Glycera alba, from

Belongs within: Aciculata.
Contains: Pisionidae, Polygordius, Aphroditiformia, Syllidae, Hesionidae, Nereididae, Phyllodocidae.

The Phyllodocida are a group of mostly active, primarily marine worms. Characteristic features of the group include ventrally positioned sensory palps, an axial eversible pharynx, enlarged anterior cirri, compound chaetae with a single ligament, and metanephromixia (Pleijel & Rouse 2004).

<==Phyllodocida [Nereidiformia]
    |--+--+--Aphroditiformia NP10
    |  |  `--Pholoe Johnston 1839 H-S86 [Pholoidae RF98]
    |  |       `--P. swedmarki Laubier 1975 H-S86
    |  `--Syllidae NP10
    `--+--+--Nephtyidae NP10
       |  |    |--Aglaophamus SS07
       |  |    |    |--A. circinata (Verrill 1874) SS07
       |  |    |    `--A. macroura HS01
       |  |    |--Nephtys SS07
       |  |    |    |--N. australiensis Fauchald 1965 RP07
       |  |    |    |--N. ciliata LOL03
       |  |    |    |--N. fluviatilis MGV06
       |  |    |    |--N. hombergi Savigny 1818 RP07
       |  |    |    `--N. longosetosa (Oersted 1842) SS07
       |  |    |--Astreptoscolex anasilosus PTV14
       |  |    `--Didontogaster cordylina PTV14
       |  `--+--Pilargidae NP10
       |     |    |--Ancistrosyllis groenlandica McIntosh 1879 SS07
       |     |    `--Sigambra RP07
       |     |         |--S. bassi GAS03
       |     |         `--S. hanaokai (Kitamori 1960) H-S86
       |     `--Sphaerodoridae RF98
       |          |--Ephesia gracilis TS02
       |          |--Sphaerodoropsis garciaalvarezi Moreira, Cacabelos & Troncoso 2004 F05
       |          `--Sphaerodorum BK77
       |               |--S. claparedei Greef 1866 M62
       |               `--S. greefii BK77
       `--+--+--Hesionidae SS07
          |  |--Paralacydonia [Paralacydoniidae] SS07
          |  |    `--P. paradoxa Fauvel 1913 SS07
          |  `--Nereididae PTV14
          `--+--+--Typhloscolex [Typhloscolecidae] NP10
             |  `--+--Lopadorhynchus [Lopadorhynchidae] NP10
             |     `--+--Lacydoniidae RF98
             |        `--Phyllodocidae SS07
             `--+--Tomopteridae SS07
                |    |--Tomopteris SS07
                |    |    |--T. catharina [incl. T. helgolandica] B26
                |    |    |--T. pacifica B70
                |    |    |--T. planktonis B26
                |    |    `--T. septentrionalis B26
                |    `--Eotomopteris aldridgei PTV14
                `--Glyceriformia RP07
                     |--Goniadidae SS07
                     |    |--Glycinde armigera Moore 1911 SS07
                     |    |--Progoniadides Hartmann-Schröder 1974 H-S86
                     |    |    `--P. laevis Hartmann-Schröder 1974 H-S86
                     |    |--Goniadides Hartmann-Schröder 1960 H-S86
                     |    |    |--G. aciculata Hartmann-Schröder 1960 H-S86
                     |    |    `--G. falcigera Hartmann-Schröder 1962 H-S86
                     |    |--Goniada SS07
                     |    |    |--G. brunnea Treadwell 1906 SS07
                     |    |    |--G. maculata Öersted 1843 RP07
                     |    |    `--G. norvegica M62
                     |    `--Carbosesostris megaliphagon PTV14
                     `--Glyceridae SS07
                          |--Glycerites Hinde 1879 H62
                          |    `--*G. sulcatus Hinde 1879 H62
                          |--Ildraites Eller 1936 H62
                          |    `--*I. bipennis (Eller 1934) [=Arabellites bipennis] H62
                          |--Paraglycerites Eisenack 1939 H62
                          |    `--*P. necans Eisenack 1939 H62
                          `--Glycera Savigny 1818 H62
                               |--*G. unicornis Savigny 1818 H62
                               |--G. alba (Müller 1776) RP07
                               |--G. americana ZHT01
                               |--G. capitata TS02
                               |--G. convoluta M62
                               |--G. dibranchiata Ehlers 1868 SS07
                               |--G. lamellipodia HS01
                               `--G. lapidum M62

