Common twayblade Listera ovata, copyright Orchi.

Belongs within: Monandrae.
Contains: Corallorhizinae, Pleurothallidinae, Dendrobieae, Gastrodieae, Coelogyninae, Arethuseae, Malaxideae, Cymbidieae, Epidendreae, Eriinae, Vandeae.

The Epidendroideae are a group of mostly epiphytic orchids in which roots bear a multi-layered, spongy epidermis (the velamen), and floral abscission often occurs (Freudenstein & Rasmussen 1999).

Epidendroideae [Coelogyneae, Limodorinae, Neottioideae, Pleuranthae, Sympodiales, Vandoideae]
    |--+--Palmorchideae [Palmorchidinae] RG07
    |  |    |--Palmorchis RG07
    |  |    `--Diceratostele A86
    |  `--+--Epipactis RG07
    |     |    |--E. gigantea H93
    |     |    `--E. helleborine DS04
    |     `--Listera [Listerinae] RG07
    |          |--L. auriculata V72
    |          |--L. caurina H93
    |          |--L. convallarioides H93
    |          |--L. cordata
    |          |--L. kuanshanensis CP02
    |          |--L. ovata TG88
    |          `--L. × veltmanii [L. auriculata × L. convallarioides] V72
    `--+--Cephalanthera austiniae FR99, H93 [=Eburophyton austiniae H93]
       `--+--Tropidioideae [Tropidieae, Tropidiinae] FR99
          |    |--Corymborkis FR99
          |    `--Tropidia FR99
          |         |--T. curculigoides P03
          |         `--T. effusa FR99
          `--+--+--Gastrodieae FR99
             |  |--Epipogieae A86
             |  |    |--Epipogium roseum (Don) Lindley 1857 FR99, SBY02 (see below for synonymy)
             |  |    `--Stereosandra A86
             |  `--Sobraliinae A86
             |       |--Sobralia RG07
             |       |--Elleanthus tetrogeiton A86, RJ11
             |       |--Sertifera A86
             |       `--Xerorchis A86
             `--+--Glomerinae A86
                |    |--Glomera erythrosma FR99, P03
                |    |--Aglossorhyncha A86
                |    |--Glossorhyncha A86
                |    |--Ischnocentrum A86
                |    |--Sepalosiphon A86
                |    `--Earina Lindl. 1834 A86, ME70
                |         |--*E. mucronata Lindl. 1834 (see below for synonymy) ME70
                |         `--E. autumnalis (Forst. f.) Hook. f. 1853 ME70 (see below for synonymy)
                `--+--+--Coelogyninae RG07
                   |  `--+--Wullschlaegelia [Wullschlaegelieae] RG07
                   |     `--Arethuseae EN20
                   `--+--Malaxideae EN20
                      `--+--Cymbidieae EN20
                         `--+--+--Masdevallia RG07
                            |  `--Epidendreae EN20
                            `--+--Collabieae EN20
                               `--+--Podochileae EN20
                                  |    |--Eriinae RG07
                                  |    `--Podochilinae C03
                                  |         |--Podochilus gracilis P03
                                  |         |--Pseuderia C03
                                  |         |--Chitonochilus A86
                                  |         |--Cyphochilus A86
                                  |         `--Poaephyllum A86
                                  `--+--Telipogoninae A86
                                     |    |--Telipogon FR99
                                     |    |--Dipterostele A86
                                     |    |--Stellilabium A86
                                     |    `--Trichoceros A86
                                     `--+--Vandeae EN20
                                        `--Polystachyeae [Polystachyinae] A86
                                             |--Neobenthamia A86
                                             |--Hederorkis A86
                                             |--Imerinaea A86
                                             `--Polystachya FR99
                                                  |--P. luteola C55
                                                  `--P. zeylanica [=Dendrobium polystachyum] C55

