Pigeon orchid Ceraia saaronica, copyright Eric Guinther.

Belongs within: Dendrobium.

Ceraia is a genus of epiphytic or lithophytic orchids found from south-east Asia to Papua New Guinea, characterised by the presence of at least three or four swollen, leafless internodes at the base of the stem (Clements 2003).

Characters (from Clements 2003): Epiphytic or lithophytic herb; pseudobulbous stems to c. 1m long, the swollen part comprising three or four nodes and internodes at least four nodes from the base of a shoot; aerial growths arising above the swollen pseudobulb, capable of forming a swollen pseudobulb; roots arising from the nodes at the base of each shoot; sheaths overlapping; inflorescence enclosed in a covering sheath, a highly reduced indeterminate, raceme; flowers one to three per inflorescence, spontaneous at any time following a drop in air temperature, and synchronous for all plants in the same area; flowers lasting only a few hours in a single day, of superficial substance; very fragrant perfume; labellum non-articulate, attached directly to base of column-foot where it forms a short spur containing nectar; column-foot longer than column. Stelidia reduced not divided. Pollinia four, obliquely elliptical, loosely held together in two groups of two. Capsule fusiforme. Protocorm-seedling type, narrowly isobilateral.

Ceraia Loureiro 1790 (see below for synonymy) C03
    |--C. saaronica (König) Clements & Jones 2002 (see below for synonymy) C03
    `--+--+--‘Dendrobium’ (sect. Bolbidium) quadrangulare C03
       |  `--C. truncata (Lindley) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium truncatum Lindley 1859] C03
       `--+--+--C. goldfinchii (von Mueller) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium goldfinchii von Mueller 1883] C03
          |  `--C. philippinensis (Ames) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium philippinense Ames 1914] C03
          `--+--C. juncea (Lindley) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium junceum Lindley 1842] C03
             `--C. usterioides (Ames) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium usterioides Ames 1915] C03

