Skyblue clustervine Jacquemontia pentantha, copyright Forest & Kim Starr.

Belongs within: Lamiidae.
Contains: Cuscuta, Convolvuloideae, Dichondreae, Cresseae, Lycium, Solanoideae, Cestrum, Nicotiana.

The Solanales is a large clade of flowering plants, with most of its members being divided between the Convolvulaceae, the morning glories and related taxa, and the Solanaceae, including nightshades, tobacco, etc. The Convolvulaceae are usually viny in habit, though there are exceptions: Humbertia madagascariensis, for instance, is a large tree found in Madagascar. Solanaceae vary from herbs to small trees, often characterised by irregular insertion of the leaves, branches and flowers on the stem ( Other members of the Solanales include the Montiniaceae, a small group of shrubs and small trees with small, waxy flowers and indehiscent fruits found in southern and eastern Africa. Hydrolea is a genus of semi-aquatic herbs and shrubs found in tropical Asia and the Americas.

Synapomorphies (from O-methyl flavonols present; inflorescence terminal; pollen tube usually with callose; calyx persistent in fruit.

See also: My flower is a trumpet (Taxon of the Week: Solanales).

Solanales [Solanineae]
    |--Hydrolea [Hydroleaceae] LC02
    |    `--H. zeylanica LK14
    |--Sphenoclea T00 [Sphenocleaceae APG16]
    |    `--S. pongatium C55b
    |--Montiniaceae APG16
    |    |--Grevea T00
    |    |--Kaliphora T00
    |    `--Montinia T00
    |--Convolvulaceae [Cressaceae, Erycibaceae, Humbertiaceae, Poranaceae] SAO03
    |    |  i. s.: Quamoclit C55b
    |    |           |--Q. coccinea C55b
    |    |           `--Q. vulgaris C55b
    |    |         Breweria rosea BR65
    |    |         Pronaya fraseri GK00
    |    |         Palaeipomoea fukuiensis Conwentz 1886 CBH93
    |    |         Calystegiapollis microechinatus Salard-Cheboldaeff 1975 CBH93
    |    |--Humbertia [Humbertieae, Humbertioideae] SAO03
    |    |    `--H. madagascariensis SAO03
    |    `--+--Erycibe [Erycibeae, Erycibinae, Eryciboideae] SAO03
    |       |    |--E. coccinea B00
    |       |    |--E. malaccensis ST98
    |       |    |--E. paniculata SAO03
    |       |    `--E. parvifolia ST98
    |       |--Cardiochlamyeae SAO03
    |       |    |  i. s.: ‘Porana’ commixta SAO03
    |       |    |--Cordisepalum SAO03
    |       |    |--Poranopsis SAO03
    |       |    |--Cardiochlamys madagascariensis SAO03
    |       |    |--Tridynamia SAO03
    |       |    `--Dinetus truncatus SAO03
    |       `--+--Cuscuta SAO03
    |          |--Convolvuloideae SAO03
    |          `--Dicranostyloideae [Dicranostyleae, Dicranostylinae] SAO03
    |               |--Dichondreae SAO03
    |               |--Cresseae SAO03
    |               |--Maripeae [Lysiostyleae] SAO03
    |               |    |--Dicranostyles scandens SAO03
    |               |    |--Lysiostyles SAO03
    |               |    `--Maripa SAO03
    |               |         |--M. panamensis ST98
    |               |         `--M. scandens SAO03
    |               `--Jacquemontia Choisy 1834 [Jacquemontieae] SAO03
    |                    |--J. corymbulosa ST98
    |                    |--J. paniculata ST98
    |                    |--J. pannosa LK14
    |                    |--J. pentantha SAO03
    |                    |--J. reclinata ST98
    |                    |--J. tamnifolia ST98
    |                    `--J. tomentella ST98
    `--Solanaceae SAO03
         |  i. s.: Cyphomandra betacea Z02
         |         Iochroma tubulosa Z02
         |         Lycianthes sanctaclarae MM96
         |         Mandragora ST98
         |           |--M. autumnalis PT98
         |           `--M. caulescens O88
         |         Physochlaina praealta O88
         |         Scopolia tangutica ST98, O88
         |         Atropa belladonna ST98
         |         Hyoscyamus ST98
         |           |--H. aureus F92
         |           |--H. muticus AGF98
         |           `--H. niger BR65
         |         Withania Pauquy 1824 BR65
         |           `--W. somnifera [=Physalis somnifera] BR65
         |         Anthocercis BR65
         |           |--A. angustifolia BR65
         |           |--A. anisantha BR65
         |           |--A. frondosa (see below for synonymy) BR65
         |           |--A. littorea RL05
         |           `--A. myosotidea BR65
         |         Symonanthus aromaticus G04
         |         Salpichroa BR65
         |           |--S. diffusa HH03
         |           `--S. origanifolia HH03 [incl. Atropa rhomboidea BR65, S. rhomboidea H93]
         |         Lycium MM09
         |         Anthotroche BR65
         |           |--A. blackii BR65
         |           `--A. truncata Ising. 1922 BR65
         |         Duboisia ST98
         |           |--D. hopwoodii BR65
         |           `--D. myoporoides G23
         |         Acnistus MM96
         |           |--A. arborescens HH03
         |           |--A. breviflorus HH03
         |           |--A. cauliflorus F96
         |           `--A. parviflorus HH03
         |         Brunfelsia RA07
         |           |--B. latifolia C55a
         |           |--B. picardae J87
         |           `--B. uniflora RA07
         |         Brugmania suaveolens D07
         |         Nicandra physalodes H93
         |         Jaltomata procumbens V09
         |         Salpiglossis C06
         |         Chamaesaracha H93
         |           |--C. coronopus H93
         |           `--C. nana [=Leucophysalis nana] H93
         |         Oryctes nevadensis H93
         |         Cantisolanum daturoides Reid & Chandler 1933 CBH93
         |--Goetzeoideae T00
         |--Sclerophylax [Sclerophylacoideae] T00
         |--Duckeodendron [Duckeodendroideae] T00
         |--Solanoideae T00
         `--Browallioideae [Cestroideae] T00
              |--Cestrum T00
              |--Nicotiana M99
              `--Petunia M99
                   |--P. × hybrida M99
                   |--P. inflata KS98
                   |--P. linearis V09
                   |--P. parodii GM96
                   `--P. parviflora Juss. 1803 C06

