Alabama croton Croton alabamensis, photographed by Derek Ramsey.

Belongs within: Malpighiales.
Contains: Macaranga, Rafflesiales, Euphorbia.

The Euphorbiaceae are a diverse group of flowering plants, often containing latex. Many members of the family are succulent, and some can bear a strong superficial resemblance to cacti. Molecular analysis supports a small clade of tropical trees and shrubs including the genera Pera, Clutia and Pogonophora as sister to the remaining Euphorbiaceae (Davis et al. 2007); the genera Pera and Clutia, at least, are also distinctive in seed coat anatomy from the remaining Euphorbiaceae (Angiosperm Phylogeny Website).

Characters (from Flora of China): Trees, shrubs, or herbs, rarely woody or herbaceous lianas, monoecious or dioecious, indumentum of simple, branched, stellate, or gland-tipped hairs, peltate or glandular scales or stinging hairs, latex often present, clear, white, or colored; roots woody, rarely roots tuberous and stems succulent, sometimes spiny. Leaves alternate or opposite, rarely whorled; stipules usually present, often free, sometimes modified into spines or glands, deciduous or persistent; petioles long to short, sometimes with glands at apex or base; leaf blade simple, sometimes palmately lobed, rarely compound, or reduced to scales, margins entire or toothed, sometimes with distinct glands along margin and/or on surface, venation pinnate or palmate. Inflorescences axillary or terminal, flowers in cymes or fascicles, these often arranged along an elongated axis, branched or unbranched, forming a thyrse, in congested heads, or in a flowerlike cyathium with very reduced flowers enclosed within a ± cupular involucre; bracts sometimes petaloid. Flowers unisexual, within same inflorescence or in separate inflorescences, actinomorphic. Sepals (1-)3-6(-8), free or connate into calyx tube, valvate or imbricate, rarely absent. Petals free, often reduced or absent. Disk present or absent. Male flowers with disk intrastaminal or extrastaminal, entire to dissected. Stamens one to very many, hypogynous; filaments free or connate; anthers 2(-4)-locular, mostly dehiscing longitudinally, rarely transversely or by pores, introrse or extrorse; rudimentary ovary sometimes present. Female flowers rarely with staminodes; ovary superior, (1-)2-5(-20)-locular; placentation axile; ovules 1 or 2 per locule, anatropous or hemitropous; styles free or connate, entire or lobed, or multifid, lobes erect, horizontal or curved; stigma capitate, linear, fimbriate, fan-shaped or pinnatilobate. Fruit typically a capsule elastically dehiscent into 2-valved cocci from a persistent columella, sometimes a berry or drupe. Seeds 1 or 2 per locule; seed coat thin to indurate, sometimes fleshy to form a sarcotesta; caruncle sometimes present; aril sometimes present; endosperm present or absent; embryo straight to curved or folded; cotyledons usually broader than radical. x = 6-14.

    |--+--Pogonophora schomburgkiana DL07
    |  `--+--Pera bicolor DL07
    |     `--Clutia myricoides DL07
    `--+--Rafflesiales DL07
       `--+--Neoscortechinia DL07
          |    |--N. angustifolia H03
          |    |--N. philippinensis H03
          |    `--N. sumatrensis H03
          `--+--Pimelodendron zoanthogyne DL07
             |--Endospermum moluccanum DL07
             |--Euphorbia DL07
             |--+--Homalanthus populneus DL07
             |  `--Maprounea guianensis DL07
             |--+--Micrandra DL07 [incl. Cunuria E03]
             |  |    `--M. siphonoides DL07
             |  `--Hevea DL07
             |       |--H. brasiliensis FP01
             |       `--H. pauciflora DL07
             |--+--+--Codiaeum variegatum DL07
             |  |  `--Ostodes paniculata DL07
             |  `--Croton [Crotonoideae] DL07
             |       |--C. alabamensis DL07
             |       |--C. bonplandianum P03
             |       |--C. gibsonianus SR07
             |       |--C. glabellus J87
             |       |--C. oblongifolius P03
             |       |--C. poecilanthus SWK87
             |       `--C. tiglium P88
             `--+--Ricinus communis DL07
                |--Erythrococca trichogyne DL07
                |--Monotaxis DL07
                |    |--M. bracteata DL07
                |    `--M. occidentalis GK00
                |--+--Bernardia myricifolia DL07
                |  `--Dalechampia spathulata DL07
                |--Koilodepas DL07
                |    |--K. batamense DL07
                |    `--K. longifolium K03
                `--Acalypha [Acalyphoideae] DL07
                     |--A. californica DL07
                     |--A. diversifolia MM96
                     |--A. godseffiana P88
                     |--A. indica P03
                     |--A. rhomboidea AB-E04
                     `--A. wilkesiana P88

