Passifloraceae

Blue passionflower Passiflora caerulea, photographed by Natalie G.


Belongs within: Violineae.

The Passifloraceae includes the passionflowers and related taxa. Passionflowers (Passiflora) are tendrillar climbers, many species of which are grown for their edible fruit. Other species of the Passifloraceae are herbs or woody plants.

Synapomorphies (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Cyclopentenoid cyanogenic glycosides and/or cyclopentenyl fatty acids present, cyanogenic glycosides derived from valine and isoleucine present; colleters present; calyx and corolla together forming a tube, styles separate; aril present, endotestal cells large, exotegmen palisade, endotegmen persistent; endosperm persistent, oily; biparental or paternal transmission of plastids.

Passifloraceae
    |  i. s.: Adenia SR07
    |           |--A. hondala SR07
    |           `--A. pechuelii CV06
    |         Atheranthera YY22
    |         Echinothamnus YY22
    |         Ophiocaulon YY22
    |         Tetrapathaea YY22
    |           |--T. australis A27
    |           `--T. tetrandra WH02 [=Passiflora tetrandra YY22]
    |         Paschanthus YY22
    |         Soyauxia BB07
    |--Malesherbia [Malesherbiaceae] DL07
    `--+--Turneraceae T00
       |    |--Hyalocalyx YY22
       |    |--Mathurina YY22
       |    |--Piriqueta YY22
       |    |--Streptopetalum YY22
       |    |--Wormskioldia YY22
       |    `--Turnera DL07
       |         |--T. oculata CV06
       |         |    |--T. o. var. oculata CV06
       |         |    `--T. o. var. paucipilosa CV06
       |         |--T. subulata P88
       |         `--T. ulmifolia P88
       `--+--Paropsia DL07
          `--Passiflora DL07
               |--P. caerulea BL04
               |--P. edulis H06
               |    |--P. e. f. edulis CR01
               |    `--P. e. f. flavicarpa CR01
               |--P. ekmanii J87
               |--P. foetida P88
               |--P. laurifolia P88
               |--P. mollissima Z02 [=P. tripartita var. mollissima H06]
               |--P. murucuja J87
               |--P. orbiculata J87
               |--P. sexflora J87
               |--P. suberosa H06
               `--P. subpeltata H06

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A27] Andersen, J. C. 1927. Popular names of New Zealand plants. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 905-977.

[BL04] Barkman, T. J., S.-H. Lim, K. M. Salleh & J. Nais. 2004. Mitochondrial DNA sequences reveal the photosynthetic relatives of Rafflesia, the world’s largest flower. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 101 (3): 787-792.

[BB07] Bhattacharyya, P. K. & K. Bhattacharyya. 2007. A comparison of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification (2003) with system of Takhtajan (1997) and Cronquist (1988). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 95-120.

[CR01] Chagas, C. M., V. Rossetti, A. Colariccio, O. Lovisolo, E. W. Kitajima & C. C. Childers. 2001. Brevipalpus mites (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) as vectors of plant viruses. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 369-375. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175-189.

[DL07] Davis, C. C., M. Latvis, D. L. Nickrent, K. J. Wurdack & D. A. Baum. 2007. Floral gigantism in Rafflesiaceae. Science 315: 1812.

[H06] Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36 (2): 201-222.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[SR07] Sankar, R. V., K. Ravikumar, N. M. Ganesh Babu & D. K. Ved. 2007. Botany of Anapady MPCA, Palghat district, Kerala with special emphasis on species of conservation concern. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 165-172.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: Dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441-647.

[WH02] Worthy, T. H., & R. N. Holdaway. 2002. The Lost World of the Moa: Prehistoric life of New Zealand. Indiana University Press: Bloomington (Indiana).

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

[Z02] Zhang, Z.-Q. 2002. Taxonomy of Tetranychus ludeni (Acari: Tetranychidae) in New Zealand and its ecology on Sechium edule. New Zealand Entomologist 25: 27-34.

Polygalaceae

September bush Polygala myrtifolia, photographed by Raimond Spekking.


