Shining fetterbush Lyonia lucida, photographed by Will Cook.

Belongs within: Ericaceae.
Contains: Vaccinieae, Gaultherieae.

The Vaccinioideae are a clade within the Ericaceae strongly supported by molecular analysis, though the only synapomorphies of the clade—the presence of disintegration tissue on the back of the anthers, and a base chromosome number of 12—are homoplasious. Members include the Lyonieae, a group of shrubs (rarely lianas) with more or less lignified leaf epidermal cells and usually S-shaped stamen filaments (Kron et al. 2002).

Characters (from Kron et al. 2002): Shrubs, trees, or lianas, often epiphytic. Leaves evergreen or deciduous, alternate, non-ericoid, margin entire to serrulate or serrate, convolute or less commonly revolute in bud. Leaf epidermal cells lignified or not. Indumentum of elongate and unbranched, or peltate, and glandular to non-glandular hairs, and occasionally papillae. Inflorescence terminal or axillary, racemose, paniculate, or fasciculate, or of solitary flowers; bracts present, bracteoles usually paired, variable in position; flower articulated or continuous with pedicel. Flowers usually 4- or 5-merous, actinomorphic, pendulous. Calyx lobes usually 4 or 5, variable in size, usually persistent, sometimes fleshy; corolla usually sympetalous, urceolate to cylindrical or campanulate, deciduous, with the usually 4 or 5 lobes small to less commonly large. Stamens usually 5-10, usually included, filaments straight to S-shaped, distinct or connate, unicellular-pubescent or glabrous (smooth or roughened), rarely papillose; anthers tetrasporangiate, inverting early in development, more or less roughened, with or without a pair of dorsal appendages (spurs), or these occurring instead on the distal portion of the filament, or with 2 or 4 projections (awns) arising from dorso-apical portion of anther, with or without disintegration tissue, lacking a fibrous endothecium, dehiscing by terminal pores, and these often associated with tubules. Pollen in tetrads, lacking viscin threads. Ovary usually 4- or 5-locular, or 10-locular due to secondary division of each locule, with axile placentation, superior to inferior; style usually impressed; stigma truncate. Fruit a loculicidal capsule, berry, or drupe; seeds with variable testa cells; embryo with 2 cotyledons.

    |--Oxydendrum [Oxydendreae] KJ02
    |    `--O. arboreum KJ02
    `--+--+--Vaccinieae KJ02
       |  `--+--Gaultherieae KJ02
       |     `--Andromedeae [Andromedinae] KJ02
       |          |--Zenobia pulverulenta KJ02
       |          `--Andromeda KJ02
       |               |--A. glaucophylla KJ02
       |               |    |--A. g. f. glaucophylla KJ02
       |               |    `--A. g. f. nana KJ02
       |               `--A. polifolia KJ02
       `--Lyonieae KJ02
            |--Craibiodendron yunnanense KJ02
            |--+--Agarista KJ02
            |  |    |--A. buxifolia KJ02
            |  |    |--A. populifolia KJ02
            |  |    `--A. salicifolia KJ02
            |  `--Pieris KJ02
            |       |--P. floribunda KJ02
            |       |--P. formosa KJ02
            |       |--P. japonica KJ02
            |       |--P. nana KJ02
            |       `--P. phillyraeifolia KJ02
            `--Lyonia KJ02
                 |--L. buchii J87
                 |--L. ferruginea KJ02
                 |--L. ligustrina KJ02
                 |--L. lucida KJ02
                 |--L. macrocalyx (Anthony) Airy Shaw 1937 [=Pieris macrocalyx Anthony 1927] P06
                 |--L. microcarpa J87
                 |--L. neziki BBO02
                 |--L. ovalifolia P06
                 |--L. rubiginosa J87
                 |    |--L. r. var. rubiginosa J87
                 |    `--L. r. var. costata J87
                 |--L. sikkimensis P06
                 |--L. truncata J87
                 `--L. villosa P06

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BBO02] Begerow, D., R. Bauer & F. Oberwinkler. 2002. The Exobasidiales: an evolutionary hypothesis. Mycological Progress 1 (2): 187–199.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[KJ02] Kron, K. A., W. S. Judd, P. F. Stevens, D. M. Crayn, A. A. Anderberg, P. A. Gadek, C. J. Quinn & J. L. Luteyn. 2002. Phylogenetic classification of Ericaceae: molecular and morphological evidence. Botanical Review 68: 335–423.

[P06] Panda, S. 2006. Lyonia macrocalyx (J. Anthony) Airy Shaw (Ericaceae)—a new record for India from Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 48: 207–210.

Last updated: 22 April 2020.

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