Spermacoceae

Seacliff starviolet Hedyotis littoralis, photographed by Jean-Yves Meyer.


Belongs within: Rubioideae.
Contains: Crusea.

The Spermacoceae is a clade of herbs and subshrubs supported by molecular analysis (Bremer & Manen 2000).

Characters (from Bremer & Manen 2000): Herbs or subshrubs (a few species are small trees). Stipules fimbriate. Flowers quite often heterostylous. Ovary 1-5- or often 2-locular, with many to single ovules in each locule. Fruits dry, dehiscent or indehishent, or rarely fleshy with many to single seeds. Pollen often 3-colporate-pluricolpate. Chromosome basic number very variable x=6-17 with 2-20-ploidy levels.

<==Spermacoceae [Hedyotideae, Manettieae, Triainolepideae]
    |--+--Parapentas silvatica BM00
    |  `--+--Pentas lanceolata BM00
    |     `--+--Triainolepis hildebrandtii BM00
    |        `--Knoxieae BM00
    |             |--Knoxia BM00
    |             |    |--K. diandra P03
    |             |    |--K. platycarpa BM00
    |             |    `--K. sumatrensis P03
    |             `--Pentanisia BM00
    |                  |--P. longituba BM00
    |                  `--P. microphylla BM00
    `--+--+--Agathisanthemum bojeri BM00
       |  `--Pentodon pentandrus BM00
       `--Hedyotis [incl. Kadua] BM00
            |  i. s.: H. caerulea BM00
            |         H. nigricans BM00
            |         H. nitida P03
            |         H. romanzoffiensis SJP60
            |         H. scandens D07
            |--H. fruticosa BM00
            `--+--+--H. littoralis BM00
               |  `--Ernodea litoralis BM00
               `--+--Manettia BM00
                  |    |--M. bicolor BM00
                  |    `--M. cordifolia BM00
                  `--+--Bouvardia glaberrima BM00
                     `--Spermacoce [incl. Borreria] BM00
                          |--‘Borreria’ articularis PP07
                          |--S. assurgens Ruiz & Pavon 1798 GB02
                          |--S. hispida BM00
                          `--S. laevis BM00

Spermacoceae incertae sedis:
  Amphiasma BM00
    |--A. divaricatum CV06
    |--A. luzuloides BM00
    `--A. merenskyanum CV06
  Arcytophyllum aristaum BM00
  Batopedina pulvinellata BM00
  Carphalea [incl. Dirichletia] BM00
    `--C. glaucescens RB01
  Conostomium quadrangulare BM00
  Diodia sarmentosa BM00
  Hemidiodia ocimifolia BM00
  Kohautia BM00
    |--K. amboensis CV06
    |--K. aspera PP07
    |--K. azurea CV06
    `--K. caespitosa BM00
  Lelya prostrata BM00
  Mitracarpum BM00
    |--M. decumbens J87
    `--M. villosum BM00
  Oldenlandia BM00
    |--O. corymbosa BM00
    |--O. diffusa VB02
    |--O. goreensis BM00
    `--O. herbacea C55
  Otiophora cupheoidea BM00
  Otomeria oculata BM00
  Paratriainia xerophila BM00
  Pentanopsis fragrans BM00
  Phylohydrax carnosa BM00
  Placopoda virgata BM00
  Psyllocarpus laricoides BM00
  Richardia BM00
    |--R. brasiliensis ACW01
    `--R. pilosa BM00
  Chaemepentas BM00
  Crusea BM00
  Dentella pulvinata Airy-Shaw 1934 [incl. D. repens Black 1929 (preoc.)] BM00, BR65
  Dibrachionostylus BM00
  Dolichometra BM00
  Hedythyrsus BM00
  Hydrophylax BM00
  Lucya BM00
  Manostachya BM00
  Mitrasacmopsis BM00
  Neohymenopogon BM00
  Nodocapaea BM00
  Pseudohedyotis BM00
  Schwendera BM00
  Synaptantha tillaeacea BM00 (see below for synonymy)
  Staelia BM00
  Thecorchus BM00
  Thyridocalyx BM00

Synaptantha tillaeacea BM00 [=Hedyotis tillaeacea Mueller 1863 BR65, Oldenlandia tillaeacea Mueller 1882 BR65; incl. H. elatinoides Bentham 1866 BR65]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[ACW01] Aguilar, H., C. C. Childers & W. C. Welbourn. 2001. Relative abundance and seasonal occurrence of mites in the family Tydeidae on citrus in Florida. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 376-380. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae-Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[BM00] Bremer, B., & J.-F. Manen. 2000. Phylogeny and classification of the subfamily Rubioideae (Rubiaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 225: 43-72.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175-189.

[D07] Dash, S. S. 2007. Useful plants of Kabi Sacred Grove, Sikkim. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 79-88.

[GB02] Gopalakrishna Bhat, K. 2002. Additions to the flora of Karnataka. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 566-567.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P. & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 15-78.

[P03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45 (1-4): 121-142.

[RB01] Razafimandimbison, S. G., & B. Bremer. 2001. Tribal delimitation of Naucleeae (Cinchonoideae, Rubiaceae): inference from molecular and morphological data. Systematics and Geography of Plants 71: 515-538.

[SJP60] St. John, H. & W. R. Philipson. 1960. List of the flora of Oeno Atoll, Tuamotu Archipelago, south-central Pacific Ocean. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 401-403.

[VB02] Vijay, S. K., & T. N. Bhardwaja. 2002. Vegetation and phenodynamics of wetlands of central Rajasthan. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 573-581.

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