Belongs within: Fabales.

The Polygalaceae are a family of flowering plants including the milkworts and related taxa. Members of the Polygalaceae often have flowers with the lower petal keeled. Trees of the genus Xanthophyllum are used as a source of fine wood.

Characters (from Chen, Ma & Parnell): Perennial or annual herbs or shrubs or trees, rarely small herbs (the latter sometimes saprophytic). Leaves simple, alternate, opposite, or whorled, petiolate or sessile, papery or leathery, with pinnate veins, margin entire, leaves rarely reduced and scalelike; stipules absent, sometimes spiniform or scalelike appendages present. Flowers bisexual, zygomorphic, white, yellow, or purple-red, pedicellate or sessile, in axillary or terminal racemes, panicles, or spikes, with bracts and usually also with bracteoles. Calyx persistent or caducous; sepals 5, free or connate at base, outer 3 small, inner 2 (alae) large, petal-like, or all 5 nearly equal. Petals 3 or 5, basally often connate, lower (median) one ("keel") usually inflexed, carinate, sometimes with fimbriate or lamellate or papilionaceous apical appendages. Stamens 8, 7, 5, or 4; filaments free, or variously united and forming a sheath open on upper side and troughlike; anthers basifixed, usually dehiscing by a single apical pore. Disk usually absent, if present annular or glandular. Ovary superior, 1- or 2-loculed; ovule 1 per locule, anatropous, pendulous, rarely ovules numerous and placentas parietal; style 1, erect or curved; stigmas 1 or 2, capitate. Fruit a 2-loculed capsule, dehiscing by valves, or a 1-loculed samara or a berrylike drupe, dehiscing or not. Seeds 2, or 1 with 1 sterile locule, yellow-brown, dark castaneous, or black, ovoid, globose, or ellipsoidal, glabrous or piliferous, strophiolate or not, with or without endosperm, sometimes with an appendage at end opposite to strophiole.

<==Polygalaceae [Polygaleae]
    |--Xanthophyllum H03
    `--Moutabeeae H03
         |--Balgoya H03
         `--+--Eriandra H03
            `--Diclidanthera forrestii H03, EF04

Polygalaceae incertae sedis:
  Polygala WM09
    |--P. arilata D07
    |--P. cruciata WM09
    |--P. erioptera PP07
    |--P. guerichiana CV06
    |--P. monspeliaca PT98
    |--P. myrtifolia GK00
    |--P. nicaeensis Risso ex Koch 1839 PL04
    |    |--P. n. ssp. nicaeensis PL04
    |    `--P. n. ssp. mediterranea Chodat 1889 PL04
    `--P. penaea J87
  Comesperma OS04
    |--C. calymega GK00
    |--C. ciliatum GK00
    |--C. drummondii GK00
    |--C. flavum GK00
    |--C. integerrimum OS04
    |--C. scoparium OS04
    |--C. virgatum GK00
    `--C. volubile G04
  Salomonia oblongifolia H09
  Securidaca WM09
    |--S. diversifolia WM09
    `--S. virgata J87
  Monnina xalapensis MM96

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175-189.

[D07] Dash, S. S. 2007. Useful plants of Kabi Sacred Grove, Sikkim. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 79-88.

[EF04] Etten, E. J. B. van, & J. E. D. Fox. 2004. Vegetation classification and ordination of the central Hamersley Ranges, Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 63-79.

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49-62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323-402.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: Vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311-449.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1-487.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19-28.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P. & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 15-78.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: Flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95-116.

[PL04] Pohl, G., & I. Lenski. 2004. Zur Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung von Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Nordeuböa (Griechenland) (Poaceae, Paniceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 209-223.

[WM09] Wang, H., M. J. Moore, P. S. Soltis, C. D. Bell, S. F. Brockington, R. Alexandre, C. C. Davis, M. Latvis, S. R. Manchester & D. E. Soltis. 2009. Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (10): 3853-3858.

Oxalidales

Yellow wood sorrel Oxalis stricta, photographed by Robbin Moran.


