Yellow wood sorrel Oxalis stricta, photographed by Robbin Moran.

Belongs within: Fabidae.
Contains: Cunoniaceae, Elaeocarpaceae.

The Oxalidales is a clade of flowering plants supported by molecular analyses. Many members of the clade are tropical trees and shrubs, but the clade also includes the prominent herbaceous genus Oxalis, the sorrels, a number of species of which are invasive weeds in many parts of the world. The Oxalidaceae also include the small tree genus Averrhoa, of which the carambola A. carambola and bilimbi A. bilimbi are cultivated for their edible fruit; the acidic fruit of A. bilimbi are more commonly used in cooking than eaten raw. The Connaraceae are a tropical family whose members are commonly lianas or scandent shrubs with alternate, pinnate leaves and follicular fruits.

Members of the clade containing Cunoniaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Brunellia and Cephalotus have a valvate calyx that is postgenitally coherent by hairs (Angiosperm Phylogeny Web). Cephalotus follicularis of south-western Australia is a herb with leaves modified into insect-catching lidded pitchers. Brunellia is a Neotropical montane genus of trees with usually odd-pinnately compound leaves and bearing apetalous flowers.

Oxalidales [Cunoniales]
    |  i. s.: Platydiscus peltatus XR12
    |--Huaceae WM09
    |    |--Afrostyrax CD07
    |    `--Hua gabonii XR12, WM09
    `--+--+--+--Cunoniaceae WM09
       |  |  `--+--Elaeocarpaceae WM09
       |  |     `--Cephalotus [Cephalotaceae, Cephalotales] WM09
       |  |          `--C. follicularis WM09
       |  `--Brunellia [Brunelliaceae] XR12
       |       |--B. comocladiifolia J87
       |       |    |--B. c. ssp. comocladiifolia J87
       |       |    `--B. c. ssp. domingensis J87
       |       |--B. goudotii R96
       |       `--B. vulgaris C55a
       `--+--Connaraceae WM09
          |    |--Jollydora [Jollydoroideae] T00
          |    |--Rourea brachyandra B00
          |    |--Connaracanthium roureoides Conwentz 1886 CBH93
          |    |--Cnestis CBH93
          |    `--Connarus [Connaroideae] WM09
          |         `--C. conchocarpus WM09
          `--Oxalidaceae [Averrhoeaceae] XR12
               |  i. s.: Oxalidites brachysepalus Caspary 1887 CBH93
               |         Bilimbia Rchb. 1837 KC01
               |         Averrhoites R06
               |--+--Dapania XR12
               |  `--Averrhoa XR12
               |       |--A. bilimbi P88
               |       `--A. carambola XR12
               `--Oxalis Linnaeus 1753 XR12, A61 [incl. Oxys D01]
                    |--O. albicans H93
                    |    |--O. a. ssp. albicans H93
                    |    |--O. a. ssp. californica H93
                    |    `--O. a. ssp. pilosa H93
                    |--O. ausensis CV06
                    |--O. cernua C55b
                    |--O. corniculata Linnaeus 1753 A61
                    |    |--O. c. var. corniculata A61
                    |    |--O. c. var. ciliifera (Cunn.) Hook. f. 1852 (see below for synonymy) A61
                    |    |--O. c. var. crassifolia (Cunn.) Hook. f. 1852 [=O. crassifolia Cunn. 1839] A61
                    |    `--O. c. var. microphylla Hook. f. 1852 [incl. O. exilis Cunn. 1839] A61
                    |--O. dillenii Jacq. 1794 CD07
                    |--O. eggersii J87
                    |--O. hirta C06
                    |--O. hunsbergensis CV06
                    |--O. laciniata D03
                    |--O. lactea Hook. 1836 [incl. O. cataractae Cunn. 1839, O. novae-zelandiae Gand. 1913] A61
                    |--O. latifolia [incl. O. martiana] H93
                    |--O. laxa H93
                    |--O. luederitzii CV06
                    |--O. magellanica Forst. f. 1789 A61
                    |--O. micrantha H93
                    |--O. oregana H93
                    |--O. perennans GK00
                    |--O. pes-caprae M99
                    |--O. pseudo-cernua CV06
                    |--O. purpurea [incl. O. variabilis] H93
                    |--O. rubra H93
                    |--O. schaeferi CV06
                    |--O. stricta Linnaeus 1753 A61 (see below for synonymy)
                    |--O. suksdorfii H93
                    |--O. trilliifolia H93
                    `--O. tuberosa S00

Oxalis corniculata var. ciliifera (Cunn.) Hook. f. 1852 [=O. ciliifera Cunn. 1839; incl. O. tenuicaulis Cunn. 1839] A61

Oxalis stricta Linnaeus 1753 A61 [=O. corniculata var. stricta C06; incl. O. ambigua Rich. 1832 A61, O. divergens Cunn. 1839 A61, O. lacicola Cunn. 1839 A61, O. propinqua Cunn. 1839 A61, O. urvillei Cunn. 1839 A61]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1–E44.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[D01] Doweld, A. B. 2001. The systematic relevance of fruit and seed structure in Bersama and Melianthus (Melianthaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 227: 75–103.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby's Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[M99] Matthews, M. 1999. Heliothine Moths of Australia: A guide to bollworms and related noctuid groups. CSIRO Publishing.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[R96] Righi, G. 1996. Colombian earthworms. Studies on Tropical Andean Ecosystems 4: 485–607.

[R06] Rose, K. D. 2006. The Beginning of the Age of Mammals. John Hopkins University Press: Baltimore.

[S00] Siddiqi, M. R. 2000. Tylenchida: Parasites of plants and insects 2nd ed. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[WM09] Wang, H., M. J. Moore, P. S. Soltis, C. D. Bell, S. F. Brockington, R. Alexandre, C. C. Davis, M. Latvis, S. R. Manchester & D. E. Soltis. 2009. Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (10): 3853–3858.

[XR12] Xi, Z., B. R. Ruhfel, H. Schaefer, A. M. Amorim, M. Sugumaran, K. J. Wurdack, P. K. Endress, M. L. Matthews, P. F. Stevens, S. Mathews & C. C. Davis. 2012. Phylogenomics and a posteriori data partitioning resolve the Cretaceous angiosperm radiation Malpighiales. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (43): 17519–17524.

Last updated: 24 April 2021.

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