Psychotrieae

Chasalia curviflora, photographed by Joby Joseph.


Belongs within: Rubioideae.

The Psychotrieae are a clade of tropical plants with fleshy fruits. A number of members of the clade, such as the genera Hydnophytum and Myrmecodia, are specialised for myrmecophily. The greater number of species (nearly 2000) are included in the genus Psychotria, though in its current circumscription this genus is para- or polyphyletic (Davis et al. 2001).

Characters (from Bremer & Manen 2000): Shrubs, trees or herbs, or epiphytes. Stipules divided or rarely entire. Flowers often small, white and heterostylous. Ovary often 2-locular, with single erect ovule in each locule. Fruits fleshy, with one-seeded pyrenes. Seeds often with horny endosperm. Pollen very variable, 0-5-aperturate. Chromosome basic number x=(10), 11 with 2-12-ploidy level.

<==Psychotrieae [Psathureae]
    |--Geophila repens BM00
    |--Chasalia BM00
    |    |--C. curviflora VM03
    |    |    |--C. c. var. curviflora VM03
    |    |    `--C. c. var. ophioxyloides VM03
    |    `--C. parviflora BM00
    |--Chazaliella abrupta BM00
    |--Hymenocoleus hirsutus BM00
    |--Anthorrhiza BM00
    |--Myrmephytum BM00
    |--Squamellaria BM00
    |--Readea BM00
    |--Streblosa BM00
    |--Margaretopsis BM00
    |--Hydnophytum [Hydnophytineae] DB01
    |    `--H. formicarum BM00
    |--Myrmecodia BM00
    |    |--M. platyrea BM00
    |    `--M. tuberosa P88
    |--Palicourea BM00
    |    |--P. alpina J87
    |    `--P. torbeciana J87
    |--Rudgea BM00
    |    |--R. lorentensis BJ99
    |    `--R. sessiliflora BM00
    |--Amaracarpus BM00
    |    |--A. archboldianus S88
    |    |--A. fimbristipularis S88
    |    `--A. giluwensis S88
    `--Psychotria Linnaeus 1759 (nom. cons.) S88 (see below for synonymy)
         |  i. s.: P. alpestris J87
         |         P. apiculata Warburg 1891 S88
         |         P. aquatilis Merrill & Perry 1946 S88
         |           |--P. a. var. aquatilis S88
         |           `--P. a. var. divaricatus Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. archboldii Sohmer 1988 S88
         |           |--P. a. var. archboldii S88
         |           `--P. a. var. multinervia Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. ardisioides DB01
         |         P. asekiensis Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. aurea Lauterbach in Lauterbach & Schumann 1905 S88
         |         P. axilliflora Merrill & Perry 1946 S88
         |         P. baltenweckii J87
         |         P. beaufortiensis Valeton ex Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. berteriana SWK87
         |         P. boloboensis Valeton 1927 S88
         |           |--P. b. var. boloboensis S88
         |           `--P. b. var. balimensis (Merrill & Perry) Sohmer 1988 [=P. balimensis Merrill & Perry 1946] S88
         |         P. bracteosa Valeton in Lorentz 1911 (see below for synonymy) S88
         |         P. brownei Sprengel 1824 [=*Psychotrophum brownei] DB01
         |         P. butibumensis Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. calycina Valeton 1927 (n. d.) S88
         |         P. camptodroma Merrill & Perry 1946 (n. d.) S88
         |         P. carthagenensis DB01
         |         P. cephalophora DB01
         |         P. chonantha (Gilli) Sohmer 1988 (see below for synonymy) S88
         |         P. chrysantha Merrill & Perry 1946 S88
         |         P. chrysanthoides Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. condensata Valeton in Lorentz 1911 [=Grumilea condensata Valeton 1907] S88
         |         P. conglobata Valeton in Lorentz 1911 S88
         |         P. conglobatioides Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. crassipedunculata Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. crassiramula Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. crebrinervis Valeton 1927 (n. d.) S88
         |         P. croftiana Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. cupulata Valeton in Lorentz 1911 S88
         |         P. damasiana Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. decorifolia Moore 1923 S88
         |         P. dieniensis Merrill & Perry 1946 S88
         |         P. diplococca Lauterbach & Schumann 1901 S88
         |           |--P. d. var. diplococca S88
         |           |--P. d. var. mailanderi Valeton 1927 S88
         |           `--P. d. var. tauriensis Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. dipteropoda Lauterbach & Schumann 1901 [incl. P. alata Valeton 1927] S88
         |         P. dipteropodioides Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. direpta Wernham 1918 S88
         |         P. dolichantha (Shumann) Valeton 1927 [=Grumilea dolichantha Schumann 1905] S88
         |         P. dolichosepala Merrill & Perry 1946 [incl. P. d. f. glabra Merrill & Perry 1946] S88