Belongs within: Rosidae.
Contains: Cunoniaceae, Elaeocarpaceae.

The Oxalidales is a clade of flowering plants supported by molecular analyses. Many members of the clade are tropical trees and shrubs, but the clade also includes the prominent herbaceous genus Oxalis, the sorrels, a number of species of which are invasive weeds in many parts of the world. The Oxalidaceae also include the small tree genus Averrhoa, of which the carambola A. carambola and bilimbi A. bilimbi are cultivated for their edible fruit; the acidic fruit of A. bilimbi are more commonly used in cooking than eaten raw. Members of the clade containing Cunoniaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Brunellia and Cephalotus have a valvate calyx that is postgenitally coherent by hairs (Angiosperm Phylogeny Web).Cephalotus follicularis of south-western Australia is a herb with leaves modified into insect-catching lidded pitchers.

<==Oxalidales [Cunoniales]
    |--+--Rourea DL07
    |  `--+--+--Cunoniaceae WM09
    |     |  `--+--Elaeocarpaceae WM09
    |     |     `--Cephalotus [Cephalotaceae, Cephalotales] WM09
    |     |          `--C. follicularis WM09
    |     `--Brunellia [Brunelliaceae] WM09
    |          |--B. comocladiifolia J87
    |          |    |--B. c. ssp. comocladiifolia J87
    |          |    `--B. c. ssp. domingensis J87
    |          |--B. goudotii R96
    |          `--B. vulgaris C55a
    `--+--Connaraceae WM09
       |    |--Jollydora [Jollydoroideae] T00
       |    `--Connarus [Connaroideae] WM09
       |         `--C. conchocarpus WM09
       `--Oxalidaceae [Averrhoeaceae] WM09
            |--Dapania H03
            |--Averrhoa P88
            |    |--A. bilimbi P88
            |    `--A. carambola P88
            `--Oxalis Linnaeus 1753 A61 [incl. Oxys D01]
                 |--O. ausensis CV06
                 |--O. cernua C55b
                 |--O. corniculata Linnaeus 1753 A61
                 |    |--O. c. var. corniculata A61
                 |    |--O. c. var. ciliifera (Cunn.) Hook. f. 1852 (see below for synonymy) A61
                 |    |--O. c. var. crassifolia (Cunn.) Hook. f. 1852 [=O. crassifolia Cunn. 1839] A61
                 |    `--O. c. var. microphylla Hook. f. 1852 [incl. O. exilis Cunn. 1839] A61
                 |--O. dillenii Jacq. 1794 CD07
                 |--O. eggersii J87
                 |--O. hunsbergensis CV06
                 |--O. laciniata D03
                 |--O. lactea Hook. 1836 [incl. O. cataractae Cunn. 1839, O. novae-zelandiae Gand. 1913] A61
                 |--O. latifolia WM09
                 |--O. luederitzii CV06
                 |--O. magellanica A27
                 |--O. oregona C90
                 |--O. perennans GK00
                 |--O. pseudo-cernua CV06
                 |--O. purpurea GK00
                 |--O. schaeferi CV06
                 `--O. stricta Linnaeus 1753 (see below for synonymy) A61

Oxalis corniculata var. ciliifera (Cunn.) Hook. f. 1852 [=O. ciliifera Cunn. 1839; incl. O. tenuicaulis Cunn. 1839] A61

Oxalis stricta Linnaeus 1753 [incl. O. ambigua Rich. 1832, O. divergens Cunn. 1839, C. lacicola Cunn. 1839, O. propinqua Cunn. 1839, O. urvillei Cunn. 1839] A61

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[A27] Andersen, J. C. 1927. Popular names of New Zealand plants. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 905-977.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1-E44.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175-189.

[C90] Crawford, R. L. 1990. Discovery of Caviphantes saxetorum in North America; status of Scironis tarsalis (Araneida, Linyphiidae). Journal of Arachnology 18: 235-236.

