Bower vine Pandorea jasminoides, copyright RI.

Belongs within: Lamiales.
Contains: Tabebuia, Tecoma, Radermachera.

The Bignoniaceae is a pantropical family of small trees, shrubs and climbers. Many species are familiar ornamental plants, such as the jacaranda Jacaranda acutifolia and tecoma Tecomaria capensis. The Bignoniaceae are mostly divided between the Bignoniae, with the fruit a compressed capsule in which the septum is parallel with the valves and dehiscence is septifragal, and Tecomeae, with the septum at right angles to the convex valves and loculicidal dehiscence (Black & Robertson 1965). The genus Crescentia, calabash trees, found in Africa and the Americas, bears one-celled berries and is placed in a distinct tribe. The type genus of the family, Bignonia, is an American genus of climbers with large tubular flowers. Tecomanthe speciosa, a climber native to the Three Kings Islands near New Zealand, has only ever been known from a single individual in the wild but has become widely grown as an ornamental.

Characters (from Black & Robertson 1965): Shrubs or woody climbers with exstipulate usually opposite and compound leaves. Flowers iregular, bisexual; corolla with five imbricate lobes, often two-lipped; stamens usually four, in pairs, inserted in tube, fifth stamen mostly reduced to small staminode; anthers two-celled; ovary superior, two-celled, with two septal placentas; ovules several or numerous; style with two short stigmatic lobes; fruit a capsule much longer than calyx, opening from summit in two valves with flat septum breaking away from valves and falling off; seed with broad hyaline wings, without albumen; radicle close to hilum.

