African daisy Arctotis stoechadifolia, copyright Winfried Bruenken.

Belongs within: Asteraceae.
Contains: Cichorieae, Vernonieae.

The Cichorioideae is a clade of composite-flowered plants supported by molecular phylogenetic analysis (Panero & Funk 2002). Past authors have used the name to refer to a broader grouping of latex-bearing composites, but phylogenetic analyses have established that such a grouping is paraphyletic with regard to the latex-free Asteroideae. Major subgroups in the Cichorioideae include the Arctotideae, with mostly radiate and heterogamous flowers though Berkheya has discoid and homogamous flowers. Most Arctotideae have a pappus of scales and more or less hairy achenes but the pappus is absent and the achenes glabrous in the bear's ear Cymbonotus lawsonianus of Australia (Black & Robertson 1965). The genus Arctotis is native to southern Africa though the silver arctotis A. venusta has become an invasive in a number of parts of world though cultivation as an ornamental. The South American genus Liabum has yellow, radiate and heterogamous flowers, and fruits bearing a pappus of a short external circle and long internal circle of setae (Ulloa & Jørgensen). Gundelia, tumble thistles, is a genus of very spiny perennial herbs found in the Middle East and central Asia.

    |--+--Gundelia YY22 [Gundelieae PF02]
    |  `--Cichorieae PF02
    |--+--Vernonieae PF02
    |  `--Liabum J87 [Liabeae PF02]
    |       |--L. glabrum BT87
    |       |    |--L. g. var. glabrum BT87
    |       |    `--L. g. var. hypoleucum BT87
    |       |--L. selleanum J87
    |       `--L. subacaule J87
    `--Arctotideae [Arctoteae] PF02
         |--Cymbonotus lawsonianus [=Arctotis lawsoniana (Gaudichaud) Beauverd 1915] BR65
         |--Arctotheca calendula (Linnaeus) Levyns 1950 H93, BR65 (see below for synonymy)
         |--Berkheya BR65
         |    |--B. rigida [=Stobaea rigida] BR65
         |    `--B. schinzii CV06
         `--Arctotis MHB06
              |--A. decurrens Jacquin 1797 [incl. A. merxmuelleri Friedrich 1980, A. scullyi Dümmer 1914] MHB06
              |--A. frutescens CV06
              |--A. stoechadifolia [incl. A. stoechadifolia var. grandis] H93
              `--A. venusta MHB06

Arctotheca calendula (Linnaeus) Levyns 1950 H93, BR65 [=Arctotis calendula Linnaeus 1753 BR65, Cryptostemma calendula (Linnaeus) Druce 1914 BR65; incl. Arctotis calendulacea Linnaeus 1768 BR65, Cryptostemma calendulaceum (Linnaeus) Brown 1818 BR65]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[MHB06] McKenzie, R. J., P. P. J. Herman & N. P. Barker. 2006. Asteraceae. Arctotis decurrens (Arctotideae), the correct name for A. merxmuelleri and A. scullyi. Bothalia 36 (2): 171–173.

[PF02] Panero, J. L., & V. A. Funk. 2002. Toward a phylogenetic subfamilial classification for the Compositae (Asteraceae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 115 (4): 909–922.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

Last updated: 2 June 2019.

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