Euphorbiaceae incertae sedis:
  Mercurialis PT01
    |--M. annua PT98
    `--M. perennis PT01
  Antidesma E03
    |--A. diandrum P03
    `--A. montanum K03
  Bridelia K03
    |--B. crenulata SR07
    |--B. rettisa KJ05
    `--B. stipularis K03
  Glochidion E03
    |--G. littorale P88
    |--G. macrostigma K03
    `--G. zeylanicum UB06
  Jatropha E03
    |--J. curcas K03
    `--J. gossypifolia B04
  Manihot E03
    |--M. aipi C55
    |--M. epruinosa RS98
    |--M. esculenta K03
    |--M. glaziovii RS98
    `--M. utilissima [=Mandioca utilissima] MM96
  Hura E03
  Dichostemma H03
  Kairothamnus E03
  Gymnanthes lucida E03, J87
  Strophioblachia E03
  Agrostistachys capitata E03, H03
  Doryxylon E03
  Shirakiopsis sanchezii E03, H03
  Distichirops E03
  Aporosa E03
  Homonoia E03
  Chaetocarpus E03
  Baccaurea E03
    |--B. lanceolata K03
    `--B. puberula K03
  Macaranga E03
  Sauropus E03
    |--S. androgynus P88
    |--S. bacciformis H03
    |--S. macranthus H03
    `--S. villosus H03
  Acidocroton YY22
  Acidoton E03
  Actinostemon E03
  Adenochlaena YY22
  Adenocline YY22
  Adenopeltis YY22
  Afrotrewia YY22
  Agyneia YY22
  Alcoceria YY22
  Algernonia YY22
  Allenia YY22
  Alphandia E03
  Amanoa E03
  Anabaenella YY22
  Andrachne E03
  Angostylis YY22
  Anthostema YY22
  Aonikena YY22
  Apodiscus YY22
  Argithamnia YY22
  Argomuellera E03
  Aristogeitonia E03
  Astrococcus E03
  Avellantia YY22
  Baliospermum montanum SR07
  Bertya YY22
  Blachia E03
  Bonania YY22
  Breynia E03
    |--B. cernua HM03
    `--B. oblongifolia MM09
  Calpigyne YY22
  Cephalocroton E03
  Cephalocrotonopsis YY22
  Cephalomappa E03
  Chiropetalum YY22
  Chloradenia YY22
  Chondrostylis E03
  Chrozophora E03
    |--C. brocchiana AGF98
    |--C. plicata AGF98
    |--C. rottelari VB02
    `--C. tinctoria Y98
  Cladogynos E03
  Clavistylis YY22
  Cluytiandra YY22
  Cnesmone E03
  Colliguaya YY22
  Corythea YY22
  Crotonopsis YY22
  Dalembertia YY22
  Dicoelia E03
  Ditaxis neomexicana E03, DL07
  Dysopsis E03
  Eleutherostigma YY22
  Epiprinus E03
  Erismanthus E03
  Fragariopsis YY22
  Grimmeodendron YY22
  Haematostemon E03
  Hippomane E03
  Hypocoton YY22
  Joannesia YY22
  Julocroton YY22
  Klaineanthus YY22
  Lasiococca E03
  Leidesia YY22
  Longetia YY22
  Lortia YY22
  Mabea taquari E03, L-M-HG08
  Mareya E03
  Megistostigma E03
  Micrococca mercurialis SR07
  Monadenium YY22
  Necepsia E03
  Neopalisaya YY22
  Neopycnocoma YY22
  Neoroepera YY22
  Nepenthandra YY22
  Omphalea E03