    |--Bignonieae [Eubignonieae] S77
    |    |--Bignonia HH03
    |    |    |--B. aequinoctialis HH03
    |    |    |--B. diversifolia S77
    |    |    |--B. fraxinoides Perrottet 1824 (n. d.) S77
    |    |    `--B. hirsuta Lamk 1785 (n. d.) [=Tecoma hirsuta DC. 1845] S77
    |    |--Nyctocalos T. & B. in Miq. 1862 [=Nycticalos (l. c.)] S77
    |    |    |--N. brunfelsiiflora T. & B. in Miq. 1862 (see below for synonymy) S77
    |    |    |--N. cuspidata (Bl.) Miq. 1867 (see below for synonymy) S77
    |    |    `--N. pinnata S77
    |    |--Hieris Steen. 1928 S77
    |    |    `--H. curtisii (Ridl.) Steen. 1928 [=Tecoma curtisii Ridl. 1908, Pandorea curtisii Ridl. 1923] S77
    |    |--Oroxylum Vent. 1808 (see below for synonymy) S77
    |    |    `--O. indicum (Linné) Kurz 1877 (see below for synonymy) S77
    |    `--Millingtonia Linné 1781 S77
    |         `--M. hortensis Linné 1781 (see below for synonymy) S77
    |--Tecomeae [Catalpeae] BR65
    |    |--Lamiodendron Steen. 1957 S77
    |    |    `--L. magnificum Steen. 1957 S77
    |    |--Fernandoa Welw. ex Seem. 1865 (see below for synonymy) S77
    |    |    |--F. adenophylla (Don) Steen. 1976 (see below for synonymy) S77
    |    |    `--F. macroloba (Miq.) Steen. 1976 (see below for synonymy) S77
    |    |--Stereospermum Cham. 1832 [incl. Dipterosperma Hassk. 1842, Hieranthes Rafin. 1838] S77
    |    |    |--S. chelonoides (L. f.) DC. 1838 (see below for synonymy) S77
    |    |    |--S. cylindricum S77
    |    |    |--S. fimbriatum (Wall. ex Don) DC. 1845 [=Bignonia fimbriata Wall. ex Don 1838] S77
    |    |    `--S. personatum (Hassk.) Chatterjee 1948 (see below for synonymy) S77
    |    |--Tecomanthe Baill. 1891 (see below for synonymy) S77
    |    |    |--T. dendrophila (Bl.) Sch. in Sch. & Laut. 1900 (see below for synonymy) S77
    |    |    |--T. speciosa Oliver 1948 A61
    |    |    |--T. ternatensis Steen. 1927 S77
    |    |    `--T. volubilis Gibbs 1917 [incl. T. arfaki Steen. 1927, T. nitida Steen. 1927] S77
    |    |         |--T. v. ssp. volubilis S77
    |    |         |--T. v. ssp. silvicola van Steenis 1977 [incl. T. cyclopensis Steen. 1927, T. saxosa Diels 1922] S77
    |    |         `--T. v. ssp. tenax van Steenis 1977 S77
    |    |--Tecoma S77
    |    |--Deplanchea Vieillard 1862 (see below for synonymy) S77
    |    |    |--D. bancana (Scheffer) Steen. 1927 (see below for synonymy) S77
    |    |    |--D. glabra (Steen.) Steen. 1927 [=Diplanthera glabra Steen. 1927; incl. De. tubulosa Steen. 1927] S77
    |    |    `--D. tetraphylla (Br.) F.v.M. 1889 (see below for synonymy) S77
    |    |--Dolichandrone (Fenzl) Seem. 1870 (nom. cons.) (see below for synonymy) S77
    |    |    |--*D. falcata S77
    |    |    |--D. filiformis LK14
    |    |    |--D. heterophylla LK14
    |    |    |--D. serrulata [incl. Bignonia laeta] S77
    |    |    `--D. spathacea (L. f.) Sch. 1889 (see below for synonymy) S77
    |    |--Radermachera S77
    |    |--Pauldopia Steen. 1969 S77
    |    |--‘Barnettia’ Santisuk 1973 non Bat. & Bezerra 1962 S77
    |    |--Pajanelia DC. 1838 S77
    |    |    `--P. longifolia (Willd.) Sch. 1895 (see below for synonymy) S77
    |    |--Neosepicaea Diels 1922 (see below for synonymy) S77
    |    |    |--N. aurantiaca (Diels) Steen. 1967 [=Tecomanthe aurantiaca Diels 1922] S77
    |    |    |--N. jucunda [=Hausmannia jucunda] S77
    |    |    |--N. leptophylla (Bl.) Steen. 1960 (see below for synonymy) S77
    |    |    `--N. viticoides Diels 1922 S77
    |    |--Pandorea Spach 1840 (see below for synonymy) S77
    |    |    |--P. baileyana S77
    |    |    |--P. jasminoides (Lindl.) Sch. 1894 [=Tecoma jasminoides Lindl. 1939] S77
    |    |    |--P. montana (Diels) van Steenis 1977 [=Tecomanthe montana Diels 1922] S77
    |    |    |--P. nervosa S77
    |    |    |--P. pandorana (Andrews) van Steenis 1928 S77 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |    |--P. p. ssp. pandorana S77
    |    |    |    `--P. p. ssp. timorensis van Steenis 1977 S77
    |    |    `--P. stenantha Diels 1922 S77
    |    |--Campsis S77
    |    |    |--C. grandiflora [incl. C. chinensis] S77
    |    |    |--C. radicans BTA75
    |    |    `--C. × tagliabuana [C. grandiflora × C. radicans] S77
    |    `--Podranea ricasoliana (Tanf.) Sprague 1904 (see below for synonymy) S77
    `--Crescentia F11 [Crescentieae S77]
         |--C. alata H.B.K. 1819 (see below for synonymy) S77
         `--C. cujete Linné 1753 [incl. C. ovata Burm. f. 1768] S77