Ceraia incertae sedis:
  *C. simplicissima Loureiro 1790 [incl. Dendrobium podagraria Hooker 1890] C03
  C. acaciifolia (Smith) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium acaciifolium Smith 1917] C03
  C. acicularis (Lindley) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium aciculare Lindley 1840] C03
  C. alabensis (Wood) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium alabense Wood 1990] C03
  C. aurantiflammea (Wood) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium aurantiflammeum Wood 1998] C03
  C. batanensis (Ames & Quisumb.) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium batanense Ames & Quisumb. 1932] C03
  C. boothii (Teijsm. & Binn.) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium boothii Tijsm. & Binn. 1862] C03
  C. bukidnonensis (Ames & Quisumb.) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium bukidnonense Ames & Quisumb. 1936] C03
  C. calceola (Roxburgh) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium calceolum Roxburgh 1832] C03
  C. carinata (Linnaeus) Clements 2003 (see below for synonymy) C03
  C. chrysotainia (Schlechter) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium chrysotainium Schlechter 1910] C03
  C. cinnabarina (Reichenb.) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium cinnabarinum Reichenb. 1880] C03
  C. clavator (Ridl.) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium clavator Ridl. 1896] C03
  C. compressicaulis (Smith) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium compressicaule Smith 1928] C03
  C. confunda (Kraenzlin) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium confundens Kraenzlin in Engl. 1910] C03
  C. cultrifolia (Schlechter) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium cultrifolium Schlechter 1919] C03
  C. cuneata (Schlechter) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium cuneatum Schlechter 1906] C03
  C. cuneilabra (Smith) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium cuneilabrum Smith 1906] C03
  C. cymbulipes (Smith) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium cymbulipes Smith 1927] C03
  C. dentata (Seidenf.) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium dentatum Seidenf. 1981] C03
  C. eboracensis (Kraenzlin) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium eboracense Kraenzlin 1894] C03
  C. ephemera (Smith) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium ephemerum Smith in Merrill 1917] C03
  C. equitans (Kraenzlin) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium equitans Kraenzlin in Engl. 1910] C03
  C. exilis (Schlechter) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium exile Schlechter 1906] C03
  C. facifera (Smith) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium faciferum Smith 1908] C03
  C. fimbriata (Blume) Clements 2003 [=Onychium fimbriatum Blume 1825, Dendrobium blumei Lindley 1830] C03
  C. fugax Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium fugax Schlechter 1906 non Reichenb. 1871] C03
  C. gedeana (Smith) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium gedeanum Smith 1907] C03
  C. gerlandiana (Kraenzlin) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium gerlandianum Kraenzlin 1909] C03
  C. gracilis (Blume) Clements 2003 [=Onychium gracile, Aporum (sect. *Linearifolia) gracile] C03
  C. grootingsii (Smith) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium grootingsii Smith 1917] C03
  C. gynoglottis (Carr) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium gynoglottis Carr 1935] C03
  C. humboldtensis (Smith) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium humboldtense Smith 1912] C03
  C. hymenocentra (Schlechter) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium hymenocentrum Schlechter 1912] C03
  C. hymenopetala (Schlechter) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium hymenopetalum Schlechter 1911] C03
  C. hypopoga (Kraenzlin) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium hypopogon Kraenzlin in Engl. 1910] C03
  C. inconcinna (Ridl.) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium inconcinnum Ridl. 1896] C03
  C. inconspicua (Smith) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium inconspicuum Smith in Gibbs 1917] C03
  C. incurvociliata (Smith) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium incurvociliatum Smith 1931] C03
  C. juncifolia (Schlechter) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium juncifolium Schlechter 1911] C03
  C. koeteiana (Schlechter) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium koeteianum Schlechter 1906] C03
  C. kohlmeyeriana (Teijsm. & Binn.) Clements 2003 (see below for synonymy) C03
  C. kurashigei (Yakawa) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium kurashigei Yakawa 1998] C03
  C. lagara (Schlechter) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium lagarum Seidenf. 1985] C03
  C. lamatochila (Seidenf.) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium lamatochilum Seidenf. 1981] C03
  C. lamellifera (Carr) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium cinnabarinum var. lamelliferum Carr 1935] C03
  C. lamellulifera (Smith) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium lamelluliferum Smith 1927] C03
  C. lanciloba (Wood) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium lancilobum Wood 1990] C03
  C. lawiensis (Smith) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium lawiense Smith 1912] C03
  C. limii (Wood) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium limii Wood in Wood & Cribb 1994] C03
  C. linearifolia (Teijsm. & Binn.) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium linearifolium Teijsm. & Binn. 1862] C03
  C. litoralis (Schlechter) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium litorale Schlechter 1912] C03
  C. macfarlanei (von Mueller) Clements 2003 (see below for synonymy) C03
  C. macrapora (Smith) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium macraporum Smith 1912] C03
  C. maleolens (Kraenzlin) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium maleolens Kraenzlin in Engl. 1910] C03
  C. minima (Ames & Schweinfurth) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium minimum Ames & Schweinfurth 1920] C03
  C. modesta (Reichenb.) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium modestum Reichenb. 1855] C03
  C. multiramosa (Ames) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium multiramosum Ames 1915] C03
  C. odorata (Schlechter) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium odoratum] C03
  C. ovatipetala (Smith) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium ovatipetalum Smith 1932] C03
  C. papilionifera (Smith) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium papilioniferum Smith 1905] C03
  C. parviflora (Ames & Schweinfurth) Clements 2003 (see below for synonymy) C03
  C. patentiloba (Ames & Schweinfurth) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium patentilobum Ames & Schweinfurth 1920] C03
  C. peculiaris (Smith) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium peculiare Smith 1928] C03
  C. planibulbis (Lindley) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium (sect. *Ampullaria) planibulbe Lindley 1843] C03
  C. platybasis (Ridl.) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium platybasis Ridl. 1916] C03
  C. plebeja (Smith) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium plebejum Smith 1907] C03
  C. polytricha (Ames) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium polytrichum Ames 1908] C03
  C. pseudocalceola (Smith) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium pseudocalceolum Smith 1907] C03
  C. pseudotenella (Guillaumin) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium pseudotenellum Guillaumin 1965] C03
  C. puberilinguis (Smith) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium puberilingue Smith 1927] C03
  C. ridleyana Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium ridleyanum Kerr 1927 non Schlechter 1905] C03
  C. robinsonii (Ames) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium robinsonii Ames 1914] C03
  C. sanguinea Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium sanguineum Rolfe 1895 non Swartz 1799] C03
  C. scirpoides (Schlechter) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium scirpoides Schlechter 1911] C03
  C. setifera Clements 2003 (see below for synonymy) C03
  C. setifolia (Ridl.) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium setifolium Ridl. 1896] C03
  C. stelidiifera (Smith) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium stelidiiferum Smith 1920] C03
  C. strigosa (Schlechter) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium strigosum Schlechter 1911] C03
  C. tenella (Blume) Clements 2003 [=Onychium tenellum Blume 1825] C03
  C. tenuis (Smith) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium tenue Smith 1917] C03
  C. tenuicaulis (Hooker) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium tenuicaule Hooker 1890] C03
  C. tetraedris (Blume) Clements 2003 (see below for synonymy) C03
  C. torajaensis (O’Byrne) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium torajaense O’Byrne 1999] C03
  C. tricuspis (Blume) Clements 2003 [=Onychium tricuspe Blume 1825] C03
  C. tridentata (Ames & Schweinfurth) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium tridentatum Ames & Schweinfurth 1920] C03
  C. usterii (Schlechter) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium usterii Schlechter 1906] C03
  C. ventricosa (Kraenzlin) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium ventricosum Kraenzlin in Engl. 1910] C03
  C. ventripes (Carr) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium ventripes Carr 1935] C03