Anthocercis frondosa [=Cyphanthera frondosa Miers 1853; incl. Eadesia anthocercidea Mueller 1858, C. cuneata Miers 1853, Anthocercis eadesii Mueller 1861] BR65

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AGF98] Abd El-Ghani, M. M., & A. G. Fahmy. 1998. Composition of and changes in the spontaneous flora of Feiran Oasis, S Sinai, Egypt, in the last 60 years. Willdenowia 28: 123–134.

[APG16] Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2016. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181: 1–20.

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[D07] Dash, S. S. 2007. Useful plants of Kabi Sacred Grove, Sikkim. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 79–88.

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[F96] Flechtmann, C. H. W. 1996. Effect of feeding by Aculops lycopersici (Massee) (Eriophyidae) on the mineral content of tomato plants of two varieties. In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 211–212. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49–62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[G23] Girault, A. A. 1923. Microscopitis, womanitis and new Hexapoda. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 170–177).

[GM96] Griffiths, A. J. F., J. H. Miller, D. T. Suzuki, R. C. Lewontin & W. M. Gelbart. 1996. An Introduction to Genetic Analysis 6th ed. W. H. Freeman and Company: New York.

[HH03] Hernández, J. R., & J. F. Hennen. 2003. Rust fungi causing galls, witches’ brooms, and other abnormal plant growths in northwestern Argentina. Mycologia 95 (4): 728–755.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[KS98] Klein, J., A. Sato, S. Nagl & C. O'hUigín. 1998. Molecular trans-species polymorphism. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 1–21.

[LC02] Långström, E., & M. W. Chase. 2002. Tribes of Boraginoideae (Boraginaceae) and placement of Antiphytum, Echiochilon, Ogastemma and Sericostoma: a phylogenetic analysis based on atpB plastid DNA sequence data. Plant Systematics and Evolution 234: 137–153.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[M99] Matthews, M. 1999. Heliothine Moths of Australia: A guide to bollworms and related noctuid groups. CSIRO Publishing.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1–487.

[MM09] Mound, L. A., & M. Masumoto. 2009. Australian Thripinae of the Anaphothrips genus-group (Thysanoptera), with three new genera and thirty-three new species. Zootaxa 2042: 1–76.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95–116.

[RL05] Rafferty, C., & B. B. Lamont. 2005. Selective feeding by macropods on vegetation regenerating following fire. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 155–165.

[RA07] Rodrigues, J. C. V., D. Achor, E. W. Kitajima, N. L. Nogueira & C. C. Childers. 2007. Plant diseases and injuries associated with Brevipalpus mites. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 381–390. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[ST98] Schimming, T., B. Tofern, P. Mann, A. Richter, K. Jenett-Siems, B. Dräger, N. Asano, M. P. Gupta, M. D. Correa & E. Eich. 1998. Distribution and taxonomic significance of calystegines in the Convolvulaceae. Phytochemistry 49: 1989–1995.

[SAO03] Stefanović, S., D. F. Austin & R. G. Olmstead. 2003. Classification of Covolvulaceae: a phylogenetic approach. Systematic Botany 28 (4): 791–806.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the Wild Fauna and Flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

[Z02] Zhang, Z.-Q. 2002. Taxonomy of Tetranychus ludeni (Acari: Tetranychidae) in New Zealand and its ecology on Sechium edule. New Zealand Entomologist 25: 27–34.

Last updated: 22 March 2019.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="">FoS</a> = FoS