Pyemotoidea

Pyemotes tritici, copyright Eric Erbe.


Belongs within: Prostigmata.

The Pyemotoidea are a group of mites whose adult females, where their habits are known, are parasitoids on eggs and immature instars of insects (Walter et al. 2009).

Characters (from Walter et al. 2009): Female gnathosoma capsulate, circular, oval, or somewhat elongate, visible or hidden from above, with 1-2 pairs of dorsal setae; palpi closely appressed, often weakly delineated or reduced; movable cheliceral digits usually strongly styletlike, partially retractile; pharynx muscular, undivided, usually prominent. Male gnathosoma similarly developed, though sometimes less robust than in female. Prodorsal shield of females with pair of anterolateral stigmnta and associated tracheae, and with 2-3 pairs of setiform setae and with or without a pair of anterolateral bothridia with capitate sensilla, the latter represented by normal scapular setae in males. Opisthosoma of females with first dorsal plate C entire, not expanded anteriorly over prodorsum. Adults with coxisternal plates I-II united medially, forming prominent prosternal apodeme; female coxisternal plates III-IV separated from each other medially by soft cuticle that bears a separate triangular sternal plate with a pair of setae, or united medially and not forming a poststernal apodeme; male coxisternal plates III-IV fused medially, with or without a poststernal apodeme. Female genital opening small, covered by consolidated aggenital plate; genital setae absent, 1 pair of aggenital setae present or absent. Males with plates C and D consolidated, and with caudal or ventrocaudal genital capsule formed by consolidated plates H, PS, Ag, with short sclerotized aedeagus flanked by a pair of blunt or hooked setigenous processes and surrounded by adhesive flange or disc. Females with legs I similar to or thicker than legs II-IV and with single claw sometimes enlarged for grasping; legs II-IV similar inform, each usually with paired claws and stalked empodium; trochanter IV subtriangular, similar to trochanters I-III. On adults, coxisternal plates I-II together with 1-4 pairs of setae; trochanters I-IV with or without a seta; femur I with 3-4 setae; genu I with 3 or usually 4 setae; genu II with 2-3 setae. Male legs IV stout, with a single sessile claw in Pyemotidae; similar in form to legs III, with pretarsus and symmetrically paired claws (if claws present on legs III) in Acarophenacidae; and unmodifed, but legs III with large, spurlike tarsal process in Resinacarus. With only one active postembryonic instar (the adult); larva and single nymphal instars inactive calyptostatic apoderms, except a free-living larval instar apparently present in Resinacarus.

<==Pyemotoidea WL09
    |--Caraboacarus Krzcal 1959 L86 [Caraboacaridae WL09]
    |--Resinacarus [Resinacaridae] WL09
    |    `--R. resinatus WL09
    |--Pyemotes Amerling 1862 H98 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--P. eccoptogasteri SB63
    |    |    |--P. e. eccoptogasteri SB63
    |    |    `--*P. e. pruni Amerling 1862 SB63
    |    |--P. alastoris (Froggatt 1894) [=Heteropus alastoris, Pediculoides alastoris] H98
    |    |--P. aradii [=Resinacarus aradii] WL09
    |    |--P. barbara WL09
    |    |--P. herfsi (Oudemans 1936) [=Pediculoides herfsi] H98
    |    |--P. parviscolyti WL09
    |    |--P. rhynchitinus (Debey 1849) (see below for synonymy) H98
    |    |--P. scolyti WL09
    |    |--P. tritici (LaGrèze-Fossat & Montagné 1851) [=Acarus tritici] H98
    |    `--P. ventricosus (Newport 1850) [=Heteropus ventricosus, Pediculoides ventricosus] SB63
    `--Acarophenacidae [Acarophenacinae] WL09
         |--Adactylidium beeri WL09
         |--Aethiophenax ipidarius WL09
         |--Paradactylidium WL09
         |--Aegiptophenax WL09
         |--Protophenax koteji WL09
         |--Paracarophenax WL09
         |    |--P. dermestidarium WL09
         |    |--P. dybasi WL09
         |    `--P. ipidarius L86
         `--Acarophenax Newstead & Duvall 1918 H98
              |--A. lukoschusi WL09
              |--A. mahunkai WP99
              |--A. rackae WL09
              `--A. tribolii Newstead & Duvall 1918 H98

Pyemotes Amerling 1862 H98 [incl. Heteropus Newport 1850 nec Beauvois 1805 nec Fitzinger 1826 nec Duméril & Bibron 1839 H98, Pediculoides Targioni-Tozzetti 1878 H98; Pediculoididae, Pyemotidae WL09]

Pyemotes rhynchitinus (Debey 1849) [=Dermaleichus rhynchitinus; incl. D. attelabrinus Debey 1849, Pyemotes attelabrinus] H98

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[L86] Lindquist, E. E. 1986. The world genera of Tarsonemidae (Acari: Heterostigmata): a morphological, phylogenetic, and systematic revision, with a reclassification of family-group taxa in the Heterostigmata. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada 118 (S136): 1–517.

[SB63] Schweizer, J., & C. Bader. 1963. Die Landmilben der Schweiz (Mittelland, Jura und Alpen): Trombidiformes Reuter, mit 217 Arten und Unterarten und 193 Originalzeichnungen. Denkschriften der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft [Mémoires de la Société Helvétique des Sciences Naturelles] 84 (2): i–vi, 209–378.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

[WP99] Walter, D. E., & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

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