         |         P. ectasiphylla Lauterbach & Schumann 1901 S88
         |         P. elliptica DB01
         |         P. fimbricalyx DB01
         |         P. flaviramula Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. fluviatilis DB01
         |         P. fonticola Valeton 1927 (n. d.) S88
         |         P. foremanii Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. frodinii Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. galorei Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. gawadacephaelis Wernham 1918 S88
         |         P. giluwensis Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. goodenoughiensis Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. graciliflora MM96
         |         P. grandis SWK87
         |         P. guadelupensis J87
         |         P. haumugaensis Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. hebecarpa Merrill & Perry 1946 S88
         |         P. hellwigiensis Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. hentyi Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. heterophylla Merrill & Perry 1946 S88
         |         P. hollandiae Valeton in Lorentz 1912 (see below for synonymy) S88
         |           |--P. h. var. hollandiae S88
         |           |--P. h. var. pioraensis Sohmer 1988 S88
         |           `--P. h. var. whitei (Moore) Sohmer 1988 [=P. whitei Moore 1922] S88
         |         P. ihuensis Merrill & Perry 1946 S88
         |         P. inconspicua Merrill & Perry 1946 S88
         |         *Uragoga’ ipecacuanha (Brotero) Baillon 1879 S88
         |         P. johnsii Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. kairoana Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. kajewskii Merrill & Perry 1946 S88
         |         P. kaniensis Valerton 1927 S88
         |         P. karemaensis Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. katikii Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. kelelensis Valeton 1927 S88
         |         P. keyensis S88
         |         P. kirkii BM00
         |         P. kochii Valeton in Lorentz 1911 S88
         |         P. kratunsis DB01
         |         P. lanceolaria DB01
         |         P. lasianthifolia Valeton 1927 (n. d.) S88
         |         P. leiophloea Merrill & Perry 1946 S88
         |         P. leleana Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. leleanoides Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. leptothyrsa Miquel 1868 (see below for synonymy) S88
         |           |--P. l. var. leptothyrsa S88
         |           |--P. l. var. friabilis Sohmer 1988 S88
         |           `--P. l. var. multifurca (Valeton) Sohmer 1988 [=P. multifurca Valeton 1927] S88
         |         P. leucococca Lauterbach in Schumann & Lauterbach 1901 [incl. P. hageniana Gilli 1980] S88
         |         P. liogieri J87
         |         P. longipaniculata Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. lorentzii Valeton in Lorentz 1911 S88
         |         P. luteola Merrill & Perry 1946 S88
         |         P. mafuluensis Moore 1922 S88
         |         P. magnasepala Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. malacorrhax (Lauterbach & Schumann) Valeton 1927 (n. d.) (see below for synonymy) S88
         |         P. malayana S88
         |         P. marafungaensis Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. mariana S88
         |         P. melanocarpa Merrill & Perry 1946 S88
         |         P. membranifolia Bartling ex de Candolle 1830 S88
         |         P. merrilliana Sohmer 1988 [=P. trichostoma var. macrophylla Merrill & Perry 1946 (preoc.)] S88
         |         P. micralabastra (Lauterbach & Schumann) Valeton 1927 (see below for synonymy) S88
         |         P. micrococca (Lauterbach & Schumann) Valeton 1927 (see below for synonymy) S88
         |         P. misolensis Valeton ex Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. monopedicellata Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. montana Blume 1826 [incl. P. expansa Blume 1826, Chasalia expansa (Blume) Miquel 1856] S88
         |           |--P. m. var. montana S88
         |           `--P. m. var. gracillima Wernham 1918 S88
         |         P. montensis Moore 1927 S88
         |         P. morobensis Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. multicostata Valeton 1927 [incl. P. multicostoides Valeton 1927] S88
         |         P. multipedunculata Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. mur-murensis Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. muscicola Valeton 1927 (n. d.) S88
         |         ‘*Cephaelis’ muscosa (Jacquin) Swartz 1788 S88
         |         P. myrmecophila Lauterbach & Schumann 1901 S88
         |         P. myrsinoides Merrill & Perry 1927 S88
         |         P. nana Valeton 1927 (n. d.) S88