Ceraia Loureiro 1790 [=Ceraja; incl. Dendrobium sect. Ampullaria Pfitzer in Engl. & Prantl. 1889, D. subsect. Aporopsis Schlechter 1912 (n. n.), Aporum sect. Aporopsis (Schlechter) Brieger 1981 (nom. inv.), Aporopsis (Schlechter) Clements & Jones 2002 (nom. inv.), Dendrobium sect. Ceraia Schlechter 1914, D. sect. Crumenata Pfitzer in Engl. & Prantl. 1889, Aporum sect. Crumenata (Pfitzer) Brieger 1981, D. subg. Crumenata Kraenzl. in Engl. 1910, Aporum sect. Linearifolia Brieger in Schlechter 1981, D. sect. Rhopalanthe] C03

Ceraia carinata (Linnaeus) Clements 2003 [=Epidendrum carinatum Linnaeus 1753, Dendrobium carinatum (Linnaeus) von Willdenow 1805] C03

Ceraia kohlmeyeriana (Teijsm. & Binn.) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium kohlmeyerianum Teijsm. & Binn. ex Miquel 1867] C03

Ceraia macfarlanei (von Mueller) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium macfarlanei von Mueller 1875, *Aporopsis [(Schlechter) Clements & Jones] macfarlanei] C03

Ceraia parviflora (Ames & Schweinfurth) Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium crumenatum var. parviflorum Ames & Schweinfurth 1920] C03

Ceraia saaronica (König) Clements & Jones 2002 [=Epidendrum saaronicum König 1791; incl. Angraecum crumenatum Rumphius 1750 (nom. illeg.), Dendrobium (sect. *Crumenata) crumenatum Swartz 1799, Aporum crumenatum, D. (subg. *Rhopalobium) crumenatum] C03

Ceraia setifera Clements 2003 [=Dendrobium tenellum var. setifolium Guillaumin 1956 non D. setifolium Ridl. 1896] C03

Ceraia tetraedris (Blume) Clements 2003 [=Onychium tetraedre Blume 1825, Aporum (sect. *Aporopsis (Schlechter) Brieger) tetraedre] C03

*Type species of generic name indicated


[C03] Clements, M. A. 2003. Molecular phylogenetic systematics in the Dendrobiinae (Orchidaceae), with emphasis on Dendrobium section Pedilonum. Telopea 10 (1): 247–298.

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