Epidendroideae incertae sedis:
  Limodorum abortivum A86, H91
  Thaia [Thaieae] A86
  Neottia nidus-avis R02
  Govenia FR99
  Jensoa FR99
  Corallorhizinae FR99
  Adrorhizinae A86
    |--Adrorhiza A86
    `--Sirhookera FR99
  Cryptarrhena [Cryptarrheneae] FR99
  Eriodes FR99
  Ceratostylis FR99
  Isochilus FR99
  Pleurothallidinae FR99
  Dendrobieae FR99
  Dactylostalix FR99
  Thelasiinae A86
    |--Thelasis pygmaea FR99
    |--Chitonanthera A86
    |--Octarrhena A86
    |--Oxyanthera A86
    |--Phreatia A86
    |--Rhynchophreatia A86
    `--Ridleyella A86

Earina autumnalis (Forst. f.) Hook. f. 1853 ME70 [=Epidendrum autumnale Forst. f. 1786 ME70, Cymbidium autumnale Swartz 1799 C06; incl. Ea. alba Col. 1886 ME70, Ea. suaveolens Lindl. 1843 ME70]

*Earina mucronata Lindl. 1834 [incl. E. aestivalis Cheesem. 1919, E. quadrilobata Col. 1883] ME70

Epipogium roseum (Don) Lindley 1857 FR99, SBY02 [=Limodorum roseum Don 1825 SBY02, Galera rosea Bl. 1825 SBY02; incl. Epipogium nutans Reichenbach 1890 SBY02]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A86] Atwood, J. T. 1986. The size of the Orchidaceae and the systematic distribution of epiphytic orchids. Selbyana 9: 171–186.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[CP02] Chung, S.-W., & C.-I. Peng. 2002. Senecio kuanshanensis (Asteraceae), a new species from southern Taiwan. Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica 43: 155–159.

[C03] Clements, M. A. 2003. Molecular phylogenetic systematics in the Dendrobiinae (Orchidaceae), with emphasis on Dendrobium section Pedilonum. Telopea 10 (1): 247–298.

[DS04] Davis, J. I., D. W. Stevenson, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, L. M. Campbell, J. V. Freudenstein, D. H. Goldman, C. R. Hardy, F. A. Michelangeli, M. P. Simmons, C. D. Specht, F. Vergara-Silva & M. Gandolfo. 2004. A phylogeny of the monocots, as inferred from rbcL and atpA sequence variation, and a comparison of methods for calculating jackknife and bootstrap values. Systematic Botany 29 (3): 467–510.

[EN20] Eggli, U., & R. Nyffeler (eds) 2020. Illustrated Handbook of Succulent Plants: Monocotyledons 2nd ed. Springer.

[FR99] Freudenstein, J. V., & F. N. Rasmussen. 1999. What does morphology tell us about orchid relationships?—a cladistic analysis. American Journal of Botany 86: 225–248.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[ME70] Moore, L. B., & E. Edgar. 1970. Flora of New Zealand vol. 2. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Monocotyledones except Gramineae. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[P03] Partomihardjo, T. 2003. Colonisation of orchids on the Krakatau Islands. Telopea 10 (1): 299–310.

[RG07] Ramírez, S. R., B. Gravendeel, R. B. Singer, C. R. Marshall & N. E. Pierce. 2007. Dating the origin of the Orchidaceae from a fossil orchid with its pollinator. Nature 448: 1042–1045.

[R02] Raven, J. A. 2002. Selection pressures on stomatal evolution. New Phytologist 153: 371–386.

[RJ11] Rising, J. D., A. Jaramillo, J. L. Copete, P. G. Ryan & S. C. Madge. 2011. Family Emberizidae (buntings and New World sparrows). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 428–683. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[SBY02] Sardesai, M. M., M. P. Bachulkar & S. R. Yadav. 2002. Additions to the orchid flora of Maharashtra. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 564–566.

[TG88] Tepfer, D., A. Goldmann, N. Pamboukdjian, M. Maille, A. Lepingle, D. Chevalier, J. Dénarié & C. Rosenberg. 1988. A plasmid of Rhizobium meliloti 41 encodes catabolism of two compounds from root exudate of Calystegium sepium. Journal of Bacteriology 170 (3): 1153–1161.

[V72] Voss, E. G. 1972. Michigan Flora. Part I. Gymnosperms and Monocots. Cranbrook Institute of Science and University of Michigan Herbarium.

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