[DL07] Davis, C. C., M. Latvis, D. L. Nickrent, K. J. Wurdack & D. A. Baum. 2007. Floral gigantism in Rafflesiaceae. Science 315: 1812.

[D01] Doweld, A. B. 2001. The systematic relevance of fruit and seed structure in Bersama and Melianthus (Melianthaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 227: 75-103.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8—Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323-402.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: Vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311-449.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[R96] Righi, G. 1996. Colombian earthworms. Studies on Tropical Andean Ecosystems 4: 485-607.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: Dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441-647.

[WM09] Wang, H., M. J. Moore, P. S. Soltis, C. D. Bell, S. F. Brockington, R. Alexandre, C. C. Davis, M. Latvis, S. R. Manchester & D. E. Soltis. 2009. Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (10): 3853-3858.

Euphorbia

Cypress spurge Euphorbia cyparissias, from here.


Belongs within: Euphorbiaceae.

Euphorbia is a very large genus of flowering plants, most diverse in drier parts of the tropics. Species are diverse in appearance, including herbs, trees and cactus-like succulents. Some species are popular ornamentals, such as the poinsettia Euphorbia pulcherrima, though the latex sap of species in this genus can be noticeably caustic. Notable species include the petty spurge E. peplus, a native of Europe and western Asia that has become naturalised in many other parts of the world including North America and Australasia.

Characters (from Ma & Gilbert): Herbs (annual, biennial, or perennial), shrubs, or trees, very rarely subscandent, sometimes rhizomatous, monoecious or, rarely in Flora area, dioecious; indumentum of simple hairs, often absent, all parts with abundant white, very rarely yellow, latex; roots fibrous or tuberous. Stems sometimes succulent, terete or variously winged or tuberculate. Leaves alternate or opposite, rarely verticillate; stipules present or not, sometimes modified into glands or prickles; petiole often ill-defined to absent; leaf blade usually entire, sometimes serrulate or dentate. Inflorescence a flowerlike cyathium, single or often several in terminal or axillary, dichasial or monochasial cymes often in a "pseudumbel" with a terminal, more or less sessile cyathium subtended by a whorl of pedunculate cymes, each subtended by an involucral leaf; cyathium consisting of a bowl-shaped to tubular involucre subtended by a pair of bracts, "cyathophylls," enclosing several clusters of male flowers and 1 central female flower, occasionally cyathia unisexual, involucre margin with 4 or 5 lobes, cyathial glands (1-)4 or 5(-7), mostly alternating with involucral lobes, sometimes with petaloid appendages or a pair of horns. Male flower reduced to a single stamen, with an articulation at junction of pedicel and filament, subtended by slender bracteoles. Female flower pedicellate, reduced to a single ovary, rarely subtended by a very reduced perianth; ovary 3-loculed; ovules 1 per locule; styles 3, free, sometimes partly connate; stigma 2-lobed or not, more or less capitate. Fruit a capsule, breaking into 3 2-valved cocci, dehiscence usually explosive, very rarely almost indehiscent. Seeds 1 per locule, globose to ovoid or more or less cylindric; caruncle present or not; endosperm abundant; cotyledons large.

