Blue star creeper Pratia pedunculata, copyright Andrey Zharkikh.

Belongs within: Asterales.
Contains: Nemacladus, Lobelia, Cyphia, Campanuloideae.

The Campanulaceae are a cosmopolitan family of herbaceous plants. Within the family, the Campanuloideae have regular corollas with connivent anthers forming a ring whereas the Lobelioideae have resupinate flowers with a usually irregular corolla and anthers connate to form a tube around the style (Black & Robertson 1965; Crowl et al. 2016)). The Nemacladoideae, thread plants, are a small group of annual herbs found in southwestern North America with bilateral flowers as in Lobelioideae but free anthers as in Campanuloideae (Hickman 1993).

Characters (from Black & Robertson 1965): Herbs, often with a milky juice; leaves exstipulate, usually alternate. Flowers bisexual, or unisexual by abortion in some species, regular or irregular; sepals usually 5, persistent; corolla with usually five valvate lobes, both calyx and corolla seated on hollow receptacle; stamens as many as corolla-lobes and alternate with them, inserted at base of corolla-tube, usually free from it and epigynous; ovary inferior, adnate to receptacle, with numerous anatopous ovules on axile or septal placentas; style filiform, with 2-3 stigmatic lobes; fruit a capsule, usually with free summit rising between sepals, rarely a berry; seeds numerous, small, with straight embryo in middle of albumen.

    |--+--+--Cyphocarpus [Cyphocarpoideae] CM16
    |  |  |    `--C. rigescens CM16
    |  |  `--Nemacladoideae CM16
    |  |       |--Nemacladus T00
    |  |       |--Parishella californica T00, H93
    |  |       `--Pseudonemacladus oppositifolius T00, CM16
    |  `--Lobelioideae [Delisseae, Lobeliaceae, Lobelieae] CM16
    |       |--Lobelia K03
    |       |--Pratia Gaudichaud 1825 BR65, ME70
    |       |    |--P. arenaria Hooker 1844 [=P. angulata var. arenaria Hooker 1853] A61
    |       |    |--P. begoniaefolia [=Lobelia begoniaefolia] P88
    |       |    |--P. concolor (Brown) Druce 1917 [=Lobelia concolor Brown 1810; incl. P. erecta Gaudichaud 1826] BR65
    |       |    |--P. macrodon Hooker 1864 A61
    |       |    |--P. montana [=Lobelia montana] P88
    |       |    |--P. pedunculata [=Lobelia pedunculata] BR65
    |       |    |--P. platycalyx [=Lobelia platycalyx] BR65
    |       |    `--P. puberula Bentham 1869 [incl. Lobelia benthamii Mueller 1882] BR65
    |       |--Legenere H93
    |       |    |--L. limosa H93
    |       |    `--L. valdiviana CM16
    |       |--Hypsela Presl 1836 A61
    |       |    `--H. rivalis Wimm. 1943 A61
    |       `--Laurentia (Micheli) Adanson 1763 BR65
    |            `--L. longiflora [=Isotoma longiflora] P88
    `--+--Cyphia CM16
       `--Campanuloideae CM16

Campanulaceae incertae sedis:
  Specularia C55b
    |--S. hybrida C55b
    |--S. pentagonia C55b
    |--S. perfoliata C55a
    `--S. speculum C55b
  Namacodon schinzianum CV06
  Campanumoea javania FW99
  Cyclocodon lancifolius CM16
  Howellia aquatilis CM16
  Muehlbergella owerinianus CM16
  Ostrowskia magnifica CM16
  Pristocarpus pedunculat CM16

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[CM16] Crowl, A. A., N. W. Miles, C. J. Visger, K. Hansen, T. Ayers, R. Haberle & N. Cellinese. 2016. A global perspective on Campanulaceae: biogeographic, genomic, and floral evolution. American Journal of Botany 103 (2): 233–245.

[FW99] Fu, R.-Z., J. Wang, Y.-B. Zhang, Z.-T. Wang, P. P.-H. But, N. Li & P.-C. Shaw. 1999. Differentiation of medicinal Codonopsis species from adulterants by polymerase chain reaction—restriction fragment length polymorphism. Planta Medica 65: 648–650.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[K03] Kårehed, J. 2003. The family Pennantiaceae and its relationships to Apiales. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141: 1–24.

[ME70] Moore, L. B., & E. Edgar. 1970. Flora of New Zealand vol. 2. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Monocotyledones except Gramineae. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

Last updated: 9 June 2019.

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