Bignoniaceae

Tecoma stans, photographed by Tau'olunga.


Belongs within: Lamiales.

The Bignoniaceae is a pantropical family of small trees, shrubs and climbers. Many species are familiar ornamental plants, such as the jacaranda Jacaranda acutifolia and tecoma Tecomaria capensis. The Bignoniaceae are divided between the Bignoniae, with the fruit a compressed capsule in which the septum is parallel with the valves and dehiscence is septifragal, and Tecomeae, with the septum at right angles to the convex valves and loculicidal dehiscence (Black & Robertson 1965). The type genus, Bignonia, is an American genus of climbers with large tubular flowers. Tecomanthe speciosa, a climber native to the Three Kings Islands near New Zealand, has only ever been known from a single individual in the wild but has become widely grown as an ornamental.

Characters (from Black & Robertson 1965): Shrubs or woody climbers with exstipulate usually opposite and compound leaves. Flowers iregular, bisexual; corolla with five imbricate lobes, often two-lipped; stamens usually four, in pairs, inserted in tube, fifth stamen mostly reduced to small staminode; anthers two-celled; ovary superior, two-celled, with two septal placentas; ovules several or numerous; style with two short stigmatic lobes; fruit a capsule much longer than calyx, opening from summit in two valves with flat septum breaking away from valves and falling off; seed with broad hyaline wings, without albumen; radicle close to hilum.

<==Bignoniaceae
    |--Bignonia HH03 [Bignoniae BR65]
    |    `--B. aequinoctialis HH03
    `--Tecomeae BR65
         |--Lamiodendron H03
         |--Fernandoa H03
         |--Stereospermum H03
         |--Tecomanthe Baill. 1888 H03, A61
         |    `--T. speciosa Oliver 1948 A61
         `--Tecoma HH03
              |--T. capensis M99
              |--T. castanifolia [incl. T. gaudichaudii] HH03
              |--T. garrocha HH03
              |--T. stans (see below for synonymy) HH03
              `--T. valdiviana D03

Bignoniaceae incertae sedis:
  Catalpa bignonioides LC02
  Kigelia africana OP01
  Eccremocarpus scaber PT01
  Macfadyena unguis-cati [=Bignonia unguis-cati] HH03
  Oroxylum indicum K03
  Deplanchea glabra H03
  Radermachera ramiflora H03
  Dolichandrone LK14
    |--D. filiformis LK14
    |--D. heterophylla LK14
    `--D. spathacea P88
  Spathodea P88
    |--S. alternifolia C16
    |--S. campanulata P88
    `--S. heterophylla C16
  Incarvillea O88
    |--I. mairei O88
    |    |--I. m. var. mairei O88
    |    `--I. m. var. grandiflora O88
    `--I. younghusbandii O88
  Tabebuia HH03
    |--T. argentea SK02
    |--T. avellanedae [=Tecoma avellanedae] HH03
    |--T. berteri J87
    |--T. chrysantha HH03
    |--T. conferta J87
    |--T. heterophylla SWK87
    |--T. palmeri HH03
    |--T. pentaphylla HH03
    `--T. rigida SWK87
  Tecomaria capensis BR65
  Jacaranda acutifolia [incl. J. mimosifolia, J. ovalifolia] BR65
  Pandorea BR65
    |--P. doratoxylon Black 1937 (see below for synonymy) BR65
    |--P. jasminoides BR65
    `--P. pandorana (Andrews) van Steenis 1930 (see below for synonymy) BR65
  Cresentia K06
    |--C. alata K06
    `--C. cujete K06
  Arrabidaea verrucosa MM96
  Cydista aequinoctalis MM96
  Phryganocydea corymbosa MM96
  Xylophragma MM96
  Tecomella undulata PP07
  Pajanelia longifolia CMT06
  Pseudocalymma macrocarpa GJ09

Pandorea doratoxylon Black 1937 [=Tecoma doratoxylon Black 1927; incl. T. australis Bentham 1869 (preoc.)] BR65

Pandorea pandorana (Andrews) van Steenis 1930 [=Bignonia pandorana andr. 1800, Tecoma pandorana Skeels 1913; incl. Pandorea australis (Brown) Spach. 1840, T. oxleyi Cunningham 1845] BR65

Tecoma stans [=Bignonia stans, Stenolobium stans; incl. Tecoma mollis, S. molle, S. stans var. multijugum] HH03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[C16] Cambage, R. H. 1916. Notes on the native flora of tropical Queensland. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 49 (3): 389–447, pls 57–61.

[CMT06] Chakrabarty, T., V. Maina & M. Tigga. 2006. Plants used in gathering honey by the Jarawas of Andaman Islands. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 48 (1–4): 205–206.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[GJ09] Gagné, R. J., & M. Jaschhof. 2009. Cecidomyiidae (gall midges). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 293–314. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311–449.

[HH03] Hernández, J. R., & J. F. Hennen. 2003. Rust fungi causing galls, witches’ brooms, and other abnormal plant growths in northwestern Argentina. Mycologia 95 (4): 728–755.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81–98.

[K06] Kwiecinski, G. G. 2006. Phyllostomus discolor. Mammalian Species 801: 1–11.

[LC02] Långström, E., & M. W. Chase. 2002. Tribes of Boraginoideae (Boraginaceae) and placement of Antiphytum, Echiochilon, Ogastemma and Sericostoma: a phylogenetic analysis based on atpB plastid DNA sequence data. Plant Systematics and Evolution 234: 137–153.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[M99] Matthews, M. 1999. Heliothine Moths of Australia: A guide to bollworms and related noctuid groups. CSIRO Publishing.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1–487.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[OP01] Olmstead, R. G., C. W. dePamphilis, A. D. Wolfe, N. D. Young, W. J. Elisons & P. A. Reeves. 2001. Disintegration of the Scrophulariaceae. American Journal of Botany 88 (2): 348–361.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P. & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1–4): 15–78.

[PT01] Pemberton, L. M. S., S.-L. Tsai, P. H. Lovell & P. J. Harris. 2001. Epidermal patterning in seedling roots of eudicotyledons. Annals of Botany 87: 649–654.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[SK02] Sumithramma, N., A. R. V. Kumar, K. Chandrashekara & D. Rajagopal. 2002. Plant selection for nesting by Oecophylla smaragdina, Hymenoptera: Formicidae: do physical features affect the choice of the plant? Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 408–412.

Last updated: 27 June 2018.

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