Cistachne phelypaea, photographed by Nyree Fearnley.

Belongs within: Lamiales.
Contains: Pedicularis, Castilleja, Orobanche.

The Orobanchaceae was recognised by Olmstead et al. (2001) as a clade of root-parasitic members of the the Lamiales plus the basal non-parasitic Lindenbergia. Though the clade is primarily supported by molecular analysis, Lindenbergia also shares features of floral aestivation with other members of the Orobanchaceae. These features are not shared by other taxa assigned to the subtribe Stemodiineae; their relationship to Lindenbergia thus requires investigation. Derived members of the family such as Orobanche and Boschniakia (the Orobanchaceae sensu stricto of earlier authors) lack chlorophyll, and have the leaves reduced to alternate scales (Black & Robertson 1965). Cistachne is a genus of such plants found in arid regions bearing flowers with tubular-campanulate to funnelform corollas. Others, such as the cow-wheats of the genus Melampyrum and the bluehearts Buchnera are hemiparasites that retain green leaves.

<==Orobanchaceae [Buchnereae, Gerardieae, Pedicularieae, Pedicularidaceae, Rhinantheae]
    |--Stemodiineae OP01
    |    |--Lindenbergia [Lindenbergiaceae] OP01
    |    |    |--L. indica PP07
    |    |    `--L. phillipinensis OP01
    |    `--Stemodia M99
    |         |--S. debilis LK14
    |         |--S. durantifolia H93
    |         |--S. flaccida LK14
    |         |--S. glabella M99
    |         |--S. grossa EF04
    |         |--S. lathraia LK14
    |         |--S. lythrifolia LK14
    |         |--S. maritima C55
    |         |--S. tephropelina LK14
    |         `--S. viscosa BR65
    `--+--+--+--Tozzia alpina OP01
       |  |  `--Bartsia OP01
       |  |       |--B. alpina OP01
       |  |       |--B. spicata Ramond 1800 R00
       |  |       `--B. viscosa C06
       |  `--Melampyrum Linnaeus 1753 OP01, HPR03 [incl. Chingyungia Ai 1995 HPR03]
       |       |--*M. arvense HPR03
       |       |--M. lineare OP01
       |       |--M. pratense SK91
       |       |--M. roseum Maxim. 1859 [incl. *Chingyungia scutellarioidea Ai 1995] HPR03
       |       `--M. sylvaticum OP01
       |--+--+--Pedicularis OP01
       |  |  `--+--Seymeria pectinata OP01
       |  |     `--Castilleja OP01
       |  `--+--Orobanche SP04
       |     |--Cistachne SP04
       |     |    |--C. deserticola SP04
       |     |    |--C. phelypaea SP04
       |     |    |    |--C. p. ssp. phelypaea SP04
       |     |    |    `--C. p. ssp. lutea SP04
       |     |    |--C. salsa SP04
       |     |    |--C. tubulosa (Schrenk) Wight 1850 [=Philipaea tubulosa Schrenk 1841] PDR05
       |     |    `--C. violacea SP04
       |     `--+--Boschniakia SP04
       |        |    |--B. himalaica O88
       |        |    |--B. hookeri H93
       |        |    `--B. strobilacea OP01
       |        `--+--Epifagus virginiana SP04, OP01
       |           `--Conopholis SP04
       |                |--C. alpina SP04
       |                |    |--C. a. var. alpina SP04
       |                |    `--C. a. var. mexicana SP04
       |                `--C. americana SP04
       `--+--Harveya purpurea OP01
          |--+--Melasma scabrum OP01
          |  `--Alectra OP01
          |       |--A. brasiliensis C55
          |       |--A. melampyroides C55
          |       |--A. pseudobarleriae CV06
          |       |--A. schoenfelderi CV06
          |       `--A. sessiliflora OP01
          `--+--Striga OP01
             |    |--S. asiatica OP01
             |    |--S. curviflora LK14
             |    |--S. forbesii C55
             |    |--S. gesnerioides PP07
             |    |--S. parviflora B00
             |    |--S. senegalensis C55
             |    `--S. squamigera LK14
             `--Buchnera OP01
                  |--B. asperata B12
                  |--B. elongata C55
                  |--B. floridana OP01
                  |--B. gracilis B00
                  |--B. leptostachya C55
                  |--B. linearis LK14
                  |--B. ramosissima LK14
                  `--B. urticifolia LK14

Orobanchaceae incertae sedis:
  Schwalbea americana OP01
  Rhinanthus G88
    |--R. minor G88
    `--R. serotinus [incl. R. angustifolius] G88
  Aiginetia YY22
  Christisonia YY22
  Lathraea YY22
  Phelypaea boissieri GR98
  Centranthera cochinchinensis LK14
  Rhamphicarpa australiensis LK14
  Rehmannia [Rehmanniaceae] APG16
  Campbellia Wight 1849 KC01
  Squamaria Ludw. 1757 KC01

*Type species of generic name indicated


[APG16] Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2016. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181: 1–20.

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[B12] Braby, M. F. 2012. The butterflies of El Questro Wilderness Park, with remarks on the taxonomy of the Kimberley fauna, Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (2): 161–175.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[EF04] Etten, E. J. B. van, & J. E. D. Fox. 2004. Vegetation classification and ordination of the central Hamersley Ranges, Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 63–79.

[GR98] Greuter, W., & T. Raus (eds.) 1998. Med-Checklist Notulae, 17. Willdenowia 28: 163–174.

[G88] Grubb, P. J. 1988. The uncoupling of disturbance and recruitment, two kinds of seed bank, and persistence of plant populations at the regional and local scales. Annales Zoologici Fennici 25: 23–26.

[HPR03] Harley, R. M., A. J. Paton & O. Ryding. 2003. New synonymy and taxonomic changes in the Labiatae. Kew Bulletin 58: 485–489.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby's Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[M99] Matthews, M. 1999. Heliothine Moths of Australia: A guide to bollworms and related noctuid groups. CSIRO Publishing.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[OP01] Olmstead, R. G., C. W. dePamphilis, A. D. Wolfe, N. D. Young, W. J. Elisons & P. A. Reeves. 2001. Disintegration of the Scrophulariaceae. American Journal of Botany 88 (2): 348–361.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P., & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 15–78.

[PDR05] Pradhan, S. G., P. G. Diwakar & K. M. Rao. 2005. Recollection of Cistachne tubulosa (Schrenk) Wight (Orobanchaceae) from Maharashtra after about a century. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47: 151–152.

[R00] Ramond, C. 1800. Suite des plantes inédites des Hautes-Pyrénées. Bulletin des Sciences, par la Societé Philomathique de Paris 2 (42): 140–141.

[SP04] Schneeweiss, G. M., T. Palomeque, A. l. E. Colwell & H. Weiss-Schneeweiss. 2004. Chromosome numbers and karyotype evolution in holoparasitic Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) and related genera. American Journal of Botany 91 (3): 439–448.

[SK91] Sylwestrowicz, Z. A., & D. B. Kostecka. 1991. Oribatei and Mesostigmata of pine forests from Poland. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 365–371. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

Last updated: 29 March 2020.

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