Trombidiidae

Velvet mite Trombidium holosericeum, copyright Jörg Hempel.


Belongs within: Trombidiae.
Contains: Allothrombiinae.

The Trombidiidae, velvet mites, are often large, bright red mites that are predatory on small invertebrates. Their larvae are parasitic on other arthropods. In members of the subfamily Podothrombiinae the body hairs are fine and rarely feathered, whereas Trombidiinae have velvety feathered or plumose hairs (Thor 1935). Trombidiids are commonly found in soil habitats; members of the cosmopolitan genus Parathrombium, for instance, are usually found in moist litter or among moss. Larvae of Parathrombium have highly modified, comb-like setae on the first coxal plate, and are parasites of Hymenoptera or Hemiptera. Larvae of the genus Podothrombium are parasites on aphids (Walter et al. 2009).

Characters (from Kethley 1990; Walter et al 2009): Adults with palptibia usually lacking large spinose setae adjacent to claw; idiosoma not constricted between legs II-III; prodorsal sclerite well developed, idionotum lacking plate posteriorly; pregenital tubercle absent. Larvae with idionotum with unpaired prodorsal plate, and unpaired scutellum bearing setae c1; urstigmata present between coxal plates I-II; femur I bearing 5 setae; femur II usually bearing 4 (rarely 5) setae; genua of legs II-III each bearing 3-4 setae.

<==Trombidiidae [Trombidides, Trombidini]
    |--Podothrombiinae [Podothrombiidae] WL09
    |    |--Variathrombium thibaudi WL09
    |    |--Pollicothrombium Southcott 1986 WL09, H98
    |    |    `--P. miniatum (Womersley 1934) [=Caenothrombium miniatum] H98
    |    `--Podothrombium Berlese 1910 Z94, SB63
    |         |--*P. filipes (Koch 1837) [=Trombidium filipes] SB63
    |         |--P. bicolor SB63
    |         |    |--P. b. bicolor SB63
    |         |    |--P. b. cisalpinum Berlese 1910 SB63
    |         |    `--P. b. curtipes Schweizer & Bader 1963 SB63
    |         |--P. blanci Schweizer 1922 SB63
    |         |--P. dubium WL09
    |         |--P. filiforme WL09
    |         |--P. macrocarpum SB63
    |         |    |--P. m. macrocarpum SB63
    |         |    |--P. m. septentrionale Berlese 1910 SB63
    |         |    `--P. m. teutonicum Berlese 1910 SB63
    |         |--P. montanum Berlese 1910 SB63
    |         |--P. paucisetarum Zhang & Xin 1989 Z94
    |         |--P. peragile (Berlese 1884) [=Trombidium peragile] SB63
    |         |--P. strandi Berlese 1910 SB63
    |         |--P. subnudum Berlese 1910 SB63
    |         `--P. tubbi Womersley 1942 H98
    `--+--Allothrombiinae Z94
       `--Trombidiinae WL09
            |--Xenothrombium Oudemans 1927 T35
            |    `--*X. insulare Oudemans 1927 O28
            |--Caenothrombium Oudemans 1927 T35
            |    |--*C. caloris Oudemans 1927 O28
            |    |--C. burraensis Womersley 1942 H98
            |    `--C. furcatum Womersley 1937 H98
            |--Parathrombium WL09
            |    |--P. bidacylus Newell 1958 Z94
            |    |--P. megalochirum WL09
            |    `--P. quadriseta WL09
            `--Trombidium Fabricius 1775 Z94, S94 [incl. Sericothrombium Berlese 1910 SB63]
                 |--*T. holosericeum (Linnaeus 1758) SB63 [=Acarus holosericeus SB63, Sericothrombium holosericeum S22]
                 |    |--T. h. holosericeum SB63
                 |    `--T. h. alpinum Schweizer 1951 SB63
                 |--T. bicolor [incl. T. bicolor var. curtipalpe, T. laevicapillatum Kramer 1883] T04
                 |--T. breei Southcott 1986 Z94
                 |--T. brevimanum (Berlese 1910) JM11 [=Sericothrombium brevimanum SB63]
                 |--T. fturum Schweizer 1951 SB63
                 |--T. fuornum Schweizer 1951 SB63
                 |--T. gymnopterorum K01
                 |--T. heterotrichum (Berlese 1910) [=Sericothrombium heterotrichum] SB63
                 |--T. hortense CF77
                 |--T. hungaricum CM07
                 |--T. mediterraneum (Berlese 1910) JM11 [=Sericothrombium mediterraneum SB63]
                 |--T. megalochirum SB63
                 |    |--T. m. megalochirum SB63
                 |    `--T. m. ticini Schweizer 1922 SB63
                 |--T. poriceps WY88
                 |--T. pulchellum Lucas 1847 E12
                 |--T. raeticum Schweizer & Bader 1963 SB63
                 |--T. rimosum Koch 1837 [incl. T. meyeri (Krausse 1916)] JM11
                 |--T. scharlatinum (Berlese 1912) [=Sericothrombium scharlatinum] SB63
                 |--T. setosulum Berlese 1885 SB63
                 |--T. tarsale Berlese 1916 B16
                 |--‘Sericothrombium’ tenuiclavatum Berlese 1916 B16
                 `--T. trispilum Berlese 1916 B16