         |         P. nanifrutex Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         ‘*Grumilea’ nigra Gaertner 1788 S88
         |         P. nouhuysii Valeton in Lorentz 1911 (n. d.) S88
         |         P. novohiberiensis Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. pallida S88
         |         P. paludicola Merrill & Perry 1946 S88
         |         P. papuana (Wernham) St. John 1936 [=Gouldia papuana Wernham 1918] S88
         |         P. pavairiensis Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. pedicellata Valeton 1927 (n. d.) S88
         |         P. peekeliana Valeton 1927 S88
         |         P. peteri BM00
         |         P. petiolosa Valeton in Lorentz 1911 S88
         |         P. phaeochlamys (Lauterbach & Schumann) Valeton 1927 (see below for synonymy) S88
         |         P. phaeochlamysioides Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. poeppigiana BM00
         |         P. polita Valeton 1927 S88
         |         P. praecox Valeton ex Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. pseudixoriodes DB01
         |         P. pubescens J87
         |         P. pulleniana Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. purariensis Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. ramadecumbens Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. ramuensis Sohmer 1988 S88
         |           |--P. r. var. ramuensis S88
         |           `--P. r. var. pubescentia Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. ramulosa Merrill & Perry 1946 [incl. P. kanehirae Merrill & Perry 1946] S88
         |         P. randiana Merrill & Perry 1946 S88
         |           |--P. r. var. randiana S88
         |           |--P. r. var. misimensis (Merrill & Perry) Sohmer 1988 [=P. misimensis Merrill & Perry 1946] S88
         |           `--P. r. var. tafaensis (Merrill & Perry) Sohmer 1988 [=P. tafaensis Merrill & Perry 1946] S88
         |         P. reflexapedunculata Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. reticulatissima Moore 1927 S88
         |         P. rosseliensis Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. rostrata S88
         |         P. rubiginosissima S88
         |         P. rubra [=Antherura rubra Loureiro 1790] DB01
         |         P. rugosa Valeton 1927 (n. d.) S88
         |         P. saidoriensis Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. sarmentosa K03
         |         P. sarmiensis Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. schmielei Warburg 1891 S88
         |         P. schraderbergiensis Valeton 1927 (n. d.) S88
         |         P. schultzei Valeton 1927 S88
         |         P. sentanensis Valeton in Lorentz 1911 S88
         |         P. sogerensis Wernham 1916 S88
         |         P. solomonensis Merrill & Perry 1946 S88
         |         P. sphaerothyrsa Valeton 1927 S88
         |         P. stevensiana Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. streimannii Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. stricta S88
         |         P. subcaudata S88
         |         P. subdicocca Valeton 1927 (n. d.) S88
         |         P. subherbacea S88
         |         P. subrepanda Lauterbach & Schumann 1901 (n. d.) S88
         |         P. talasensis Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. tenuis Merrill & Perry 1946 S88
         |         P. testacea Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. trichocarpa Valeton 1927 S88
         |         P. trichostoma Merrill & Perry 1946 S88
         |         P. tripedunculata Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. uliginosa J87
         |         ‘Mapouria’ umbrosa BM00
         |         P. utakwensis Wernham 1916 S88
         |         P. vaccinioides Valeton in Gibbs 1917 S88
         |           |--P. v. var. vaccinioides S88
         |           `--P. v. var. kostermansii Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. vaccinioidifolia Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. valetoniana Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. vanimoensis Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. versteegii Deb & Gangopadhyay 1982 [incl. P. polyneura Valeton in Lorentz 1911 non Kurz 1875] S88
         |         P. vinkii Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. viridiflora DB01
         |         P. waiuensis Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. wernhamiana S88
         |         P. wichmannii Valeton in Lorentz 1911 [incl. P. ochnidiophora Wernham in Ridley 1916] S88
         |         P. womersleyi Sohmer 1988 S88
         |         P. yapaensis Sohmer 1988 S88
         `--P. subg. Psychotria [incl. Mapouria] DB01
              |--*P. asiatica Linnaeus 1759 [incl. P. reevesii Wallich in Roxburgh 1824] DB01
              `--P. mapourioides [=*Mapouria mapourioides] DB01

