Cistanche phelypaea, photographed by Nyree Fearnley.

Belongs within: Lamiales.
Contains: Pedicularis, Orobanche.

The Orobanchaceae was recognised by Olmstead et al. (2001) as a clade of root-parasitic members of the the Lamiales plus the basal non-parasitic Lindenbergia. Though the clade is primarily supported by molecular analysis, Lindenbergia also shares features of floral aestivation with other members of the Orobanchaceae. However, these features are not shared by other taxa assigned to the subtribe Stemodiinae; their relationship to Lindenbergia thus requires investigation. Derived members of the family such as Orobanche and Boschniakia (the Orobanchaceae sensu stricto of earlier authors) lack chlorophyll, and have the leaves reduced to alternate scales (Black & Robertson 1965).

<==Orobanchaceae [Buchnereae, Gerardieae, Pedicularieae, Pedicularidaceae, Rhinantheae]
    |  i. s.: Schwalbea americana OP01
    |         Rhinanthus G88
    |           |--R. minor G88
    |           `--R. serotinus [incl. R. angustifolius] G88
    |         Aiginetia YY22
    |         Christisonia YY22
    |         Lathraea YY22
    |         Phelypaea boissieri GR98
    |--Stemodiineae OP01
    |    |--Lindenbergia OP01
    |    |    |--L. indica PP07
    |    |    `--L. phillipinensis OP01
    |    `--Stemodia BR65
    |         |--S. grossa EF04
    |         |--S. maritima C55
    |         `--S. viscosa BR65
    `--+--+--+--Bartsia alpina OP01
       |  |  `--Tozzia alpina OP01
       |  `--Melampyrum Linnaeus 1753 OP01, HPR03 [incl. Chingyungia Ai 1995 HPR03]
       |       |--*M. arvense HPR03
       |       |--M. lineare OP01
       |       |--M. pratense SK91
       |       |--M. roseum Maxim. 1859 [incl. *Chingyungia scutellarioidea Ai 1995] HPR03
       |       `--M. sylvaticum OP01
       |--+--Harveya purpurea OP01
       |  |--+--Melasma scabrum OP01
       |  |  `--Alectra OP01
       |  |       |--A. brasiliensis C55
       |  |       |--A. melampyroides C55
       |  |       |--A. pseudobarleriae CV06
       |  |       |--A. schoenfelderi CV06
       |  |       `--A. sessiliflora OP01
       |  `--+--Buchnera OP01
       |     |    |--B. asperata B12
       |     |    |--B. elongata C55
       |     |    |--B. floridana OP01
       |     |    `--B. leptostachya C55
       |     `--Striga OP01
       |          |--S. asiatica OP01
       |          |--S. forbesii C55
       |          |--S. gesnerioides PP07
       |          `--S. senegalensis C55
       `--+--+--Pedicularis OP01
          |  `--+--Seymeria pectinata OP01
          |     `--Castilleja OP01
          |          |--C. arvensis J87
          |          |--C. hispida GM96
          |          |--C. linariifolia OP01
          |          |--C. pallida [=Castilleia (l. c.) pallida] C55
          |          `--C. sessiliflora NC01
          `--+--Orobanche SP04
             |--Cistachne SP04
             |    |--C. deserticola SP04
             |    |--C. phelypaea SP04
             |    |    |--C. p. ssp. phelypaea SP04
             |    |    `--C. p. ssp. lutea SP04
             |    |--C. salsa SP04
             |    |--C. tubulosa (Schrenk) Wight 1850 [=Philipaea tubulosa Schrenk 1841] PDR05
             |    `--C. violacea SP04
             `--+--Boschniakia SP04
                |    |--B. himalaica O88
                |    `--B. strobilacea OP01
                `--+--Epifagus virginiana SP04, OP01
                   `--Conopholis SP04
                        |--C. alpina SP04
                        |    |--C. a. var. alpina SP04
                        |    `--C. a. var. mexicana SP04
                        `--C. americana SP04

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae-Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[B12] Braby, M. F. 2012. The butterflies of El Questro Wilderness Park, with remarks on the taxonomy of the Kimberley fauna, Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (2): 161-175.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175-189.

[EF04] Etten, E. J. B. van, & J. E. D. Fox. 2004. Vegetation classification and ordination of the central Hamersley Ranges, Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 63-79.

[GR98] Greuter, W., & T. Raus (eds.) 1998. Med-Checklist Notulae, 17. Willdenowia 28: 163-174.

[GM96] Griffiths, A. J. F., J. H. Miller, D. T. Suzuki, R. C. Lewontin & W. M. Gelbart. 1996. An Introduction to Genetic Analysis (6th ed.) W. H. Freeman and Company: New York.

[G88] Grubb, P. J. 1988. The uncoupling of disturbance and recruitment, two kinds of seed bank, and persistence of plant populations at the regional and local scales. Annales Zoologici Fennici 25: 23-26.

[HPR03] Harley, R. M., A. J. Paton & O. Ryding. 2003. New synonymy and taxonomic changes in the Labiatae. Kew Bulletin 58: 485-489.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[NC01] Nekola, J. C., & B. F. Coles. 2001. Systematics and ecology of Gastrocopta (Gastrocopta) rogersensis (Gastropoda: Pupillidae), a new species of land snail from the Midwest of the United States of America. Nautilus 115 (3): 105-114.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[OP01] Olmstead, R. G., C. W. dePamphilis, A. D. Wolfe, N. D. Young, W. J. Elisons & P. A. Reeves. 2001. Disintegration of the Scrophulariaceae. American Journal of Botany 88 (2): 348-361.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P. & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 15-78.

[PDR05] Pradhan, S. G., P. G. Diwakar & K. M. Rao. 2005. Recollection of Cistachne tubulosa (Schrenk) Wight (Orobanchaceae) from Maharashtra after about a century. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47 (1-4): 151-152.

[SP04] Schneeweiss, G. M., T. Palomeque, A. l. E. Colwell & H. Weiss-Schneeweiss. 2004. Chromosome numbers and karyotype evolution in holoparasitic Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) and related genera. American Journal of Botany 91 (3): 439-448.

[SK91] Sylwestrowicz, Z. A., & D. B. Kostecka. 1991. Oribatei and Mesostigmata of pine forests from Poland. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 365-371. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

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