Peacock worms Sabella pavonina, copyright Sue Daly.

Belongs within: Annelida.
Contains: Spionida, Serpulidae.

The Sabellida are a group of marine annelids characterised by fusion of the peristomium to the prostomium, together with the usual presence of numerous head appendages such as feeding tentacles. Molecular phylogenetic analyses have indicated that this group includes the Pogonophora, beard worms, whose derived morphology had previously lead to them being treated as a distinct phylum from annelids. Pogonophorans lack a mouth or digestive tract, instead absorbing nutrients directly through the outer cuticle or from endosymbiotic bacteria contained in the rear part of the body.

    |--+--Oweniidae SS07
    |  |    |--Myriochele RP07
    |  |    `--Owenia SS07
    |  |         |--O. collaris Hartman 1955 SS07
    |  |         `--O. fusiformis delle Chiaje 1841 SS07
    |  `--Pogonophora SS07
    |       |--Sabelliditida G79
    |       |    |--Calyptrina Sokolov 1965 [Saarinidae] G79
    |       |    |    `--*C. partita Sokolov 1965 G79
    |       |    `--Sabelliditidae G79
    |       |         |--Sabellidites Yanichevsky 1926 H62
    |       |         |    `--*S. cambriensis Yanichevsky 1926 H62
    |       |         `--Paleolina Sokolov 1965 G79
    |       |              `--*P. evenkiana Sokolov 1965 G79
    |       `--Siboglinidae [Frenulata] SS07
    |            |--Siboglinum [Perviata] RP07
    |            |    |--S. fiordicum Webb 1963 RGV04, SS07
    |            |    `--+--S. eckmani RGV04
    |            |       `--+--Spirobrachia RGV04
    |            |          `--+--Galathealinum brachiosum RGV04
    |            |             `--Polybrachia RGV04
    |            `--+--Osedax Rouse, Goffredi & Vrijenhoek 2004 RP07, RGV04
    |               |    |--*O. rubiplumus Rouse, Goffredi & Vrijenhoek 2004 RGV04
    |               |    `--O. frankpressi Rouse, Goffredi & Vrijenhoek 2004 RP07
    |               `--+--Sclerolinum brattstromi Webb 1964 RP07
    |                  `--Vestimentifera [Obturata] RGV04
    |                       |--Lamellibrachia barhami Webb 1969 RGV04, RP07
    |                       `--+--Escarpia spicata RGV04
    |                          `--+--Riftia pachyptila Jones 1981 RGV04, SS07
    |                             `--+--Tevnia jerichonana RGV04
    |                                `--+--Ridgeia piscesae Jones 1985 RGV04, RP07
    |                                   `--Oasisia alvinae RGV04
    `--+--Spionida SS07
       |--Sabellariidae [Hermellidae] SS07
       |    |--Gunnarea capensis Schmarda 1861 RP07
       |    |--Idanthyrsus pennatus (Peters 1855) RP07
       |    `--+--Phragmatopoma RP07
       |       |    |--P. lapidosa GO78
       |       |    `--P. virginii Kinberg 1867 GO78
       |       `--Sabellaria Lamarck 1818 RP07, H62 [incl. Hermella Savigny 1822 H62]
       |            |--*S. alveolata (Linné 1767) [=Sabella alveolata] H62
       |            |--S. cementarium Moore 1906 SS07
       |            `--S. spinulosa B79
       `--+--+--Serpulidae SS07
          |  `--Laonice cirrata RP07, KBC03
          `--Sabellidae SS07
               |  i. s.: Schizobranchia insignis Bush 1905 SS07
               |         Eudistylia polimorpha SS07, KBC03
               |         Iquitosia de Greve 1938 H62
               |           `--*I. bluntschlii de Greve 1938 H62
               |         Spirographites Astre 1937 H62
               |           `--*S. ellipticus Astre 1937 H62
               |         Glomerula Nielsen 1931 PTV14, H62
               |           `--*G. gordialis (von Schlotheim 1820) [=Serpulites gordialis] H62
               |--+--Amphicorina mobilis (Rouse 1990) RP07
               |  `--Myxicola infundibulum (Renier 1804) RP07, HJ08
               |--Sabella Linné 1767 RP07, H62
               |    |--*S. penicillus Linné 1767 H62
               |    |--S. melanostigma CH97
               |    |--S. pavonina ZHT01
               |    |--S. spallanzanii (Gmelin 1791) HJ08
               |    `--S. spectabilis H04
               `--+--Amphiglena RP07
                  |    |--A. mediterranea BBB-S95
                  |    `--A. terebro Rouse 1993 RP07
                  `--Pseudopotamilla RP07
                       |--P. occelata KBC03
                       `--P. reniformis (Bruguière 1789) RP07

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BBB-S95] Boubezari, K., G. Bitar & D. Bellan-Santini. 1995. Structure et organisation de trois moulières (Mytilus galloprovincialis et Perna perna) de la région d’Alger. Mésogée 54: 63–72.

[B79] Buss, L. W. 1979. Habitat selection, directional growth and spatial refuges: why colonial animals have more hiding places. In: Larwood, G., & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 459–497. Academic Press: London.

[CH97] Castro, P., & M. E. Huber. 1997. Marine Biology 2nd ed. WCB McGraw-Hill: Boston.

[GO78] Gallardo S., C., & C. Osorio R. 1978. Hiatella solida (Sowerby, 1834) (Mollusca: Hiatellidae) on Concholepas concholepas (Bruguière, 1789) and other substrates. Veliger 20 (3): 274–278.

[G79] Glaessner, M. F. 1979. Precambrian. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A79–A118. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[H62] Howell, B. F. 1962. Worms. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea: Conodonts, Conoidal Shells of Uncertain Affinities, Worms, Trace Fossils and Problematica pp. W144–W177. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[HJ08] Huisman, J. M., D. S. Jones, F. E. Wells & T. Burton. 2008. Introduced marine biota in Western Australian waters. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 1–44.

[KBC03] Kashin, I. A., E. V. Bagaveeva & S. F. Chaplygina. 2003. Fouling communities of hydrotechnical constructions in Nakhodka Bay (Sea of Japan). Russian Journal of Marine Biology 29: 267–283.

[PTV14] Parry, L., A. Tanner & J. Vinther. 2014. The origin of annelids. Palaeontology 57 (6): 1091–1103.

[RGV04] Rouse, G. W., S. K. Goffredi & R. C. Vrijenhoek. 2004. Osedax: bone-eating marine worms with dwarf males. Science 305: 668–671.

[RP07] Rousset, V., F. Pleijel, G. W. Rouse, C. Erséus & M. E. Siddall. 2007. A molecular phylogeny of annelids. Cladistics 23: 41–63.

[SS07] Struck, T. H., N. Schutt, T. Kusen, E. Hickman, C. Bleidorn, D. McHugh & K. M. Halanych. 2007. Annelid phylogeny and the status of Sipuncula and Echiura. BMC Evolutionary Biology 7: 57.

[ZHT01] Zrzavý, J., V. Hypša & D. F. Tietz. 2001. Myzostomida are not annelids: molecular and morphological support for a clade of animals with anterior sperm flagella. Cladistics 17: 170–198.

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