American elm Ulmus americana, photographed by Steven J. Baskauf.

Belongs within: Rosales.

The Ulmaceae, elms, are a family of wind-pollinated trees and shrubs most diverse in northern temperate regions. Elms of the genus Ulmus are widespread in Eurasia and North America, and have been introduced into other parts of the world as ornamental trees.

Characters (from Sherman-Broyles, Barker & Schulz): Trees or shrubs, deciduous (sometimes tardily deciduous in Ulmus). Bark smooth to deeply fissured or scaly and flaky; sap watery. Leaves alternate (rarely opposite), distichous (or rarely not), simple; stipules present; petiole present. Leaf blade: base often oblique, margins entire or serrate, crenate, or toothed; venation pinnate to palmate-pinnate. Inflorescences axillary, cymes, racemes, fascicles, or flowers solitary, arising from branchlets of previous season or of current season. Flowers bisexual or unisexual, staminate and pistillate on same (rarely different) plants; sepals persistent, (1-)5(-9), connate (rarely distinct), imbricate or valvate; petals absent; stamens usually as many as calyx lobes, hypogynous, opposite calyx lobes, erect in bud; filaments free or arising from calyx tube, distinct, curved or sigmoid in bud; anthers 2-locular, dehiscence longitudinal; pistils 1, 2(-3)-carpellate; ovary 1(-2)-locular; ovules 1 per locule, pendulous from apex of locule, anatropous or amphitropous; styles (1-)2, distinct, receptive stigmatic area decurrent on distal inner margin of style branch. Fruits fleshy drupes, samaras, or nutlike. Seeds 1; arils absent; endosperm absent to scanty, consisting of 1 layer of thick-walled cells; embryo straight or curved.

    |--Parasponia H03
    |--Ampelocera T00
    |--Zelkova serrata T00, LO98 [incl. Zelkowa keaki LO98]
    |--Chaetacme YY22
    |--Gironniera pyriformis JD05
    |--Pteroceltis YY22
    |--Lozanella YY22
    |--Trema J87
    |    |--T. lamarckiana J87
    |    |--T. micrantha J87
    |    `--T. orientalis P03
    |--Ulmus T03
    |    |--U. americana SK03
    |    |--U. davidiana T03
    |    |--U. glabra R-CT01
    |    |--U. major C55
    |    |--U. minor R-CT01
    |    |--U. nigra RS03
    |    |--U. parvifolia LO98
    |    |--U. pumila R70
    |    `--U. rubra B75
    `--Holoptelea integrifolia P03

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B75] Bowles, J. B. 1975. Distribution and biogeography of mammals of Iowa. Special Publications, The Museum, Texas Tech University 9: 1-184.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: Vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311-449.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[JD05] Junge, F. W., M. Dolezych, H. Walther, T. Böttger, A. Kühl, L. Kunzmann, P. Morgenstern, T. Steinberg & R. Stange. 2005. Ein Fenster in Landschaft und Vegetation vor 37 Millionen Jahren: Lithologische, sedimentgeochemische und paläobotanische Befunde aus einem Paläoflusssystem des Weißelsterbeckens. Mauritiana 19 (2): 185-273.

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263-276.

[P03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45 (1-4): 121-142.

[R-CT01] Ragusa-di Chiara, S., & H. Tsolakis. 2001. Phytoseiid faunas of natural and agricultural ecosystems in Sicily. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 522-529. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[R70] Rising, J. D. 1970. Morphological variation and evolution in some North American orioles. Systematic Zoology 19 (4): 315-351.

[RS03] Rivas, R., M. Sánchez, M. E. Trujillo, J. L. Zurdo-Piñeiro, P. F. Mateos, E. Martínez-Molina & E. Velázquez. 2003. Xylanimonas cellulosilytica gen. nov., sp. nov., a xylanolytic bacterium isolated from a decayed tree (Ulmus nigra). International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 99-103.

[SK03] Snell, K. L., & H. W. Keller. 2003. Vertical distribution and assemblages of corticolous myxomycetes on five tree species in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Mycologia 95 (4): 565-576.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: Dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441-647.

[T03] Tsurusaki, N. 2003. Phenology and biology of harvestmen in and near Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan, with some taxonomical notes on Nelima suzukii n. sp. and allies (Arachnida: Opiliones). Acta Arachnologica 52: 5-24.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

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