Common waterwort Callitriche palustris, copyright T. Voekler.

Belongs within: Lamiales.
Contains: Hebe, Gratioleae, Veronica, Plantago.

The Plantaginaceae is a clade of flowering plants identified by molecular phylogenetic analysis (Olmstead et al. 2001). Members of this clade are morphologically diverse, with many having been previously classified in the Scrophulariaceae rather than with the wind-pollinated genus Plantago.

Plantaginaceae [Plantaginales, Veronicaceae]
    |--+--Gratioleae OP01
    |  `--Angelonia [Angelonieae] OP01
    |       `--A. pubescens OP01
    `--+--Cheloneae OP01
       |    |--Tetranema mexicana OP01
       |    `--+--Chelone obliqua OP01
       |       `--Collinsieae OP01
       |            |--Tonella OP01
       |            `--Collinsia OP01
       |                 |--C. grandiflora OP01
       |                 `--C. torreyi C96
       `--+--Antirrhinum [Antirrhinaceae, Antirrhineae, Antirrhinoideae] OP01
          |    |--A. majus OP01
          |    |--A. molle D37
          |    |--A. orontium C55b
          |    `--A. rhinanthoides [=A. majus × A. molle] D37
          `--+--+--Hippuris [Hippuridaceae] OP01
             |  |    `--H. vulgaris OP01
             |  `--Callitriche Linnaeus 1753 OP01, A61 [Callitrichaceae]
             |       |--C. antarctica Engelm. ex Hegel. 1867 A61
             |       |--C. aucklandica Mason 1959 A61
             |       |--C. cophocarpa GR98
             |       |--C. hermaphroditica OP01
             |       |--C. muelleri Sond. 1856 [incl. C. macropteryx Hegel. 1864, C. microphylla Col. 1888] A61
             |       |--C. palustris O88
             |       |--C. petriei Allan 1961 [incl. C. muelleri var. obtusangula Kirk 1899] A61
             |       |    |--C. p. ssp. petriei A61
             |       |    `--C. p. ssp. chathamensis Mason 1959
             |       |--C. pulchra GR98
             |       |--C. stagnalis Scop. 1772 A61
             |       |--C. truncata GR98
             |       |    |--C. t. ssp. truncata GR98
             |       |    `--C. t. ssp. occidentalis GR98
             |       `--C. verna C55b
             `--+--Globularieae [Globulariaceae] OP01
                |    |--Poskea OP01
                |    `--Globularia OP01
                |         |--G. cordifolia OP01
                |         |--G. nudicaulis C55a
                |         `--G. punctata H91
                `--+--+--Hemiphragma [Hemiphragmieae] OP01
                   |  |    `--H. heterophyllum OP01
                   |  `--+--Veronica OP01
                   |     `--Plantago OP01
                   `--Digitalis [Digitaleae] OP01
                        |--D. ambigua D37
                        |--D. grandiflora OP01
                        |--D. lanata D37
                        |--D. lutea D37
                        |--D. mertonensis D37
                        |--D. micrantha D37
                        `--D. purpurea OP01

Plantaginaceae incertae sedis:
  Hebe BK04
  Wulfenia Jacquin 1781 M-OA03
  Synthyris Bentham 1846 M-OA03
  Besseya Rydberg 1903 M-OA03
  Bougueria T00
  Littorella T00
  Limnophila LK14
    |--L. australis LK14
    |--L. brownii LK14
    |--L. chinensis LK14
    |--L. fragrans LK14
    |--L. heterophylla VB02
    `--L. serrata C55a
  Scoparia dulcis LK14

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BK04] Bayly, M. J., A. V. Kellow, R. Ansell, K. A. Mitchell & K. R. Markham. 2004. Geographic variation in Hebe macrantha (Plantaginaceae): morphology and flavonoid chemistry. Tuhinga 15: 27–41.

[C96] Campbell, N. A. 1996. Biology 4th ed. The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc.: Menlo Park (California).

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

[GR98] Greuter, W., & T. Raus (eds.) 1998. Med-Checklist Notulae, 17. Willdenowia 28: 163–174.

[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255–260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[M-OA03] Martínez-Ortega, M. M., & D. C. Albach. 2003. (1593) Proposal to conserve the name Veronica cinerea Boiss. & Balansa against Veronica cinerea Raf. (Scrophulariaceae). Taxon 52: 375–376.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[OP01] Olmstead, R. G., C. W. dePamphilis, A. D. Wolfe, N. D. Young, W. J. Elisons & P. A. Reeves. 2001. Disintegration of the Scrophulariaceae. American Journal of Botany 88 (2): 348–361.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[VB02] Vijay, S. K., & T. N. Bhardwaja. 2002. Vegetation and phenodynamics of wetlands of central Rajasthan. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 573–581.

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