Prostigmata

Labidostomma (Nicoletiella) denticulata, copyright Walter Pfiegler.


Belongs within: Arachnida.
Contains: Bdellidae, Cunaxidae, Halacaridae, Eupodoidea, Eriophyoidea, Tydeidae, Anystae, Hydrachnidia, Trombidia, Raphignathina, Pygmephoroidea, Pyemotoidea, Dolichocyboidea, Tarsonemidae, Podapolipidae.

The Prostigmata are a diverse group of mites exhibiting a wide range of morphologies. The name of the group refers to the tracheal system which, if present, opens at the base of the chelicerae or on the anterior prodorsum (Lindquist et al. 2009). Many members of the group are more or less soft-bodied, but the Labidostommatidae are a group of heavily armoured predatory mites with an undivided dorsal shield and a complete ventral armature (Walter et al. 2009). In many members of the subgroups Anystae, Parasitengona and Eleutherengona, but not in the Eupodina or Labidostommatidae, a terminal seta on the palptibia has become large and claw-like, and together with the reduced, laterally displaced tarsus forms a distinct arrangement referred to as the 'thumb-claw process' (Walter et al. 2009).

The Eupodina or Eupodides are a diverse group of mites of uncertain support; they are largely united by plesiomorphic characters relative to other Prostigmata. Most are soft-bodied forms with striated integument, weak subcutaneous sclerites, and reduced opisthosomatic chaetotaxy (Walter et al. 2009). Their palps lack the thumb-claw complex found in other Prostigmata. Members of the Halacaroidea are aquatic; the remaining Eupodides are terrestrial. The Bdelloidea, snout mites, are predators of small invertebrates with the chelicerae inserted on a long subcapitular 'snout'.

The Parasitengona are a diverse group of mostly predatory mites with parasitic larvae, in which the larval instar is highly divergent in morphology from later instars, and the protonymphal and tritonymphal instars have become inactive calyptostases. The Eleutherengona are an ecologically diverse group in which the cheliceral bases are closely contiguous or fused, with the fixed cheliceral digits reduced or absent and the movable digits hook-like or stylet-like. They are divided between two main lineages, the Raphignathina and Heterostigmata, with females of the latter having the tracheal system opening by prolateral stigmata on the prodorsum; these are usually absent in males and juveniles (Walter et al. 2009).

See also: The Prostigmata: endless forms.

Characters (from Lindquist et al. 2009): Tracheal system usually present with one pair of stigmata opening between bases of chelicerae or on anterior prodorsum (sometimes absent), sometimes associated with peritremes dorsally on cheliceral bases or on anterior margin of prodorsum; prodorsum usually with four or fewer pairs of setae or hypertrichous, sometimes including one or two pairs of bothridial sensilla; subcapitulum without rutella; chelicerae rarely chelate, usually with fixed digit sheathlike or completely regressed, movable digit usually a hook, knife, needle or stylet-like structure; cheliceral bases sometimes fused medially; palpi simple or modified into a thumb-claw process, sometimes reduced; coxae of legs integrated with venter of podosoma, coxal fields contiguous or II-III separated; ambulacra of at least legs II and III usually with two lateral claws and with or rarely without a median empodium that may be padlike or rayed and often armed with tenent hairs, or occasionally claw- or suckerlike; opisthosoma lacking paired lateral glands; opisthosomatic setal row c usually with two pairs of setae, rarely with three pairs or hypertrichous.