Bignoniaceae incertae sedis:
  Catalpa S77
    |--C. bignonioides LC02
    |--C. longissima (Jacq.) Dum. 1802 (see below for synonymy) S77
    |--C. ovata S77
    `--C. × syringifolia [C. bignonioides × C. ovata] S77
  Kigelia africana (Lamk) Bth. in Hook. 1849 (see below for synonymy) S77
  Eccremocarpus scaber PT01
  Macfadyena S77
    |--M. cynanchoides S77
    |--M. uncata S77
    `--M. unguis-cati (Linné) Gentry 1973 (see below for synonymy) HH03
  Spathodea P88
    |--S. alternifolia C16
    |--S. campanulata Beauv. 1805 [incl. S. tulipifera, Dolichandrone tulipifera Bth. in B. & H. 1876] S77
    |--S. heterophylla C16
    `--S. nilotica S77
  Incarvillea [incl. Niedzwedzkia] S77
    |--I. mairei O88
    |    |--I. m. var. mairei O88
    |    `--I. m. var. grandiflora O88
    `--I. younghusbandii O88
  Tabebuia HH03
  Jacaranda S77
    |--J. acutifolia BR65
    |--J. caucana S77
    |--J. mimosifolia Don 1822 [incl. J. ovalifolia Br. 1822] S77
    `--J. obtusifolia S77
         |--J. o. ssp. obtusifolia S77
         `--J. o. ssp. rhombifolia [=J. rhombifolia Meijer 1818; incl. J. filicifolia Don 1823] S77
  Arrabidaea S77
    |--A. mollissima (H.B.K.) Bur. & Sch. 1896 S77
    `--A. verrucosa MM96
  Cydista aequinoctalis MM96
  Phryganocydia corymbosa (Vent.) Bur. ex Sch. 1894 [=Spathodea corymbosa Vent. 1807] S77
  Xylophragma MM96
  Tecomella undulata PP07
  Pseudocalymma macrocarpa GJ09
  Chilopsis linearis H93
    |--C. l. ssp. linearis H93
    `--C. l. ssp. arcuata H93
  Bignonicapsula formosa Berry 1930 CBH93
  Albertipollenites araneosus Frederiksen 1973 CBH93
  Markhamia stipulata S77
    |--M. s. var. stipulata S77
    `--M. s. var. cauda-felina S77
  Rhigozum S77
  Catophractes S77
  Phyllarthron bernierianum S77
  Astianthus antisyphilitica S77
  Argylia robusta A19
  Amphilophium S77
  Anemopaegma S77
    |--A. chamberlaynii (Sims) Bur. & Sch. 1896 (see below for synonymy) S77
    `--A. longepetiolatum S77
  Amphicome emodi S77
  Newbouldia laevis S77
  Heterophragma quadriloculare S77
  Paratecoma S77
  Zeyhera tuberculosa S77
  Sparattosperma vernicosum S77
  Cuspidaria pterocarpa S77
  Tanaecium S77
  Macranthisiphon S77
  Memora S77
  Delostoma S77
  Amphictena latifolia [incl. Crescentia cucurbitina] S77
  Pachyptera S77
    |--P. alliacea S77
    `--P. hymenaea (DC.) Gentry 1973 S77
  Parmentiera S77
    |--P. aculeata (H.B.K.) Seem. 1854 (see below for synonymy) S77
    `--P. cereifera Seem. in Hook. 1851 S77
  Pithecoctenium cynanchoides DC. 1845 S77
  Pyrostegia venusta (Ker) Miers 1863 (see below for synonymy) S77
  Saritaea magnifica (Steen.) Dugand 1945 [=Arrabidaea magnifica Steen. 1927] S77

Nomen nudum: Bignonia purpurea Thunb. 1825 S77

Anemopaegma chamberlaynii (Sims) Bur. & Sch. 1896 [=Bignonia chamberlaynii Sims 1820; incl. B. scandens Vell. 1825, Anemopaegma scandens Mello ex Sch. 1894] S77

Catalpa longissima (Jacq.) Dum. 1802 [=Bignonia longissima Jacq. 1760, Macrocatalpa longissima Britton 1918] S77

Crescentia alata H.B.K. 1819 [=Parmentiera alata Miers 1870; incl. Otophora paradoxa Bl. 1847, Crescentia trifolia Blanco 1837] S77

Deplanchea Vieillard 1862 [incl. Bulweria F.v.M. 1864 non Bonaparte 1843 (ICZN), Diplanthera Banks & Sol. ex Br. 1810 non Thouars 1806] S77

Deplanchea bancana (Scheffer) Steen. 1927 [=Diplanthera bancana Scheffer 1870; incl. De. coriacea Steen. 1928, De. bancana var. glabra Steen. 1927 non De. glabra (Steen.) Steen. 1927] S77

Deplanchea tetraphylla (Br.) F.v.M. 1889 [=Diplanthera tetraphylla Br. 1810; incl. De. bulwerii F.v.M. 1865, Faradaya chrysoclada Sch. & Laut. 1905, Diplanthera hirsuta Bailey 1896, Deplanchea hirsuta (Bailey) Steen. 1929, Bulweria nobilissima F.v.M. 1864, De. tetraphylla var. novoguineensis Steen. 1928] S77

Dolichandrone (Fenzl) Seem. 1870 (nom. cons.) [=Dolichandra sect. Dolichandrone Fenzl 1841; incl. Dolichandrone subg. Coriaceae Steen. 1927, Pongelia Rafin. 1838 (nom. rej.)] S77

Dolichandrone spathacea (L. f.) Sch. 1889 [=Bignonia spathacea L. f. 1781; incl. Spathodea diepenhorstii Miq. 1858, B. javanica Thunb. 1794, S. longiflora Vent. 1803, B. longiflora Willd. ex DC. 1845, Pongelia longiflora Rafin. 1838, B. longissima Lour 1790 non Jacq. 1760, Dolichandrone longissima Sch. 1894, Spathodea loureiriana DC. 1845, S. luzonica Blanco 1845, S. rheedii Spreng. 1825, Dolichandrone rheedii Seem. 1870] S77

