Australian bluebell Wahlenbergia gracilis, photographed by C. Totterdell.

Belongs within: Asterales.
Contains: Campanula, Lobelia.

The Campanulaceae are a cosmopolitan family of herbaceous plants. Within the family, the Campanuloideae have regular corollas with free anthers, while the Lobelioideae have resupinate flowers with a usually irregular corolla and anthers cohering in a ring around the style (Black & Robertson 1965).

Characters (from Black & Robertson 1965): Herbs, often with a milky juice; leaves exstipulate, usually alternate. Flowers bisexual, or unisexual by abortion in some species, regular or irregular; sepals usually 5, persistent; corolla with usually five valvate lobes, both calyx and corolla seated on hollow receptacle; stamens as many as corolla-lobes and alternate with them, inserted at base of corolla-tube, usually free from it and epigynous; ovary inferior, adnate to receptacle, with numerous anatopous ovules on axile or septal placentas; style filiform, with 2-3 stigmatic lobes; fruit a capsule, usually with free summit rising between sepals, rarely a berry; seeds numerous, small, with straight embryo in middle of albumen.

    |--Cyphia [Cyphioideae] T00
    |--Cyphocarpus [Cyphocarpoideae] T00
    |--Nemacladoideae T00
    |    |--Nemacladus T00
    |    |--Parishella T00
    |    `--Pseudonemacladus T00
    |--Campanuloideae T00
    |    |--Campanula T00
    |    |--Cephalostigma fluminale Black 1934 BR65
    |    `--Wahlenbergia BR65
    |         |--W. albomarginata A27
    |         |--W. bicolor Lothian 1947 [incl. W. gracilis var. stricta] BR65
    |         |--W. cartilaginea W27
    |         |--W. densicaulis CV06
    |         |--W. eriophiloides CV06
    |         |--W. flexilis G60
    |         |--W. gracilenta Lothian 1947 [incl. W. quadrifida Black 1934 non (Brown) de Candolle 1830] BR65
    |         |--W. gracilis [=Campanula gracilis; incl. W. vinciflora (Ventenat) Decaisne 1849] BR65
    |         |--W. intricata [incl. Lightfootia dinteri] CV06
    |         |--W. matthewsii A27
    |         |--W. multicaulis BR65
    |         |--W. preissii GK00
    |         |--W. quadrifida (Brown) de Candolle 1830 BR65
    |         |--W. saxicola W27
    |         |--W. sieberi de Candolle 1830 BR65
    |         |--W. subumbellata CV06
    |         |--W. tadgellii Lothian 1947 BR65
    |         |--W. trichogyna Stearn 1951 [incl. W. consimilis Lothian 1947] BR65
    |         `--W. tumidifructa G04
    `--Lobelioideae [Lobeliaceae] T00
         |--Clermontia arborescens KIW98
         |--Lobelia K03
         |--Grammatotheca bergiana GK00
         |--Laurentia (Micheli) Adanson 1763 BR65
         |    |  i. s.: L. longiflora [=Isotoma longiflora] P88
         |    `--L. sect. Isotoma BR65
         |         |--L. fluviatilis (Brown) Wimmer 1948 (see below for synonymy) BR65
         |         |--‘Isotoma’ hypocrateriformis OS04
         |         |--L. petraea (Mueller) Wimmer 1948 [=Isotoma petraea Mueller 1852] BR65
         |         `--L. scapigera (Brown) Endlicher 1838 (see below for synonymy) BR65
         |--Siphocampylus JS87
         |    |--S. caudatus [incl. Lobelia ekmanii] J87
         |    `--S. sonchifolius J87
         `--Pratia Gaudichaud 1826 [Delisseae]
              |--P. angulata MM94
              |--P. arenaria A27
              |--P. begoniaefolia [=Lobelia begoniaefolia] P88
              |--P. borneensis [=Lobelia borneensis] P88
              |--P. concolor (Brown) Druce 1917 [=Lobelia concolor Brown 1810; incl. P. erecta Gaudichaud 1826] BR65
              |--P. montana [=Lobelia montana] P88
              |--P. pedunculata [=Lobelia pedunculata] BR65
              |--P. platycalyx [=Lobelia platycalyx] BR65
              |--P. puberula Bentham 1869 [incl. Lobelia benthamii Mueller 1882] BR65
              `--P. purpurascens (Brown) Wimmer 1953 [=Lobelia purpurascens] BR65

Campanulaceae incertae sedis:
  Specularia C55b
    |--S. hybrida C55b
    |--S. pentagonia C55b
    |--S. perfoliata C55a
    `--S. speculum C55b
  Cyananthus O88
    |--C. hayanus O88
    |--C. hookeri O88
    |--C. incanus O88
    |--C. inflatus O88
    |--C. lobatus O88
    |--C. microphyllus O88
    |--C. pedunculatus O88
    `--C. spathulifolius O88
  Legousia PT98
    |--L. pentagonia PT98
    `--L. speculum-veneris BO08
  Asyneuma limonifolium (Linnaeus) Janch. 1906 PL04
  Canarina eminii M04
  Codonopsis K03
    |--C. bhutanica O88
    |--C. convolvulacea O88
    |--C. dicentrifolia O88
    |--C. lanceolata K03
    |--C. ovata K03
    |--C. pilosula K03
    |--C. subsimplex O88
    `--C. thalictrifolia O88
  Namacodon schinzianum CV06

Laurentia fluviatilis (Brown) Wimmer 1948 [=Lobelia fluviatilis Brown 1810, Isotoma fluviatilis Mueller 1869; incl. Lo. inundata Brown 1910] BR65

Laurentia scapigera (Brown) Endlicher 1838 [=Lobelia scapigera Brown 1810, Isotoma scapigera Don 1834] BR65

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae-Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[BO08] Bönsel, D., I. Ottich, A. Malten & G. Zizka. 2008. An updated list of the vascular plants of Frankfurt am Main (Pteridophyta & Spermatophyta). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (1): 111-121.

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[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175-189.

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 6. Mt Manning Range. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 35-47.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323-402.

[G60] Gillham, M. E. 1960. Vegetation of Little Brother Island, Cook Strait, in relation to spray-bearing winds, soil salinity, and pH. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 405-424.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[JS87] Judd, W. S., & J. D. Skean, Jr. 1987. Three new angiosperms from Parc National Pic Macaya, Massif de la Hotte, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 137-150.

[K03] Kårehed, J. 2003. The family Pennantiaceae and its relationships to Apiales. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141: 1-24.

[KIW98] Kearns, C. A., D. W. Inouye & N. M. Waser. 1998. Endangered mutualisms: the conservation of plant-pollinator interactions. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 83-112.

[MM04] Martin, N. A., & L. A. Mound. 2004. Host plants for some New Zealand thrips (Thysanoptera: Terebrantia). New Zealand Entomologist 27: 119-123.

[M04] Mayr, G. 2004. Old World fossil record of modern-type hummingbirds. Science 304: 861-864.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19-28.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: Flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95-116.

[PL04] Pohl, G., & I. Lenski. 2004. Zur Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung von Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Nordeuböa (Griechenland) (Poaceae, Paniceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 209-223.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: Dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441-647.

[W27] Wall, A. 1927. Some problems of distribution of indigenuous plants in New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 94-105.

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