Snapdragon Antirrhinum majus, copyright Dinesh Valke.

Belongs within: Lamiales.
Contains: Gratioleae, Cheloneae, Callitriche, Veroniceae, Plantago.

The Plantaginaceae is a clade of flowering plants identified by molecular phylogenetic analysis (Olmstead et al. 2001). Members of this clade are morphologically diverse, with many having been previously classified in the Scrophulariaceae rather than with the wind-pollinated genus Plantago. They include the snapdragons Antirrhinum, a genus of herbs found in western North America and the western Mediterranean, whose often cleistogamous flowers commonly have the lower lip base swollen and covering the mouth. The foxgloves of the genus Digitalis are a western Palaearctic group of erect herbs with bell-shaped, generally pink or white flowers. The mare's-tail Hippuris vulgaris is an emergent aquatic, wind-pollinated herb found in temperate and cool regions of the world (Hickman 1993). Globularia, the globe daisies, is a western Palaearctic genus of mat-forming herbs and subshrubs that produce flowers in dense capitula held on an erect stem.

<==Plantaginaceae [Plantaginales, Veronicaceae]
    |--+--Gratioleae OP01
    |  `--Angelonia [Angelonieae] OP01
    |       |--A. pubescens OP01
    |       `--A. salicariifolia B00
    `--+--Cheloneae OP01
       `--+--Antirrhinum [Antirrhinaceae, Antirrhineae, Antirrhinoideae] OP01
          |    |--A. cornutum H93
          |    |--A. coulterianum H93
          |    |--A. cyathiferum H93
          |    |--A. filipes H93
          |    |--A. kelloggii H93
          |    |--A. kingii H93
          |    |--A. leptaleum [=A. cornutum var. leptaleum] H93
          |    |--A. majus OP01
          |    |--A. molle D37
          |    |--A. multiflorum [incl. A. glandulosum] H93
          |    |--A. nuttallianum H93
          |    |    |--A. n. ssp. nuttallianum H93
          |    |    `--A. n. ssp. subsessile H93
          |    |--A. orontium C55b
          |    |--A. ovatum H93
          |    |--A. rhinanthoides [=A. majus × A. molle] D37
          |    |--A. subcordatum H93
          |    |--A. vexillo-calyculatum H93
          |    |    |--A. v. ssp. vexillo-calyculatum H93
          |    |    |--A. v. ssp. breweri H93
          |    |    `--A. v. ssp. intermedium H93
          |    `--A. virga H93
          `--+--+--Callitriche OP01
             |  `--Hippuris [Hippuridaceae] OP01
             |       `--H. vulgaris OP01
             `--+--Globularieae [Globulariaceae] OP01
                |    |--Poskea OP01
                |    `--Globularia OP01
                |         |--G. cordifolia OP01
                |         |--G. nudicaulis C55a
                |         `--G. punctata H91
                `--+--+--Hemiphragma [Hemiphragmieae] OP01
                   |  |    `--H. heterophyllum OP01
                   |  `--+--Veroniceae OP01
                   |     `--Plantagineae C06
                   |          |--Plantago OP01
                   |          |--Littorella uniflora C06, V72
                   |          `--Bougueria C06
                   `--Digitalis [Digitalideae] OP01
                        |--D. ambigua D37
                        |--D. grandiflora OP01
                        |--D. lanata D37
                        |--D. lutea D37
                        |--D. mertonensis D37
                        |--D. micrantha D37
                        `--D. purpurea OP01

Plantaginaceae incertae sedis:
  Limnophila LK14
    |--L. australis LK14
    |--L. brownii LK14
    |--L. chinensis LK14
    |--L. fragrans LK14
    |--L. heterophylla VB02
    `--L. serrata C55a
  Scoparia dulcis LK14
  Aragoa AM-O04
  Sibthorpia repens [incl. Veronica rotundifolia Ruiz & Pav. 1798] AM-O04
  Plantaginacearumpollis CBH93

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AM-O04] Albach, D. C., M. M. Martínez-Ortega, M. A. Fischer & M. W. Chase. 2004. A new classification of the tribe Veroniceae—problems and a possible solution. Taxon 53 (2): 429–452.

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255–260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[OP01] Olmstead, R. G., C. W. dePamphilis, A. D. Wolfe, N. D. Young, W. J. Elisons & P. A. Reeves. 2001. Disintegration of the Scrophulariaceae. American Journal of Botany 88 (2): 348–361.

[VB02] Vijay, S. K., & T. N. Bhardwaja. 2002. Vegetation and phenodynamics of wetlands of central Rajasthan. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 573–581.

[V72] Voss, E. G. 1972. Michigan Flora. Part I. Gymnosperms and Monocots. Cranbrook Institute of Science and University of Michigan Herbarium.

Last updated: 13 September 2019.

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