  Ophthalmoblapton YY22
  Pachystroma YY22
  Pachystylidium E03
  Palissya YY22
  Paracroton pendulus SR07
    |--P. p. ssp. pendulus SR07
    `--P. p. ssp. zeylanicus SR07
  Pedilanthus tithymaloides E03, K03
  Petalodiscus YY22
  Platygyne YY22
  Plukenetia [incl. Apodandra] E03
  Poranthera KM08
    |--P. alpina W27
    |--P. huegelii GK00
    `--P. microphylla KM08
  Pseudanthus virgatus GK00
  Pterococcus Hasskarl 1842 (nom. cons.) FT93
  Pycnocoma E03
  Ramelia YY22
  Ricinocarpus YY22
  Sagotia E03
  Schizostigma YY22
  Sebastiania YY22
  Seidelia YY22
  Senefeldera YY22
  Speranskia YY22
  Sphaerostylis YY22
  Stenadenium YY22
  Stillingia E03
  Sumbavia YY22
  Sumbaviopsis E03
  Synadenium YY22
  Syndyophyllum E03
  Tannodia E03
  Tetraplandra YY22
  Tragiella E03
  Trigonostemon E03
  Trisyngyne YY22
  Wetriaria YY22
  Wielandia YY22
  Zimmermannia E03
  Adelia E03
  Adenophaedra E03
  Adriana KM08
    |--A. quadripartita SM06
    `--A. urticoides KM08
  Alchorneopsis portoricensis E03, SWK87
  Alcinaeanthus YY22
  Aparisthmium cordatum E03, L-M-HG08
  Aporosella YY22
  Astrocasia E03
  Athroandra YY22
  Baccaureopsis YY22
  Blumeodendron E03
  Bocquillonia YY22
  Buraeavia YY22
  Caelebogyne YY22
  Caryodendron E03
  Chascotheca YY22
  Cheilosa E03
  Chlamydojatropha YY22
  Choriophyllum YY22
  Clarorivinia YY22
  Coccoceras YY22
  Cocconerion YY22
  Coelediscus YY22
  Cometia YY22
  Conceveiba E03
  Conceveibastrum YY22
  Crotonogyne YY22
  Cyathogyne YY22
  Cyclostemon YY22
  Cyrtogonone YY22
  Cyrtogyne YY22
  Deuteromallotus YY22
  Discocarpus E03
  Discoclaoxylon E03
  Discocleidion YY22
  Discoglypremna E03
  Ditta myricoides J87, SWK87
  Everettiodendron YY22
  Fontainea E03
  Gavarettia E03
  Givotia YY22
  Grossera YY22
  Hamilcoa YY22
  Hasskarlia YY22
  Hemicyclia YY22
  Heywoodia E03
  Holstia YY22
  Lachnostylis YY22
  Lasiocroton YY22
  Lepidoturus YY22
  Leptonemea YY22
  Leucocroton YY22
  Maesobotrya E03
  Manniophyton YY22
  Martretia YY22
  Mettenia YY22
  Mischodon YY22
  Neoboutonia E03
  Neojatropha YY22
  Neomanniophyton YY22
  Nulbraedia YY22
  Paivaeusa YY22
  Pausandra E03
  Piranhea E03
  Plagiostyles YY22
  Platystigma YY22
  Podadenia YY22
  Poggeophyton YY22
  Polydragma YY22
  Protomegabaria YY22
  Pseudagrostistachys E03
  Pseudocroton YY22
  Pseudolachnostylis E03
  Richeria E03
  Ricinodendron E03
  Savia E03
  Scortechinia YY22
  Secretania YY22
  Spondianthus E03
  Staphysora YY22
  Tetracarpidium YY22