<==Euphorbia Linnaeus 1753 A61 [incl. Chamaesyce E03; Euphorbioideae]
    |--E. abyssinica DL07
    |--E. acanthothamnos S98
    |--E. acaulis KJ05
    |--E. albomarginata BT72
    |--E. alsiniflora LK14
    |--E. amygdaloides HH03
    |--E. angrae CV06
    |--E. antiquorum P88
    |--E. armstrongiana LK14
    |--E. atoto H09
    |--E. baliola CV06
    |--E. balsamifera GC05
    |--E. bifida LK14
    |--E. biglandulosa P93
    |--E. caducifolia PP07
    |--E. calyptrata P93
    |--E. caperonioides CV06
    |--E. chamaesyce Y98
    |--E. chamaesycoides CV06
    |--E. characias C55a
    |--E. cibdela CV06
    |--E. clarkeana PP07
    |--E. cyathophora LK14
    |--E. cyparissias C55b
    |--E. cyparissioides P93
    |--E. damarana CV06
    |--E. deflexa Sibthorp & Smith 1809 PL04
    |--E. dendroides P05
    |--E. drummondii KM08
    |--E. dulcis C55b
    |--E. epithymoides DL07
    |--E. esula C55b
    |--E. exigua PT98
    |--E. friedrichiae CV06
    |--E. giessii CV06
    |--E. glauca Forst. f. 1786 A61
    |--E. granulata PP07
    |--E. guyoniana P93
    |--E. helioscopia C55b
    |--E. heterophylla AGF98
    |--E. heyneane PP07
    |--E. himalayensis O88
    |--E. hirta PP07 [=Chamaesyce hirta ACW01]
    |--E. hypericifolia C55b [=Chamaesyce hypericifolia J87]
    |--‘Chamaesyce’ hyssopifolia MM96
    |--E. indica PP07
    |--E. insarmentosa CV06
    |--E. juttae CV06
    |--E. kaokoensis CV06
    |--E. kimberleyensis LK14
    |--E. lathyris C55b
    |--E. lavrani CV06
    |--E. leistneri CV06
    |--E. leucocephala MM96
    |--E. maculata GR98
    |--E. mauritanica CV06
    |    |--E. m. var. mauritanica CV06
    |    `--E. m. var. foetens CV06
    |--E. mitchelliana LK14
    |--E. monteiroi CV06
    |    |--E. m. ssp. monteiroi CV06
    |    `--E. m. ssp. brandbergensis CV06
    |--E. myrtoides LK14
    |--E. namibensis CV06
    |--E. namuskluftensis CV06
    |--E. neriifolia J07
    |--E. nicaeensis F05
    |--E. origanoides C55b [=Chamaesyce origanoides C79]
    |--E. otjipembana CV06
    |--E. palustris ZB01
    |--E. paralias C74
    |--E. peplus Linnaeus 1753 PL04
    |--E. pergracilis CV06
    |--E. pilulifera C55b
    |--E. platyphyllos C55b
    |--E. plumerioides LK14
    |--E. portlandica V09
    |--E. prostrata GR98
    |--E. pseudoduseimata CV06
    |--E. pulcherrima MH98
    |--E. regis-jubae P93
    |--E. rudis CV06
    |--E. salicifolia C55b
    |--E. schizolepis LK14
    |--E. schultzii LK14
    |--E. serpens GR98
    |--E. sharkoensis KM08
    |--E. spartaria CV06
    |--E. spinea CV06
    |--E. stracheyi O88
    |--E. tannensis KM08
    |    |--E. t. ssp. tannensis KM08
    |    `--E. t. ssp. eremophila KM08
    |--E. taurinensis PT98
    |--E. terracina P93
    |--E. thymifolia PP07
    |--E. tirucalli DP72
    |--E. tortilis RS02
    |--E. variegata PT01
    |--E. venenata CV06
    |--E. verruculosa CV06
    `--E. volkmanniae CV06

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AGF98] Abd El-Ghani, M. M., & A. G. Fahmy. 1998. Composition of and changes in the spontaneous flora of Feiran Oasis, S Sinai, Egypt, in the last 60 years. Willdenowia 28: 123–134.

[ACW01] Aguilar, H., C. C. Childers & W. C. Welbourn. 2001. Relative abundance and seasonal occurrence of mites in the family Tydeidae on citrus in Florida. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 376–380. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BT72] Baker, E. W., & D. M. Tuttle. 1972. New species and further notes on the Tetranychoidea mostly from the southwestern United States (Acarina: Tetranychidae and Tenuipalpidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 116: 1–37.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C74] Coineau, Y. 1974. Éléments pour une monographie morphologique, écologique et biologique des Caeculidae (Acariens). Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, nouvelle série, Série A, Zoologie 81: 1–299, 24 pls.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[C79] Croizat, L. 1979. Review: Biogeographie: Fauna und Flora der Erde und ihre geschlichtliche Entwicklung. Systematic Zoology 28 (2): 250–252.