Fernandoa Welw. ex Seem. 1865 [=Ferdinandia, Ferdinandoa; incl. Haplophragma Dop 1925, Hexaneurocarpon Dop 1929, Kigelianthe Baill. 1891, Spathodeopsis Dop 1929, Tisseranthodendron Sillans 1951] S77

Fernandoa adenophylla (Don) Steen. 1976 [=Bignonia adenophylla Don 1838, Haplophragma adenophyllum (DC.) Dop 1925, Heterophragma adenophyllum Seem. ex B. & H. 1875, Spathodea adenophylla DC. 1845] S77

Fernandoa macroloba (Miq.) Steen. 1976 [=Spathodea macroloba Miq. 1861, Haplophragma macrolobum (Miq.) Steen. 1927, Heterophragma macrolobum Back. ex Heyne 1927] S77

Kigelia africana (Lamk) Bth. in Hook. 1849 [=Bignonia africana Lamk 1785, Tecoma africana Don 1838; incl. Kigelia aethiopica (Fenzl) Decne in Deless. 1845, Crescentia pinnata Jacq. 1789, K. pinnata DC. 1845] S77

Macfadyena unguis-cati (Linné) Gentry 1973 [=Bignonia unguis-cati Linné 1753, Doxantha unguis-cati; incl. Macfadyena dentata Bur. & Sch. 1897, Bignonia tweediana Lindl. 1840] HH03

Millingtonia hortensis Linné 1781 [incl. Bignonia cicutaria Mart. 1820, M. dubiosa Span. 1835, B. suberosa Roxb. 1811 (nom. illeg.), Nevrilis suberosa Rafin. 1838 (nom. illeg.)] S77

Neosepicaea Diels 1922 [incl. Tecomanthe sect. Aurantiacae Steen. 1927, Pandorea sect. Grandiflores Steen. 1927, Haussmannia F.v.M. 1864 non Hausmannia Dunker 1846, Nyctocalos subg. Haussmannia Seem. 1870, Haussmannianthes Steen. 1929, Pandorea sect. Leptophyllae Steen. 1927] S77

Neosepicaea leptophylla (Bl.) Steen. 1960 [=Tecoma leptophylla Bl. 1849, Gelseminum leptophyllum O.K. 1891, Pandorea leptophylla Boerl. 1899; incl. Neosepicaea superba Steen. 1957] S77

Nyctocalos brunfelsiiflora T. & B. in Miq. 1862 [=N. brunfelsiaeflorus, N. brunfelsiiflorus; incl. N. shanica MacGregor & Smith 1911] S77

Nyctocalos cuspidata (Bl.) Miq. 1867 [=Tecoma cuspidata Bl. 1849, Gelseminum cuspidatum O. K. 1891, Nyctocalos cuspidatum; incl. N. assamica Hook. f. ex Sch. 1894, N. macrosiphon T. & B. 1856, N. cuspidata var. oblongum Steen. 1927, N. thomsonii Hook. f. 1867] S77

Oroxylum Vent. 1808 [=Oroxylon (l. c.); incl. Calosanthes Bl. 1826, Hippoxylon Rafin. 1838 (nom. illeg.)] S77

Oroxylum indicum (Linné) Kurz 1877 [=Bignonia indica Linné 1753, Calosanthes indica Bl. 1826, Hippoxylon indicum Rafin. 1838 (nom. illeg.), Spathodea indica Pers. 1807; incl. Arthrophyllum ceylanicum Miq. 1863, Oroxylon indicum var. citrinum van Steenis 1928, O. flavum Rehder in Sargent 1904, Bignonia pentandra Lour. 1790, B. quadripinnata Blanco 1837, Arthrophyllum reticulatum Bl. ex Miq. 1863, B. tripinnata Noronha 1790] S77

Pajanelia longifolia (Willd.) Sch. 1895 [=Bignonia longifolia Willd. 1800; incl. B. multijuga DC. 1838, Pajanelia bijuga (l. c.), B. macrostachya Wall. ex Don 1838, Payanelia (l. c.) multijuga, B. pajanelia Wall. 1830 (nom. illeg.), Pajanelia rheedii Wight 1848] S77

