Calyptostoma larvae on crane fly, copyright Steve Begin.

Belongs within: Prostigmata.
Contains: Trombellidae, Leeuwenhoekiidae, Johnstonianidae, Neothrombiidae, Chyzeriidae, Trombidiidae, Microtrombidiidae, Trombiculidae, Erythraeoidea, Hydrachnidia.

The Parasitengonina are a diverse group of mites with parasitic larvae and predatory deutonymphs and adults, with the active instars separated by inactive calyptostatic stages. Subgroups include the Trombidiae, terrestrial Parasitengonina in which the predatory adults have chelicerae with a movable digit that is usually bladelike and not retractable, and the parasitic larvae have a prodorsal plate (scutum) and urstigmata present between the contiguous coxal plates I–II. A pregenital tubercle is present in adults of the family Tanaupodidae but absent in other families (Walter et al. 2009).

<==Parasitengonina (see below for synonymy) DPD16
    |  i. s.: Allotanaupodidae [Allotanaupodoidea] ZF11
    |--Trombidiae [Trombidiina] DPD16
    |    |  i. s.: Amphotrombium WL09 [Amphotrombiidae, Amphotrombioidea ZF11]
    |    |           `--A. jenseni WL09
    |    |         Yurebilla Southcott 1996 H98 [Yurebillidae, Yurebilloidea ZF11]
    |    |           `--Y. gracilis Southcott 1996 H98
    |    |--Tanaupodidae [Tanaupodoidea] W91
    |    |    |--Lassenia Newell 1957 [Lasseniinae] W91
    |    |    |--Polydiscia Methlagl 1928 [Polydisciinae] W91
    |    |    `--Tanaupodinae W91
    |    |         |--Rhinothrombium Berlese 1910 T35
    |    |         |    `--R. nemoricola S51
    |    |         |--Tanaupodus Haller 1882 W91
    |    |         |    |--*T. steudeli Haller 1882 SB63
    |    |         |    `--T. passimpilosus Berlese 1910 SB63
    |    |         `--Eothrombium Berlese 1910 T35
    |    |              |--E. lasseni WL09
    |    |              `--E. nemoricola WL09
    |    `--Trombidioidea [Microtrombidioidea, Trombiculoidea] LKW09
    |         |  i. s.: Georgiothrombium pulcherrimum W01
    |         |         Parawenhoekia Paoli 1937 S61
    |         |           `--*P. dectici Paoli 1937 S61
    |         |         Endotrombicula Ewing 1931 S61
    |         |         Achaemenothrombiidae ZF11
    |         |         Trombellidae W91
    |         |         Audyana Womersley 1954 H98 [Audyanidae W91]
    |         |           `--A. thompsoni Womersley 1954 H98
    |         |         Neotrombidiidae W91
    |         |           |  i. s.: Monunguis streblida WL09
    |         |           |--Anomalothrombiinae WL09
    |         |           `--Neotrombidium Leonardi 1901 [Neotrombidiinae] S61
    |         |                |--N. anuroporum WL09
    |         |                |--N. barringunense Hirst 1928 H98
    |         |                |--N. beeri WL09
    |         |                |--N. gracilare Womersley 1963 H98
    |         |                |--N. gracilipes Womersley 1963 H98
    |         |                |--N. neptunium Southcott 1961 S61 (see below for synonymy)
    |         |                |--N. papuanum (Canestrini 1884) [=Trombidium papuanum, Trombicula papuana] H98
    |         |                |--N. samsinaki WL09
    |         |                `--N. tridentifer (Ewing 1909) [=Rhyncholophus tridentifer] S61
    |         |         Leeuwenhoekiidae W91
    |         |--Johnstonianidae DPD16
    |         |--Neothrombiidae W91
    |         `--+--+--Chyzeriidae DPD16
    |            |  `--Trombidiidae DPD16
    |            `--+--Microtrombidiidae DPD16
    |               `--Trombiculidae DPD16
    `--+--Erythraeoidea DPD16
       `--+--Hydrachnidia DPD16
          `--Calyptostoma Cambridge 1875 S61 (see below for synonymy)
               |--C. expalpe (Hermann 1804) S61 (see below for synonymy)
               |--C. caelatum (Berlese 1904) [=Smaris caelata, C. caelata] S76
               |--C. extranea (Koch 1867) [=Smaridia extranea] H98
               |--C. latiseta Shiba 1976 S76
               |--C. lyncaea (Berlese 1887) [=Smaris lyncaea; incl. S. impressa Canestrini 1882 non Koch 1837] S61
               |--C. simplexa Shiba 1976 S76
               `--C. velutinum (Müller 1776) [=Acarus velutinus] S61