<==Prostigmata [Anystina, Promatides]
    |  i. s.: Eupalus B16
    |           |--E. sternalis Berlese 1916 B16
    |           `--E. subterraneus Berlese 1916 B16
    |--Eupodina [Bdellina, Eupodides] DW10
    |    |  i. s.: Caleupodes Baker 1987 AF00
    |    |--+--Bdelloidea K90
    |    |  |    |--Bdellidae OW01
    |    |  |    `--Cunaxidae K90
    |    |  `--Halacaroidea OW01
    |    |       |  i. s.: Veladeadcarus gasconi WP99
    |    |       |         Pelacarus WL09
    |    |       |         Corallihalacarus chilcottensis WL09
    |    |       |--Halacaridae S86
    |    |       `--Peza Harvey 1990 H98 [Pezidae WP99]
    |    |            |--P. daps Harvey 1990 H98
    |    |            `--P. ops Harvey 1990 H98
    |    `--+--Eupodoidea OW01
    |       `--+--Eriophyoidea OW01
    |          `--Tydeoidea OW01
    |               |--Tydeidae AF91
    |               `--Triophtydeidae [Edbakerellidae, Meyerellidae] WL09
    |                    |--Edbakerellinae [Meyerellinae] WL09
    |                    |    |--Pseudotriophtydeus AF00
    |                    |    `--Edbakerella André 2004 [=Meyerella Baker 1968 (preoc.)] WL09
    |                    |         `--‘Meyerella’ marshi AF00
    |                    `--Triophtydeinae AF00
    |                         |--Pretriophtydeus tilbrooki AF00
    |                         `--Triophtydeus Thor 1932 H98
    |                              |--T. bakeri WL09
    |                              |--T. immanis WL09
    |                              `--T. pinicolus (Oudemans 1929) [=Tydeus pinicolus] H98
    `--+--Anystae DW10
       `--+--Labidostommatidae (see below for synonymy) DW10
          |    |--Eunicolina tuberculata WL09
          |    |--Akrostomma WL09
          |    |--Sellnickiella Feider & Vasilliu 1969 H98
          |    |    |--S. adelaideae (Womersley 1935) [=Labidostomma adelaideae, S. adelaidae (l. c.)] H98
          |    |    |--S. brasiliense WL09
          |    |    `--S. womersleyi (Atyeo & Crossley 1961) [=Labidostomma womersleyi, S. wommersleyi (l. c.)] H98
          |    `--Labidostomma Kramer 1879 S61
          |         |  i. s.: L. integrum G41
          |         |         L. mamillatus (Say 1821) [=Erythraeus mamillatus, Smaris mamillatus] S61
          |         |         L. nepalense WL09
          |         |--*L. (Labidostomma) luteum Kramer 1879 SB63 [=Nicoletiella lutea WP99]
          |         `--L. (Nicoletiella) WL09
          |              |--L. (N.) cornuta WL09
          |              |--L. (N.) denticulata WL09
          |              |--L. (N.) jaquemarti WL09
          |              `--L. (N.) pacifica WL09
          `--+--Parasitengona [Engonostigmata, Parasitengonae, Parasitengonina, Parasitenini, Trombidina] DW10
             |    |  i. s.: Allotanaupodidae [Allotanaupodoidea] ZF11
             |    |--Hydrachnidia W91
             |    `--Trombidia W91
             `--Eleutherengona [Eleutherengonides, Eleutherengonina] DW10
                  |  i. s.: Cloacaroidea ZF11
                  |           |--Epimyodex WL09 [Epimyodicidae ZF11, Epimyodicinae]
                  |           |    `--E. soricis WL09
                  |           `--Cloacaridae ZF11
                  |                |--Pneumophagus bubonis WP99
                  |                |--Caminacarus theodori WL09
                  |                |--Theodoracarus testudinis WL09
                  |                |--Cloacarus faini WL09
                  |                `--Emyduracarus Fain 1968 H98
                  |                     `--E. australis Fain 1968 H98
                  |--Raphignathina LKW09
                  `--Heterostigmata [Heterostigmae, Heterostigmatina, Tarsonemida, Tarsonemina, Tarsonemini] ZF11
                       |--Pygmephoroidea CC01
                       |--Pyemotoidea K90
                       |--Dolichocyboidea WL09
                       |--Heterocheylus Lombardini 1926 H98 [Heterocheyletinae, Heterocheylidae, Heterocheyloidea WL09]
                       |    `--H. lombardinii Womersley 1960 H98
                       |--Tarsonemoidea WL09
                       |    |--Tarsonemidae K90
                       |    `--Podapolipidae WL09
                       |--Tarsocheylidae [Tarsocheyloidea] WL09
                       |    |--Tarsocheylus paradoxus WL09
                       |    `--Hoplocheylus Atyeo & Baker 1964 S76
                       |         |--H. discalis Atyeo & Baker 1964 S76
                       |         `--H. pickardi WL09
                       `--Trochometridioidea WL09
                            |--Trochometridium WP99 [Trochometridiidae]
                            |    |--T. chinensis WL09
                            |    `--T. tribulatum WP99
                            `--Athyreacaridae WL09
                                 |--Athyreacarus pleiotretus WL09
                                 `--Bembidiacarus [Bembidiacaridae] WL09

