Blackworm Lumbriculus variegatus, copyright Malcolm Storey.

Belongs within: Annelida.
Contains: Dinophilidae, Tubificida, Haplotaxidae, Opisthopora, Hirudinea, Trichodrilus.

The Clitellata are a group of annelid worms characterised by the absence of parapodia and the presence of a clitellum, a distinct collar near the anterior end of the body that secretes a cocoon into which ova are deposited during reproduction. Clitellates have traditionally been divided between the free-living Oligochaeta (including earthworms) and parasitic Hirudinea (leeches) but phylogenetic studies have established that the former is paraphyletic to the latter.

<==Clitellata (see below for synonymy)
    |--Randiellidae [Randiellata, Randiellida] J88
    `--+--+--Dinophilidae RP07
       |  `--Capilloventer [Capilloventridae] RP07
       |       `--C. australis Erséus 1983 RP07
       `--+--Tubificida J88
          `--+--Diplotesticulata J88
             |    |--Haplotaxidae J88
             |    `--+--Tiguassu [Tiguassuidae] J88
             |       |    `--T. reginae Righi et al. 1978 J88
             |       `--Metagynophora [Megadrili] J88
             |            |--Opisthopora J88
             |            `--Moniligastridae [Moniligastrida, Moniligastrina] J88
             |                 |--Moniligaster troyi Jamieson 1977 J88
             |                 |--Desmogaster doriae Rosa 1890 J88
             |                 `--Drawida R71
             `--+--Hirudinea SS07
                `--Lumbriculidae [Lumbriculata, Lumbriculida] J88
                     |--Trichodrilus JD86
                     |--Eclipidrilus frigidus Eisen 1881 RP07
                     |--Rhynchelmis tetratheca (Michaelsen 1920) RP07
                     |--Spelaedrilus Cook 1975 JD86
                     |    `--S. multiporus Cook 1975 JD86
                     |--Guestphalinus Michaelsen 1933 JD86
                     |    `--G. wiardi Michaelsen 1933 JD86
                     |--Hrabea Yamaguchi 1936 JD86
                     |    `--H. ogumai Yamaguchi 1936 JD86
                     |--Lumbriculus SS07
                     |    |--L. hoffmeisteri KA01
                     |    `--L. variegatus (Mueller 1774) SS07
                     |--Bythonomus Grube 1889 JD86
                     |    |--B. beattiei Cook 1975 JD86
                     |    |--B. lehmanni J88
                     |    `--B. sulci Hrabĕ 1934 JD86
                     `--Lamprodrilus Michaelsen 1901 JD86
                          `--L. michaelseni JD86
                               |--L. m. michaelseni JD86
                               `--L. m. carpaticus Botea 1978 JD86

Clitellata incertae sedis:
  Chaetogaster limnaei M47
  Calliobdella vivida M02
  Platybdella buccalis K-MC02
  Teleudrilus ragazzii G89
  Perichaeta modiglianii Rosa 1889 R89
  Ilyodrilus templetoni KA01
  Quistadrilus multisetosus KA01
  Acanthobdella ZHT01 [Acanthobdellida J88, Acanthobdellidae]
    `--A. peledina ZHT01
  Discodrilidae G09
    |--Branchiobdella [Branchiobdellida, Branchiobdellidae] G09
    `--Bdellodrilus G09
  Lumbricopsis Fritsch 1907 H62
    `--*L. permicus Fritsch 1907 H62
  Branchiura ED08
    |--B. pleurotheca ED08
    `--B. sowerbyi KA01

Clitellata [Diplotesticulata, Euclitellata, Haplotaxida, Haplotaxidea, Microdrili, Monotesticulata, Oligochaeta, Prosopora, Lumbriculina, Phreoryctina]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[ED08] Edgeworth David, T. W. 1908. Geological notes on Kosciusko, with special reference to evidences of glacial action. Part II. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 657–668, pl. 623.

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso «Esploratore» dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880.—IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 5–72.

[G09] Goddard, E. J. 1909. Contribution to a further knowledge of Australasian Oligochaeta. Part I. Descriptions of two species of a new genus of Phreodrilidae. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 768–793, pls 729–731.

[H62] Howell, B. F. 1962. Worms. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea: Conodonts, Conoidal Shells of Uncertain Affinities, Worms, Trace Fossils and Problematica pp. W144–W177. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[J88] Jamieson, B. G. M. 1988. On the phylogeny and higher classification of the Oligochaeta. Cladistics 4: 367–402.

[JD86] Juget, J., & E. Dumnicka. 1986. Oligochaeta (incl. Aphanoneura) des eaux souterraines continentales. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 234–244. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[KA01] Kent, M. L., K. B. Andree, J. L. Bartholomew, M. El-Matbouli, S. S. Desser, R. H. Devlin, S. W. Feist, R. P. Hedrick, R. W. Hoffmann, J. Khattra, S. L. Hallett, R. J. G. Lester, M. Longshaw, O. Palenzuela, M. E. Siddall & C. Xiao. 2001. Recent advances in our knowledge of the Myxozoa. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 48: 395–413.

[K-MC02] Klein-MacPhee, G., & B. B. Collette. 2002. Eelpouts. Family Zoarcidae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 466–474. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[M47] Mayr, E. 1947. Ecological factors in speciation. Evolution 1: 263–288.

[M02] Musick, J. A. 2002. Sturgeons. Family Acipenseridae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 83–88. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[R71] Righi, G. 1971. Sôbre a família Glossoscolecidae (Oligochaeta) no Brasil. Arquivos de Zoologia 20 (1): 1–95.

[R89] Rosa, D. 1889. I lombrichi raccolti nell’isola Nias dal Signor E. Modigliani e descritti dal Dott. Daniele Rosa, Assistente al R. Museo Zoologico di Torino. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 125–136.

[RP07] Rousset, V., F. Pleijel, G. W. Rouse, C. Erséus & M. E. Siddall. 2007. A molecular phylogeny of annelids. Cladistics 23: 41–63.

[SS07] Struck, T. H., N. Schutt, T. Kusen, E. Hickman, C. Bleidorn, D. McHugh & K. M. Halanych. 2007. Annelid phylogeny and the status of Sipuncula and Echiura. BMC Evolutionary Biology 7: 57.

[ZHT01] Zrzavý, J., V. Hypša & D. F. Tietz. 2001. Myzostomida are not annelids: molecular and morphological support for a clade of animals with anterior sperm flagella. Cladistics 17: 170–198.

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