Calyptostoma Cambridge 1875 S61 [Calyptostomatidae DPD16, Calyptostomatoidea, Calyptostomidae, Calyptostomidoidea]

Calyptostoma expalpe (Hermann 1804) S61 [=Trombidium expalpe S61, Smaris expalpis S61; incl. *C. hardii Cambridge 1875 S61, C. hardyi S61, Smaris impressa Koch 1837 S61, S. plana Koch 1879 T04]

Neotrombidium neptunium Southcott 1961 S61 [=N. tridentifer Southcott 1957 non Rhyncholophus tridentifer Ewing 1909 S61, N. bidentifer (l. c.) H98]

Parasitengonina [Apobolostigmata, Engonostigmata, Erythraeina, Erythraiae, Parasitengona, Parasitengonae, Parasitenini, Trombidia, Trombidina] DPD16

*Type species of generic name indicated


[DPD16] Dabert, M., H. Proctor & J. Dabert. 2016. Higher-level molecular phylogeny of the water mites (Acariformes: Prostigmata: Parasitengonina: Hydrachnidiae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 101: 75–90.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[K90] Kethley, J. 1990. Acarina: Prostigmata (Actinedida). In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 667–756. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[LKW09] Lindquist, E. E., G. W. Krantz & D. E. Walter. 2009. Classification. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 97–103. Texas Tech University Press.

[S51] Schweizer, J. 1951. Die Landmilben des schweizerischen Nationalparkes. 2. Teil: Trombidiformes. Ergebnisse der wissenschaftlichen Untersuchung des schweizerischen Nationalparks [Résultats des recherches scientifiques entreprises au Parc National Suisse] 3 (Neue Folge): 51–172.

[SB63] Schweizer, J., & C. Bader. 1963. Die Landmilben der Schweiz (Mittelland, Jura und Alpen): Trombidiformes Reuter, mit 217 Arten und Unterarten und 193 Originalzeichnungen. Denkschriften der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft [Mémoires de la Société Helvétique des Sciences Naturelles] 84 (2): i–vi, 209–378.

[S76] Shiba, M. 1976. Taxonomic investigation on free-living Prostigmata from the Malay Peninsula. Nature and Life in Southeast Asia 7: 83–229.

[S61] Southcott, R. V. 1961. Studies on the systematics and biology of the Erythraeoidea (Acarina), with a critical revision of the genera and subfamilies. Australian Journal of Zoology 9: 367–610.

[T35] Thor, S. 1935. Übersicht und Einteilung der Familie Trombidiidae W. E. Leach 1814 in Unterfamilien. Zoologischer Anzeiger 109 (5–6): 107–112.

[T04] Trägårdh, I. 1904. Fauna Arctica: Eine Zusammenstellung der arktischen Tierformen, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung des Spitzbergen-Gebietes auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Deutschen Expedition in das Nördliche Eismeer im Jahre 1898 vol. 4 pt 1. Monographie der arktischen Acariden. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

[W91] Welbourn, W. C. 1991. Phylogenetic studies of the terrestrial Parasitengona. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 163–170. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[W01] Wohltmann, A. 2001. Closely related species of Parasitengonae (Acari: Prostigmata) inhabiting the same areas: features facilitating coexistence. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 121–135. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[ZF11] Zhang, Z.-Q., Q.-H. Fan, V. Pesic, H. Smit, A. V. Bochkov, A. A. Khaustov, A. Baker, A. Wohltmann, T. Wen, J. W. Amrine, P. Beron, J. Lin, G. Gabryś & R. Husband. 2011. Order Trombidiformes Reuter, 1909. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (ed.) Animal biodiversity: an outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness. Zootaxa 3148: 129–138.

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