  Tetracoccus YY22
  Tetraglochidion YY22
  Thecacoris E03
  Toxicodendron radicans YY22, BC01
  Trewia nudiflora E03, HU08
  Trigonopleura E03
  Uapaca YY22
  Uranthera YY22
  Veconcites YY22
  Wetria E03
  Actephila latifolia E03, H09
  Alchornea E09
    |--A. glandulosa MP00
    `--A. latifolia SWK87
  Aleurites moluccana E03, CA27
  Amperea GK00
    |--A. simulans GK00
    `--A. volubilis GK00
  Angostylidium YY22
  Baloghia YY22
  Beyeria KM08
    |--B. brevifolia G04b
    `--B. cinerea KM08
  Caperonia E03
  Claoxylon E03
  Cleidion E03
  Cleistanthus E03
    |--C. collinus S02
    `--C. sankunnianus Sivar. & Indu Balach. 1985 UB06
  Cordemoya YY22
  Dimorphocalyx E03
  Flueggea E03
  Garcia E03
  Lautembergia YY22
  Lebidieropsis YY22
  Melanolepis E03
  Reverchonia YY22
  Sapium E03
    |--S. buchii J87
    |--S. caribaeum SWK87
    |--S. haitiense J87
    |--S. jamaicense SWK87
    |--S. japonicum [=Excoecaria japonica] LO98
    |--S. laurocerasus SWK87
    `--S. sebiferum MH98
  Securinega YY22
    |--S. leucopyrus RaS02
    `--S. virosa BB07
  Tetrorchidium E03
  Tragia E03
    |--T. dinteri CV06
    `--T. lancifolia CV06
  Tanodia YY22
  Astraea lobata [=Croton lobatum] C55
  Mallotus E03
    |--M. japonicus LO98
    |--M. philippensis HU08
    `--M. repandus P03
  Triadica E03
  Microstachys E03
  Margaritaria E03
  Ptychopyxis E03
  Suregada Rottler 1803 [incl. Gelonium Willdenow 1806 non Gaertner 1791] A-R03
  Ashtonia E03
  Balakata luzonica E03
  Leptopus SK05
    |--L. australis SK05
    `--L. sanjappae Sumathi, Karthigeyan et al. 2005 SK05
  Spathiostemon E03
  Annesijoa E03
  Borneodendron E03
  Botryophora E03
  Choriceras E03
  Clonostylis E03
  Elateriospermum E03
  Falconeria E03
  Loerzingia E03
  Moultonianthus E03
  Neotrewia E03
  Octospermum E03
  Reutalis E03
  Richeriella E03
  Tapoides E03
  Vernicia E03
  Meineckia parvifolia SR07
  Spirostachys africana E03, Ru-S02
  Cavacoa E03
  Crotonogynopsis E03
  Mildbraedia E03
  Neoholstia E03
  Paranecepsia E03
  Sclerocroton E03
  Cnidoscolus aconitifolius E03, M-FR98
  Argythamnia E03
  Dendrothrix E03
  Sandwithia E03
  Senefelderopsis E03
  Celianella E03
  Glycydendron E03
  Jablonskia E03
  ‘Diplomorpha’ Griffith 1854 non Meisner 1841 FT93
  Hyeronima MP00
    |--H. alchorneoides MP00
    |--H. clusioides SWK87
    `--H. domingensis J87
  Calycopeplus paucifolius G04a
  Excaecaria agallocha H09

*Type species of generic name indicated


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