Dog weed Opercularia vaginata, from Porteous Park.

Belongs within: Rubiaceae.
Contains: Coussareeae, Morindeae, Psychotrieae, Spermacoceae, Paederieae, Coprosma.

The Rubioideae is a large clade within the plant family Rubiaceae, members of which have valvate aestivation, an indumentum of septated hairs, and contain raphides (calcium oxalate crystals) (Bremer & Manen 2000).

Characters (from Bremer & Manen 2000): Shrubs, herbs, or less commonly trees. Raphides present. Heterostylous flowers common. Stipules entire, bifid or often fimbriate. Corolla aestivation always valvate. Ovary 1-12-1ocular, most often 2-1ocular either with many or with single ovules in each locule, more rarely two or few in each locule. Fruits dry or fleshy, dehiscent or indehiscent.

<==Rubioideae (see below for synonymy)
    |  i. s.: Henriquesieae T00
    |         Lathraeocarpeae BM00
    |--Ophiorrhizeae [Ophiorrhizoideae, Pomazoteae] BM00
    |    |  i. s.: Coptophyllum [incl. Pomazota] BM00
    |    |         Spiradiclis BM00
    |    |--Neurocalyx zeylanicus BM00
    |    `--+--Xanthophytum [incl. Paedicalyx, Xanthophytopsis] BM00
    |       |    |--X. capitellatum BM00
    |       |    `--X. ferrugineum H03
    |       `--+--Lerchea bracteata BM00
    |          `--Ophiorrhiza BM00
    |               |--O. mungos BM00
    |               `--O. treutleri D07
    `--+--Urophylleae [Pauridiantheae] BM00
       |    |  i. s.: Amphidasya ambigua BM00
       |    |         Commitheca liebrachtsiana BM00
       |    |         Maschalocorymbus corymbosus BM00
       |    |--Pravinaria leucocarpa BM00
       |    `--+--Praravinia BM00
       |       |    |--P. densiflora BM00
       |       |    `--P. suberosa BM00
       |       `--+--Pauridiantha paucinervis BM00
       |          `--Urophyllum ellipticum BM00
       `--+--+--Perama [Perameae] BM00
          |  `--Lasiantheae [Dressleriopsideae] BM00
          |       |--Trichostachys BM00
          |       |--Metabolus [incl. Allaeophania] BM00
          |       `--Lasianthus pedunculatus BM00
          `--+--Coussareeae BM00
             `--+--+--Craterispermum [Craterispermeae] BM00
                |  |    `--C. brachynematum BM00
                |  `--+--Morindeae BM00
                |     `--+--Psychotrieae BM00
                |        `--+--Gaertnereae BM00
                |           |    |--Gaertnera BM00
                |           |    `--Pagamea BM00
                |           `--Schradereae BM00
                |                |--Schradera subandina BM00
                |                |--Lecananthus BM00
                |                `--Leucocodon BM00
                `--+--Danaideae BM00
                   |    |--Danais xanthorrhoea BM00
                   |    |--Schismatoclada BM00
                   |    `--Payera BM00
                   `--+--Spermacoceae BM00
                      `--+--+--Paederieae BM00
                         |  `--Argostemmateae BM00
                         |       |--Argostemma hookeri BM00
                         |       `--Mycetia malayana BM00
                         `--Anthospermeae [Durringtonieae, Opercularieae] BM00
                              |  i. s.: Carpacoce BM00
                              |         Galopina circaeoides BM00
                              |         Nenax BM00
                              |         Nertera BM00
                              |           |--N. balfouriana CA27
                              |           |--N. cunninghamii A27
                              |           |--N. depressa A27
                              |           |--N. dichondraefolia A27
                              |           `--N. granadensis BM00
                              |         Durringtonia BM00
                              |         Eleutheranthus BM00
                              |         Leptostigma [incl. Corynula] BM00
                              |         Normandia BM00
                              |         Peratanthe ekmanii BM00, J87
                              |         Pomax umbellata BM00, BR65
                              |--+--Anthospermum herbaceum BM00
                              |  `--Phyllis nobla BM00
                              `--+--Coprosma BM00
                                 `--Opercularia BM00
                                      |--O. apiciflora
                                      |--O. hispidula RL05
                                      |--O. ovata BR65
                                      |--O. rubioides
                                      |--O. scabrida BR65
                                      |--O. spermacocea KM08
                                      |--O. turpis [incl. O. varia var. rigidior] BF65
                                      |--O. vaginata BM00
                                      `--O. varia BR65

Rubioideae [Anthospermoideae, Aparinoideae, Cephaelidoideae, Coccocypseloideae, Gaertnerieae, Gaertneroideae, Hedyotidoideae, Manettioideae, Opercularioideae, Paederioideae, Pomazotoideae, Richardioideae, Spermacocceae, Spermacocoideae, Urophylloideae]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A27] Allan, H. H. 1927. The vegetation of Mount Peel, Canterbury, New Zealand. Part 2. – The grassland and other herbaceous communities. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 73-89.

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae-Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[BM00] Bremer, B., & J.-F. Manen. 2000. Phylogeny and classification of the subfamily Rubioideae (Rubiaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 225: 43-72.

[CA27] Cockayne, L., & H. H. Allan. 1927. Notes on New Zealand floristic botany, including descriptions of new species, &c. (No. 5). Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 48-72.

[D07] Dash, S. S. 2007. Useful plants of Kabi Sacred Grove, Sikkim. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 79-88.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323-402.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: Vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311-449.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11-19.

[RL05] Rafferty, C., & B. B. Lamont. 2005. Selective feeding by macropods on vegetation regenerating following fire. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 155-165.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: Dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441-647.

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