Cichorioideae

African daisy Arctotis stoechadifolia, copyright Winfried Bruenken.


Belongs within: Asteraceae.
Contains: Vernonieae, Cichorieae.

The Cichorioideae is a clade of composite-flowered plants supported by molecular phylogenetic analysis (Panero & Funk 2002). Past authors have used the name to refer to a broader grouping of latex-bearing composites, but phylogenetic analyses have established that such a grouping is paraphyletic with regard to the latex-free Asteroideae. Major subgroups in the Cichorioideae include the Arctotideae, with mostly radiate and heterogamous flowers though Berkheya has discoid and homogamous flowers (Black & Robertson 1965). The genus Arctotis is native to southern Africa though the silver arctotis A. venusta has become an invasive in a number of parts of world though cultivation as an ornamental. The South American genus Liabum has yellow, radiate and heterogamous flowers, and fruits bearing a pappus of a short external circle and long internal circle of setae (Ulloa & Jørgensen). Gundelia, tumble thistles, is a genus of very spiny perennial herbs found in the Middle East and central Asia.

<==Cichorioideae
    |--+--Vernonieae PF02
    |  `--Liabum J87 [Liabeae PF02]
    |       |--L. selleanum J87
    |       `--L. subacaule J87
    |--Arctotideae [Arctoteae] PF02
    |    |--Cymbonotus lawsonianus [=Arctotis lawsoniana (Gaudichaud) Beauverd 1915] BR65
    |    |--Cryptostemma calendula (Linnaeus) Druce 1914 (see below for synonymy) BR65
    |    |--Berkheya BR65
    |    |    |--B. rigida [=Stobaea rigida] BR65
    |    |    `--B. schinzii CV06
    |    `--Arctotis MHB06
    |         |--A. decurrens Jacquin 1797 [incl. A. merxmuelleri Friedrich 1980, A. scullyi Dümmer 1914] MHB06
    |         |--A. frutescens CV06
    |         |--A. stoechadifolia MHB06
    |         `--A. venusta MHB06
    `--+--Gundelia YY22 [Gundelieae PF02]
       `--Cichorieae PF02

Cryptostemma calendula (Linnaeus) Druce 1914 [=Arctotis calendula Linnaeus 1753, Arctotheca calendula (Linnaeus) Levyns 1950; incl. Arctotis calendulacea Linnaeus 1768, Cryptostemma calendulaceum (Linnaeus) Brown 1818] BR65

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[MHB06] McKenzie, R. J., P. P. J. Herman & N. P. Barker. 2006. Asteraceae. Arctotis decurrens (Arctotideae), the correct name for A. merxmuelleri and A. scullyi. Bothalia 36 (2): 171–173.

[PF02] Panero, J. L., & V. A. Funk. 2002. Toward a phylogenetic subfamilial classification for the Compositae (Asteraceae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 115 (4): 909–922.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

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