Trombidiidae incertae sedis:
  Hygrothrombidium Robaux 1969 [Hygrothrombidiinae] S86
    `--H. tibiotarsale Robaux 1969 S86
  Dupreia Oudemans 1941 (n. d.) S61
    `--*D. pileifera (Karpelles 1891) (n. d.) [=Smaridia pileifera] S61
  Metathrombium Oudemans 1910 S61
  Ocypete Leach 1814 [Ocypetinae] SB63
  Paratrombium Bruyant 1910 H98
    |--P. album (Womersley 1934) [=Caenothrombium album] H98
    |--P. augustae (Hirst 1928) [=Dinothrombium augustae, Caenothrombium augustae] H98
    |--P. australe Southcott 1997 H98
    |--P. crassum (Hirst 1928) [=Caenothrombium crassum] H98
    |--P. curculionis Southcott 1997 H98
    |--P. lindsayi Southcott 1997 H98
    |--P. montivagum (Hirst 1928) (see below for synonymy) H98
    |--P. nobile (Hirst 1928) [=Dinothrombium nobile, Caenothrombium nobile] H98
    |--P. nynganense (Hirst 1928) [=Dinothrombium nynganense, Caenothrombium nynganense] H98
    |--P. sericatum (Rainbow 1906) (see below for synonymy) H98
    `--P. torridum (Hirst 1928) (see below for synonymy) H98

Nomen nudum: Trombidium newelli Mohamad & Hogg 2004 JM11

Paratrombium montivagum (Hirst 1928) [=Microtrombidium montivagum, Caenothrombium montivagum; incl. Dinothrombium rainbowi Hirst 1928] H98

Paratrombium sericatum (Rainbow 1906) [=Trombidium sericatum, Caenothrombium sericatum; incl. Dinothrombium splendidum Hirst 1928, D. ventricosum Hirst 1928] H98

Paratrombium torridum (Hirst 1928) [=Dinothrombium torridum, Caenothrombium torridum; incl. D. taylori Hirst 1928] H98

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B16] Berlese, A. 1916. Centuria terza di Acari nuovi. Redia 12: 289–338.

[CF77] Canestrini, G., & F. Fanzago. 1877. Intorno agli Acari Italiani. Atti del Reale Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, Serie 5, 4: 69–208, pls 2–7.

[CM07] Cokendolpher, J. C., & P. G. Mitov. 2007. Natural enemies. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 339–373. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[JM11] Judson, M. L. I., & J. Mąkol. 2011. Pseudoscorpions (Chelonethi: Neobisiidae) parasitized by mites (Acari: Trombidiidae, Erythraeidae). Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 345–348.

[K01] Kulczyński, V. 1901. Arachnoideák [Arachnoidea]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 311–369. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[O28] Oudemans, A. C. 1928. Fauna Buruana. Acari. Treubia 7 (Suppl. 2): 37–100.

[S22] Schweizer, J. 1922. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der terrestrischen Milbenfauna der Schweiz. Verhandl. Naturf. Ges. Basel 33: 23–112, 4 pls.

[SB63] Schweizer, J. & C. Bader. 1963. Die Landmilben der Schweiz (Mittelland, Jura und Alpen): Trombidiformes Reuter, mit 217 Arten und Unterarten und 193 Originalzeichnungen. Denkschriften der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft [Mémoires de la Société Helvétique des Sciences Naturelles] 84 (2): i–vi, 209–378.

[S86] Schwoerbel, J. 1986. Acari: Stygothrombiidae und Thrombidiidae. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 648–651. E. J. Brill/Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[S61] Southcott, R. V. 1961. Studies on the systematics and biology of the Erythraeoidea (Acarina), with a critical revision of the genera and subfamilies. Australian Journal of Zoology 9: 367–610.

[T35] Thor, S. 1935. Übersicht und Einteilung der Familie Trombidiidae W. E. Leach 1814 in Unterfamilien. Zoologischer Anzeiger 109 (5–6): 107–112.

[T04] Trägårdh, I. 1904. Fauna Arctica: Eine Zusammenstellung der arktischen Tierformen, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung des Spitzbergen-Gebietes auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Deutschen Expedition in das Nördliche Eismeer im Jahre 1898 vol. 4 pt 1. Monographie der arktischen Acariden. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

[WY88] Welbourn, W. C., & O. P. Young. 1988. Mites parasitic on spiders, with a description of a new species of Eutrombidium (Acari, Eutrombidiidae). Journal of Arachnology 16: 373–385.

[Z94] Zhang, Z.-Q. 1994. Neothrombiidae (Acari: Trombidioidea) of the world: systematic review with a phylogenetic analysis and descriptions of two new genera. Oriental Insects 28: 205–237.

Last updated: 29 November 2017.

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