Pandorea Spach 1840 [=Tecoma sect. Pandorea Endl. 1839; incl. Tecomanthe sect. Montanae Steen. 1928, Pandorea sect. Parviflores Steen. 1927] S77

Pandorea pandorana (Andrews) van Steenis 1928 [=Bignonia pandorana Andrews 1800, B. pandorae Sims 1805, B. pandorea Vent. 1803, Campsis pandorana Steen. 1948, Gelseminum pandorea O.K. 1891, Pandorea australis ssp. pandorea Steen. 1927, Tecoma pandorana Skeels 1913, T. australis var. pandorea (Vent.) Bailey 1901; incl. Pandorea acutifolia Steen. 1927, T. australis Br. 1810, Bignonia australis Ait. 1814, Pandorea australis Spach. 1840, Tecoma austro-caledonica Bureau 1962, P. austro-caledonica Seem. 1870, P. austro-caledonicum, Tecoma ceramensis T. & B. 1863, P. ceramensis Baill. 1891, P. ceramica (l. c.), Tecoma diversifolia Don 1838, T. doratoxylon Black 1927, Pandorea doratoxylon Black 1937, T. ceramensis var. elliptica Miq. 1864, Campsidium filicifolium Bull 1874, T. filicifolium Nicholson 1887, T. floribunda Cunn. ex DC. 1845, Pandorea poincillantha var. fragrans Steen. 1927, T. australis var. linearis Bailey 1901, P. australis ssp. linearis Steen. 1927, Bignonia meonantha Link 1822, P. australis ssp. meonantha Steen. 1927, Tecoma australis var. meonantha (Link) DC. 1845, T. meonantha Sweet 1827, T. ochroxantha Kth & Bouché 1847, Gelseminum ochroxanthum O.K. 1891, T. oxleyi Cunningham ex DC. 1845, Pandorea australis var. oxleyi Domin 1929 (nom. illeg.), P. poincillantha Steen. 1927] S77

Parmentiera aculeata (H.B.K.) Seem. 1854 [=Crescentia aculeata H.B.K. 1819; incl. C. edulis Desv. 1814, Parmentiera edulis DC. 1845] S77

Podranea ricasoliana (Tanf.) Sprague 1904 [=Tecoma ricasoliana Tanf. 1887, Pandorea ricasoliana Baill. 1891] S77

Pyrostegia venusta (Ker) Miers 1863 [=Bignonia venusta Ker 1818, Tecoma venusta Lem. 1834; incl. Pyrostegia ignea (Vell.) Presl 1845] S77

Stereospermum chelonoides (L. f.) DC. 1838 [=Bignonia chelonoides L. f. 1781; incl. Hieranthes fragrans Rinf. 1838 (nom. illeg.), B. suaveolens Roxb. 1832, Stereospermum suaveolens DC. 1845, Tecoma suaveolens Don 1838, S. suaveolens f. verticillatum Steen. 1927] S77

Stereospermum personatum (Hassk.) Chatterjee 1948 [=Dipterosperma personatum Hassk. 1842, S. hasskarlii Z. & M. ex Zoll. 1855 (nom. illeg.); incl. Bignonia caudata DC. 1845, S. caudatum Miq. 1858, S. tetragonum DC. 1845] S77

Tecomanthe Baill. 1891 [incl. Campana Rumph. ex Post & O.K. 1904 (nom. inv.), Tecomanthe sect. Dendrophilae Steen. 1927, Tecomanthe sect. Saxosae Steen. 1928, Tecomanthe sect. Volubiles Steen. 1927] S77

Tecomanthe dendrophila (Bl.) Sch. in Sch. & Laut. 1900 [=Tecoma dendrophila Bl. 1849, Campsis dendrophila Seem. 1867, incl. Tecomanthe acutifolia Steen. 1927, Tecoma amboinensis Bl. 1849, Campsis amboinensis Seem. 1867, Gelseminum amboinense O.K. 1891, Pandorea amboinensis Boerl. 1899, Tecomanthe amboinensis Steen. 1927, Tecomanthe bureavii Baill. 1891, Gelseminum dendrophilum O.K. 1891, Pandorea dendrophila Boerl. 1899, Tecomanthe elliptica Steen. 1927, Tecomanthe gloriosa Moore 1923, Tecomantha venusta var. parviflora Steen. 1927, Campana rubra Rump. 1755, Dendrophila trifoliata Bl. 1849, Tecomanthe venusta Moore 1923] S77

*Type species of generic name indicated


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