Labidostommatidae [Labidostomatidae, Labidostomatides, Labidostomidae, Labidostommatina, Labidostommatoidea, Labidostommidae, Labidostommina, Nicoletiellidae] DW10

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AF91] André, H. M., & A. Fain. 1991. Ontogeny in the Tydeoidea (Ereynetidae, Tydeidae and Iolinidae). In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 297–300. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[AF00] André, H. M., & A. Fain. 2000. Phylogeny, ontogeny and adaptive radiation in the superfamily Tydeoidea (Acari: Actinedida), with a reappraisal of morphological characters. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 130: 405–448.

[B16] Berlese, A. 1916. Centuria terza di Acari nuovi. Redia 12: 289–338.

[CC01] Coetzee, S. H., & A. M. Camerik. 2001. The use of autofluorescence of the pharyngeal pump complex in Pygmephoridae (Acari: Heterostigmata) as a new taxonomic aid. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 213–216. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[DW10] Dabert, M., W. Witalinski, A. Kazmierski, Z. Olszanowski & J. Dabert. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of acariform mites (Acari, Arachnida): strong conflict between phylogenetic signal and long-branch attraction artifacts. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 56 (1): 222–241.

[G41] Grandjean, F. 1941. Observations sur les acariens (6e série). Bulletin du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, 2e Série 13 (6): 532–539.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[K90] Kethley, J. 1990. Acarina: Prostigmata (Actinedida). In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 667–756. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[LKW09] Lindquist, E. E., G. W. Krantz & D. E. Walter. 2009. Classification. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 97–103. Texas Tech University Press.

[OW01] Otto, J. C., & K. J. Wilson. 2001. Assessment of the usefulness of ribosomal 18S and mitochondrial COI sequences in Prostigmata phylogeny. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 100–109. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[SB63] Schweizer, J., & C. Bader. 1963. Die Landmilben der Schweiz (Mittelland, Jura und Alpen): Trombidiformes Reuter, mit 217 Arten und Unterarten und 193 Originalzeichnungen. Denkschriften der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft [Mémoires de la Société Helvétique des Sciences Naturelles] 84 (2): i–vi, 209–378.

[S86] Schwoerbel, J. 1986. Acari: Limnohalacaridae and Hydrovolziidae. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 643–647. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[S76] Shiba, M. 1976. Taxonomic investigation on free-living Prostigmata from the Malay Peninsula. Nature and Life in Southeast Asia 7: 83–229.

[S61] Southcott, R. V. 1961. Studies on the systematics and biology of the Erythraeoidea (Acarina), with a critical revision of the genera and subfamilies. Australian Journal of Zoology 9: 367–610.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

[WP99] Walter, D. E., & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[W91] Witte, H. 1991. The phylogenetic relationships within the Parasitengonae. In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 171–182. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[ZF11] Zhang, Z.-Q., Q.-H. Fan, V. Pesic, H. Smit, A. V. Bochkov, A. A. Khaustov, A. Baker, A. Wohltmann, T. Wen, J. W. Amrine, P. Beron, J. Lin, G. Gabryś & R. Husband. 2011. Order Trombiformes Reuter, 1909. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (ed.) Animal biodiversity: an outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness. Zootaxa 3148: 129–138.

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