Phyllodocida incertae sedis:
  Ichthyotomidae RF98
  Iospilidae RF98
  Nautillienellidae RF98
  Pontodoridae RF98
  Pisionidae RF98
  Polygordiidae [Gymnotoma] RP07
    |--Polygordius RP07
    |--Rhamphogordius lacteus Rathke 1843 H69
    |--Linotrypane apogon M’Intosh 1875 H69
    `--Chaetogordius canaliculatus Moore 1904 H69
  Kenostrychus PTV14
  Chrysopetalum [Chrysopetalidae RF98]
    `--C. occidentale KBC03

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BK77] Barel, C. D. N., & P. G. N. Kramers. 1977. A survey of the echinoderm associates of the north-east Atlantic area. Zoologische Verhandelingen 156: 1–159.

[B26] Bigelow, H. B. 1926. Plankton of the offshore waters of the Gulf of Maine. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries 40 (2): 1–509.

[B70] Briggs, J. C. 1970. A faunal history of the North Atlantic Ocean. Systematic Zoology 19 (1): 19–34.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[GAS03] Gulbin, V. V., I. S. Arzamastsev & V. M. Shulkin. 2003. Ecological monitoring of the water area of Port Vostochnyi (Wrangel Bay) in the Sea of Japan (1995–2002). Russian Journal of Marine Biology 29 (5): 284–295.

[H-S86] Hartmann-Schröder, G. 1986. Polychaeta (incl. Archiannelida). In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 210–233. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45–80.

[H69] Hermans, C. O. 1969. The systematic position of the Archiannelida. Systematic Zoology 18 (1): 85–102.

[H62] Howell, B. F. 1962. Worms. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea: Conodonts, Conoidal Shells of Uncertain Affinities, Worms, Trace Fossils and Problematica pp. W144–W177. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[KBC03] Kashin, I. A., E. V. Bagaveeva & S. F. Chaplygina. 2003. Fouling communities of hydrotechnical constructions in Nakhodka Bay (Sea of Japan). Russian Journal of Marine Biology 29: 267–283.

[LOL03] Lockyer, A. E., P. D. Olson & D. T. J. Littlewood. 2003. Utility of complete large and small subunit rRNA genes in resolving the phylogeny of the Neodermata (Platyhelminthes): implications and a review of the cercomer theory. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 78: 155–171.

[MGV06] Mai, A. C. G., A. M. Garcia & J. P. Vieira. 2006. Ecologia alimentar do barrigudinho Jenynsia multidentata (Jenyns, 1842) (Pisces: Cyprinodontiformes) no estuário da Laguna dos Patos, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Comunicações do Museo de Ciências e Tecnologia da PUCRS, Serie Zoologia 19 (1): 3–18.

[M62] Monniot, F. 1962. Recherches sur les graviers a Amphioxus de la région de Banyuls-sur-Mer. Vie et Milieu 13: 231–322.

[NP10] Nygren, A., & F. Pleijel. 2010. Chimaeras and the origins of the holopelagic annelids Typhloscolecidae and Lopadorhynchidae: a reply to Struck and Halanych (2010). Zoologica Scripta 40 (1): 112–114.

[PTV14] Parry, L., A. Tanner & J. Vinther. 2014. The origin of annelids. Palaeontology 57 (6): 1091–1103.

[RF98] Rouse, G. W., & K. Fauchald. 1998. Recent views on the status, delineation and classification of the Annelida. American Zoologist 38: 953–964.

[RP07] Rousset, V., F. Pleijel, G. W. Rouse, C. Erséus & M. E. Siddall. 2007. A molecular phylogeny of annelids. Cladistics 23: 41–63.

[SS07] Struck, T. H., N. Schutt, T. Kusen, E. Hickman, C. Bleidorn, D. McHugh & K. M. Halanych. 2007. Annelid phylogeny and the status of Sipuncula and Echiura. BMC Evolutionary Biology 7: 57.

[TS02] Tsetlin, A. B., & M. V. Safonov. 2002. Interstitial polychaetes (Annelida) from the Kandalaksha Bay of the White Sea. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 81 (8): 899–908.

[ZHT01] Zrzavý, J., V. Hypša & D. F. Tietz. 2001. Myzostomida are not annelids: molecular and morphological support for a clade of animals with anterior sperm flagella. Cladistics 17: 170–198.

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