-SMS06
                            |    `--P. trigoniceps Owen 1876 MD07
                            `--Kapes Ivakhnenko 1975 SS02
                                 |--*K. amaenus Ivakhnenko 1975 SS02
                                 |--K. bentoni Spencer & Storrs 2002 SS02
                                 |--K. komiensis (Ivakhnenko 1975) [=Macrophon komiensis] SS02
                                 `--K. majmesculae (Ochev 1968) (see below for synonymy) SS02

Kapes majmesculae (Ochev 1968) [=Tichvinskia majmesculae; incl. K. serotinus Novikov 1991] SS02

*Type species of generic name indicated


[D-SMS06] Dias-da-Silva, S., S. P. Modesto & C. L. Schultz. 2006. New material of Procolophon (Parareptilia: Procolophonoidea) from the Lower Triassic of Brazil, with remarks on the ages of the Sanga do Cabral and Buena Vista formations of South America. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 43: 1685–1693.

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[LR95] Laurin, M., & R. R. Reisz. 1995. A reevaluation of early amniote phylogeny. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 113: 165–223.

[MD07] Modesto, S. P., & R. Damiani. 2007. The procolophonoid reptile Sauropareion anoplus from the lowermost Triassic of South Africa. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 27 (2): 337–349.

[MDS02] Modesto, S. P., R. J. Damiani & H.-D. Sues. 2002. A reappraisal of Coletta seca, a basal procolophonid reptile from the Lower Triassic of South Africa. Palaeontology 45 (5): 883–895.

[PSH17] Pardo, J. D., B. J. Small & A. K. Huttenlocker. 2017. Stem caecilian from the Triassic of Colorado sheds light on the origins of Lissamphibia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 114 (27): E5389–E5395.

[SS02] Spencer, P. S., & G. W. Storrs. 2002. A re-evaluation of small tetrapods from the Middle Triassic Otter Sandstone Formation of Devon, England. Palaeontology 45 (3): 447–467.

[TT05] Tverdokhlebov, V. P., G. I. Tverdokhlebova, A. V. Minikh, M. V. Surkov & M. J. Benton. 2005. Upper Permian vertebrates and their sedimentological context in the South Urals, Russia. Earth-Science Reviews 69: 27–77.

[WH78] Wang Z. & Huang R.-J. 1978. Triassic charophytes of Shaanxi. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 17 (3): 267–276.

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