African daisy Arctotis stoechadifolia, copyright Winfried Bruenken.

Belongs within: Asteraceae.
Contains: Cichorieae, Vernonieae.

The Cichorioideae is a clade of composite-flowered plants supported by molecular phylogenetic analysis (Panero & Funk 2002). Past authors have used the name to refer to a broader grouping of latex-bearing composites, but phylogenetic analyses have established that such a grouping is paraphyletic with regard to the latex-free Asteroideae. Major subgroups in the Cichorioideae include the Arctotideae, with mostly radiate and heterogamous flowers though Berkheya has discoid and homogamous flowers. Species of Berkheya are robust perennials with lobed, spiny leaves found in tropical Africa. Most Arctotideae have a pappus of scales and more or less hairy achenes but the pappus is absent and the achenes glabrous in the bear's ear Cymbonotus lawsonianus of Australia (Black & Robertson 1965). The genus Arctotis is native to southern Africa though the silver arctotis A. venusta has become an invasive in a number of parts of world though cultivation as an ornamental. The South American genus Liabum has yellow, radiate and heterogamous flowers, and fruits bearing a pappus of a short external circle and long internal circle of setae (Ulloa & Jørgensen). Gundelia, tumble thistles, is a genus of very spiny perennial herbs found in the Middle East and central Asia.

    |--+--Gundelia YY22 [Gundelieae PF02]
    |  `--Cichorieae PF02
    |--+--Vernonieae PF02
    |  `--Liabum J87 [Liabeae PF02]
    |       |--L. glabrum BT87
    |       |    |--L. g. var. glabrum BT87
    |       |    `--L. g. var. hypoleucum BT87
    |       |--L. selleanum J87
    |       `--L. subacaule J87
    `--Arctotideae [Arctoteae] PF02
         |--Cymbonotus lawsonianus [=Arctotis lawsoniana (Gaudichaud) Beauverd 1915] BR65
         |--Arctotheca calendula (Linnaeus) Levyns 1950 H93, BR65 (see below for synonymy)
         |--Berkheya BR65
         |    |--B. rigida [=Stobaea rigida] BR65
         |    `--B. schinzii CV06
         `--Arctotis MHB06
              |--A. decurrens Jacquin 1797 [incl. A. merxmuelleri Friedrich 1980, A. scullyi Dümmer 1914] MHB06
              |--A. frutescens CV06
              |--A. stoechadifolia [incl. A. stoechadifolia var. grandis] H93
              `--A. venusta MHB06

Arctotheca calendula (Linnaeus) Levyns 1950 H93, BR65 [=Arctotis calendula Linnaeus 1753 BR65, Cryptostemma calendula (Linnaeus) Druce 1914 BR65; incl. Arctotis calendulacea Linnaeus 1768 BR65, Cryptostemma calendulaceum (Linnaeus) Brown 1818 BR65]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[MHB06] McKenzie, R. J., P. P. J. Herman & N. P. Barker. 2006. Asteraceae. Arctotis decurrens (Arctotideae), the correct name for A. merxmuelleri and A. scullyi. Bothalia 36 (2): 171–173.

[PF02] Panero, J. L., & V. A. Funk. 2002. Toward a phylogenetic subfamilial classification for the Compositae (Asteraceae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 115 (4): 909–922.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

Last updated: 22 December 2019.

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