[DL07] Davis, C. C., M. Latvis, D. L. Nickrent, K. J. Wurdack & D. A. Baum. 2007. Floral gigantism in Rafflesiaceae. Science 315: 1812.

[DP72] Deighton, F. C., & K. A. Pirozynski. 1972. Microfungi. V. More hyperparasitic hyphomycetes. Mycological Papers 128: 1–110.

[E03] Esser, H.-J. 2003. Fruit characters in Malesian Euphorbiaceae. Telopea 10 (1): 169–177.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[GC05] Granjon, L., J.-F. Cosson, E. Quesseveur & B. Sicard. 2005. Population dynamics of the multimammate rat Mastomys huberti in an annually flooded agricultural region of central Mali. Journal of Mammalogy 86 (5): 997–1008.

[GR98] Greuter, W., & T. Raus (eds.) 1998. Med-Checklist Notulae, 17. Willdenowia 28: 163–174.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[HH03] Hernández, J. R., & J. F. Hennen. 2003. Rust fungi causing galls, witches’ brooms, and other abnormal plant growths in northwestern Argentina. Mycologia 95 (4): 728–755.

[J07] Jadhav, D. 2007. Ethno-medicinal plants used by Bhil tribe of Matrunda, district Ratlam, Madhya Pradesh, India. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1–4): 203–206.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[KJ05] Katewa, S. S., A. Jain, B. L. Chaudhary & P. Galav. 2005. Some unreported medicinal uses of plants from the tribal area of Southern Rajasthan. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47 (1-4): 121–130.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11–19.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180–190.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1–487.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P., & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1–4): 15–78.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95–116.

[P05] Papapavlou, K. P. 2005. New distributional data on the Orthoptera (Saltatoria) of the northern Dodecanese ("southern Sporadhes) archipelago, Greece. Graellsia 61 (1): 3–11.

[PT01] Pemberton, L. M. S., S.-L. Tsai, P. H. Lovell & P. J. Harris. 2001. Epidermal patterning in seedling roots of eudicotyledons. Annals of Botany 87: 649–654.

[P93] Pittaway, A. R. 1993. The Hawkmoths of the Western Palaearctic. Harley Books: Colchester.

[PL04] Pohl, G., & I. Lenski. 2004. Zur Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung von Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Nordeuböa (Griechenland) (Poaceae, Paniceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 209–223.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[RS02] Radhakrishna, S., & M. Singh. 2002. Activity schedule and habitat use of the slender loris Loris tardigradus lydekkerianus. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 400–407.

[S98] Salmeri, C. 1998. Allium brulloi (Alliaceae), a new species from Astypalea (Aegean Islands, Greece). Willdenowia 28: 69–76.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the Wild Fauna and Flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

[Y98] Yannitsaros, A. 1998. Additions to the flora of Kithira (Greece) I. Willdenowia 28: 77–94.

[ZB01] Zhang, N., & M. Blackwell. 2001. Molecular phylogeny of dogwood anthracnose fungus (Discula destructiva) and the Diaporthales. Mycologia 93 (2): 355–365.

Euphorbiaceae

Alabama croton Croton alabamensis, photographed by Derek Ramsey.


Belongs within: Malpighiales.
Contains: Macaranga, Rafflesiales, Euphorbia.

The Euphorbiaceae are a diverse group of flowering plants, often containing latex. Many members of the family are succulent, and some can bear a strong superficial resemblance to cacti. Molecular analysis supports a small clade of tropical trees and shrubs including the genera Pera, Clutia and Pogonophora as sister to the remaining Euphorbiaceae (Davis et al. 2007); the genera Pera and Clutia, at least, are also distinctive in seed coat anatomy from the remaining Euphorbiaceae (Angiosperm Phylogeny Website).