Psychotria Linnaeus 1759 (nom. cons.) S88 [incl. Antherura DB01, Cephaelis Swartz 1788 S88, Grumilea Gaertner 1788 S88, Ouragoga Linnaeus 1737 S88, Psychotrophum Browne 1756 S88, Uragoga Baillon 1879 S88]

Psychotria bracteosa Valeton in Lorentz 1911 [incl. P. chrysocarpa Merrill & Perry 1946, P. lolokiensis Moore 1929] S88

Psychotria chonantha (Gilli) Sohmer 1988 [=Caelospermum chonanthum Gilli 1980; incl. P. aundensis van Royen 1983, P. kuborensis van Royen 1983] S88

Psychotria hollandiae Valeton in Lorentz 1912 [incl. P. djamunensis Valeton 1927, Grumilea portus-finschii Schumann & Lauterbach 1901, P. portus-finschii (Schumann & Lauterbach) Valeton 1927] S88

Psychotria leptothyrsa Miquel 1868 [incl. Hydnophytum beccarii Schumann 1888, P. beccarii (Schumann) Schumann in Schumann & Hollrung 1889, P. beccarioides Wernham 1918, Grumilea cornifer Wernham 1918, P. salmoneiflora Schumann in Lauterbach & Schumann 1905] S88

Psychotria malacorrhax (Lauterbach & Schumann) Valeton 1927 (n. d.) [=Grumilea malacorrhax Lauterbach & Schumann 1901] S88

Psychotria micralabastra (Lauterbach & Schumann) Valeton 1927 [=Grumilia micralabastra Lauterbach & Schumann 1901; incl. P. eucosta Valeton 1927] S88

Psychotria micrococca (Lauterbach & Schumann) Valeton 1927 [=Grumilea micrococca Lauterbach & Schumann 1901; incl. P. puberula Schumann in Schumann & Hollrung 1889 (preoc.), Grumilea pubera (Schumann) Lauterbach & Schumann 1901, P. pubera Valeton 1927, P. schumannii Valeton 1927, P. scratchleyi Wernham 1918, P. weinlandii Schumann in Lauterbach & Schumann 1905] S88

Psychotria phaeochlamys (Lauterbach & Schumann) Valeton 1927 [=Grumilea phaeochlamys Lauterbach & Schumann 1901] S88

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BJ99] Bremer, B., R. K. Jansen, B. Oxelman, M. Backlund, H. Lantz & K.-J. Kim. 1999. More characters or more taxa for a robust phylogeny – case study from the coffee family (Rubiaceae). Systematic Biology 48 (3): 413-435.

[BM00] Bremer, B., & J.-F. Manen. 2000. Phylogeny and classification of the subfamily Rubioideae (Rubiaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 225: 43-72.

[DB01] Davis, A. P., D. Bridson, C. Jarvis & R. Govaerts. 2001. The typification and characterization of the genus Psychotria L. (Rubiaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 135 (1): 35-42.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81-98.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1-487.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[S88] Sohmer, S. H. 1988. The nonclimbing species of the genus Psychotria (Rubiaceae) in New Guinea and the Bismarck Archipelago. Bishop Museum Bulletin in Botany 1: 1-339.

[VM03] Viswanathan, M. B. & U. Manikandan. 2003. A new species of Balsaminaceae, Impatiens tirunelvelica, from peninsular India. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45 (1-4): 189-194.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="http://www.fieldofscience.com/">FoS</a> = FoS