Window gnat Sylvicola sp., copyright Martin Cooper.

Belongs within: Neoneura.
Contains: Scatopsoidea, Pachyneuroidea, Sciaroidea.

The Bibionomorpha are a clade of flies supported by molecular data, including the gnats and related taxa. Members include the wood gnats of the Anisopodidae whose saprophagous larvae have a characteristic vigorous serpentine movement (Hancock & Amorim 2009).

<==Bibionomorpha WT11
    |--+--+--Scatopsoidea WT11
    |  |  `--Valeseguya [Valeseguyidae] GE05
    |  |       `--V. disjuncta GE05
    |  `--+--+--Pachyneuroidea WT11
    |     |  `--Sciaroidea WT11
    |     `--Axymyiidae [Axymyioidea, Axymyiomorpha] WT11
    |          |--Axymyia furcata W81
    |          |--Protaxymyia W81
    |          |    |--P. japonica W81
    |          |    `--P. melanoptera W81
    |          `--Mesaxymyia W81
    |               |--M. kerteszi W81
    |               `--M. stackelbergi W81
    `--Anisopodoidea [Rhyphidea] BLM02
         |  i. s.: Protolbiogaster [Protolbiogastridae] P81
         |           `--P. rhaetica P81
         |         Hongocaloneura Evenhuis 1994 [Hongocaloneuridae] H02
         |           `--*H. plectilis (Hong 1981) [=Caloneura plectilis] H02
         |--Protorhyphus RJ93 [Protorhyphidae GE05]
         |    |--P. major Kovalev 1990 RJ93
         |    `--P. ovisimilis RJ93
         `--+--Crosaphis [Crosaphididae] GE05
            |    `--C. anomala RJ93
            `--Anisopodidae [Anisopidae, Phryneidae, Rhyphidae, Sylvicolidae] WT11
                 |  i. s.: Mesorhyphus GE05
                 |         Tonnoirina O98
                 |         Eoanisopodites Hong 2002 H02
                 |           `--*E. fushunensis Hong 2002 H02
                 |         Olbiogasterosten Sacken 1886 H02
                 |--Mycetobiinae [Mycetobiidae] HA09
                 |    |--Mesochria HA09
                 |    |    |--M. neotropica GE05
                 |    |    `--M. scottiana O98
                 |    |--Mycetobia HA09
                 |    |    |--M. divergens HA09
                 |    |    `--M. pallipes [=Mycetophila (Mycetobia) pallipes] G20
                 |    `--Neomesochria HA09
                 |         |--N. limanda HA09
                 |         `--N. stonei HA09
                 `--Anisopodinae [Olbiogastridae, Olbiogastrinae] HA09
                      |--Lobogaster P81
                      |--Carreraia P81
                      |--Anisopus Meigen 1803 H02
                      |--Olbiogaster P81
                      |    |--O. africanus HA09
                      |    |--O. perezi GE05
                      |    |--O. sackeni HA09
                      |    `--O. taeniata P81
                      `--Sylvicola HA09
                           |--S. alternatus HA09
                           |--S. dubius CM91
                           |--S. fenestralis HA09 [=Anisopus fenestralis P81]
                           |--S. picturatus [=Anisopus picturatus] HA09
                           `--S. punctatus P81

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BLM02] Blagoderov, V. A., E. D. Lukashevich & M. B. Mostovski. 2002. Order Diptera Linné, 1758. The true flies (=Muscida Laicharting, 1781). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 227–240. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HA09] Hancock, E. G., & D. de S. Amorim. 2009. Anisopodidae (wood gnats or window gnats). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 341–345. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[H02] Hong Y. 2002. Amber Insect of China. Beijing Scientific and Technological Publishing House.

[O98] Oosterbroek, P. 1998. The Families of Diptera of the Malay Archipelago. Brill: Leiden.

[P81] Peterson, B. V. 1981. Anisopodidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 305–312. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

[W81] Wood, D. M. 1981. Axymyiidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 209–212. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

Last updated: 4 February 2021.

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