Oxalidales

Yellow wood sorrel Oxalis stricta, photographed by Robbin Moran.


Belongs within: Rosidae.
Contains: Cunoniaceae, Elaeocarpaceae.

The Oxalidales is a clade of flowering plants supported by molecular analyses. Many members of the clade are tropical trees and shrubs, but the clade also includes the prominent herbaceous genus Oxalis, the sorrels, a number of species of which are invasive weeds in many parts of the world. The Oxalidaceae also include the small tree genus Averrhoa, of which the carambola A. carambola and bilimbi A. bilimbi are cultivated for their edible fruit; the acidic fruit of A. bilimbi are more commonly used in cooking than eaten raw. Members of the clade containing Cunoniaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Brunellia and Cephalotus have a valvate calyx that is postgenitally coherent by hairs (Angiosperm Phylogeny Web).Cephalotus follicularis of south-western Australia is a herb with leaves modified into insect-catching lidded pitchers.

<==Oxalidales [Cunoniales]
    |--+--Rourea DL07
    |  `--+--+--Cunoniaceae WM09
    |     |  `--+--Elaeocarpaceae WM09
    |     |     `--Cephalotus [Cephalotaceae, Cephalotales] WM09
    |     |          `--C. follicularis WM09
    |     `--Brunellia [Brunelliaceae] WM09
    |          |--B. comocladiifolia J87
    |          |    |--B. c. ssp. comocladiifolia J87
    |          |    `--B. c. ssp. domingensis J87
    |          |--B. goudotii R96
    |          `--B. vulgaris C55a
    `--+--Connaraceae WM09
       |    |--Jollydora [Jollydoroideae] T00
       |    `--Connarus [Connaroideae] WM09
       |         `--C. conchocarpus WM09
       `--Oxalidaceae [Averrhoeaceae] WM09
            |--Dapania H03
            |--Averrhoa P88
            |    |--A. bilimbi P88
            |    `--A. carambola P88
            `--Oxalis Linnaeus 1753 A61 [incl. Oxys D01]
                 |--O. ausensis CV06
                 |--O. cernua C55b
                 |--O. corniculata Linnaeus 1753 A61
                 |    |--O. c. var. corniculata A61
                 |    |--O. c. var. ciliifera (Cunn.) Hook. f. 1852 (see below for synonymy) A61
                 |    |--O. c. var. crassifolia (Cunn.) Hook. f. 1852 [=O. crassifolia Cunn. 1839] A61
                 |    `--O. c. var. microphylla Hook. f. 1852 [incl. O. exilis Cunn. 1839] A61
                 |--O. dillenii Jacq. 1794 CD07
                 |--O. eggersii J87
                 |--O. hunsbergensis CV06
                 |--O. laciniata D03
                 |--O. lactea Hook. 1836 [incl. O. cataractae Cunn. 1839, O. novae-zelandiae Gand. 1913] A61
                 |--O. latifolia WM09
                 |--O. luederitzii CV06
                 |--O. magellanica A27
                 |--O. oregona C90
                 |--O. perennans GK00
                 |--O. pseudo-cernua CV06
                 |--O. purpurea GK00
                 |--O. schaeferi CV06
                 `--O. stricta Linnaeus 1753 (see below for synonymy) A61

Oxalis corniculata var. ciliifera (Cunn.) Hook. f. 1852 [=O. ciliifera Cunn. 1839; incl. O. tenuicaulis Cunn. 1839] A61

Oxalis stricta Linnaeus 1753 [incl. O. ambigua Rich. 1832, O. divergens Cunn. 1839, C. lacicola Cunn. 1839, O. propinqua Cunn. 1839, O. urvillei Cunn. 1839] A61

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[A27] Andersen, J. C. 1927. Popular names of New Zealand plants. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 905-977.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1-E44.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175-189.

[C90] Crawford, R. L. 1990. Discovery of Caviphantes saxetorum in North America; status of Scironis tarsalis (Araneida, Linyphiidae). Journal of Arachnology 18: 235-236.

[DL07] Davis, C. C., M. Latvis, D. L. Nickrent, K. J. Wurdack & D. A. Baum. 2007. Floral gigantism in Rafflesiaceae. Science 315: 1812.

[D01] Doweld, A. B. 2001. The systematic relevance of fruit and seed structure in Bersama and Melianthus (Melianthaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 227: 75-103.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8—Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323-402.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: Vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311-449.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[R96] Righi, G. 1996. Colombian earthworms. Studies on Tropical Andean Ecosystems 4: 485-607.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: Dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441-647.

[WM09] Wang, H., M. J. Moore, P. S. Soltis, C. D. Bell, S. F. Brockington, R. Alexandre, C. C. Davis, M. Latvis, S. R. Manchester & D. E. Soltis. 2009. Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (10): 3853-3858.

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