Characters (from Flora of China): Trees, shrubs, or herbs, rarely woody or herbaceous lianas, monoecious or dioecious, indumentum of simple, branched, stellate, or gland-tipped hairs, peltate or glandular scales or stinging hairs, latex often present, clear, white, or colored; roots woody, rarely roots tuberous and stems succulent, sometimes spiny. Leaves alternate or opposite, rarely whorled; stipules usually present, often free, sometimes modified into spines or glands, deciduous or persistent; petioles long to short, sometimes with glands at apex or base; leaf blade simple, sometimes palmately lobed, rarely compound, or reduced to scales, margins entire or toothed, sometimes with distinct glands along margin and/or on surface, venation pinnate or palmate. Inflorescences axillary or terminal, flowers in cymes or fascicles, these often arranged along an elongated axis, branched or unbranched, forming a thyrse, in congested heads, or in a flowerlike cyathium with very reduced flowers enclosed within a ± cupular involucre; bracts sometimes petaloid. Flowers unisexual, within same inflorescence or in separate inflorescences, actinomorphic. Sepals (1-)3-6(-8), free or connate into calyx tube, valvate or imbricate, rarely absent. Petals free, often reduced or absent. Disk present or absent. Male flowers with disk intrastaminal or extrastaminal, entire to dissected. Stamens one to very many, hypogynous; filaments free or connate; anthers 2(-4)-locular, mostly dehiscing longitudinally, rarely transversely or by pores, introrse or extrorse; rudimentary ovary sometimes present. Female flowers rarely with staminodes; ovary superior, (1-)2-5(-20)-locular; placentation axile; ovules 1 or 2 per locule, anatropous or hemitropous; styles free or connate, entire or lobed, or multifid, lobes erect, horizontal or curved; stigma capitate, linear, fimbriate, fan-shaped or pinnatilobate. Fruit typically a capsule elastically dehiscent into 2-valved cocci from a persistent columella, sometimes a berry or drupe. Seeds 1 or 2 per locule; seed coat thin to indurate, sometimes fleshy to form a sarcotesta; caruncle sometimes present; aril sometimes present; endosperm present or absent; embryo straight to curved or folded; cotyledons usually broader than radical. x = 6-14.

<==Euphorbiaceae
    |--+--Pogonophora schomburgkiana DL07
    |  `--+--Pera bicolor DL07
    |     `--Clutia myricoides DL07
    `--+--Rafflesiales DL07
       `--+--Neoscortechinia DL07
          |    |--N. angustifolia H03
          |    |--N. philippinensis H03
          |    `--N. sumatrensis H03
          `--+--Pimelodendron zoanthogyne DL07
             |--Endospermum moluccanum DL07
             |--Euphorbia DL07
             |--+--Homalanthus populneus DL07
             |  `--Maprounea guianensis DL07
             |--+--Micrandra DL07 [incl. Cunuria E03]
             |  |    `--M. siphonoides DL07
             |  `--Hevea DL07
             |       |--H. brasiliensis FP01
             |       `--H. pauciflora DL07
             |--+--+--Codiaeum variegatum DL07
             |  |  `--Ostodes paniculata DL07
             |  `--Croton [Crotonoideae] DL07
             |       |--C. alabamensis DL07
             |       |--C. bonplandianum P03
             |       |--C. gibsonianus SR07
             |       |--C. glabellus J87
             |       |--C. oblongifolius P03
             |       |--C. poecilanthus SWK87
             |       `--C. tiglium P88
             `--+--Ricinus communis DL07
                |--Erythrococca trichogyne DL07
                |--Monotaxis DL07
                |    |--M. bracteata DL07
                |    `--M. occidentalis GK00
                |--+--Bernardia myricifolia DL07
                |  `--Dalechampia spathulata DL07
                |--Koilodepas DL07
                |    |--K. batamense DL07
                |    `--K. longifolium K03
                `--Acalypha [Acalyphoideae] DL07
                     |--A. californica DL07
                     |--A. diversifolia MM96
                     |--A. godseffiana P88
                     |--A. indica P03
                     |--A. rhomboidea AB-E04
                     `--A. wilkesiana P88

Euphorbiaceae incertae sedis:
  Mercurialis PT01
    |--M. annua PT98
    `--M. perennis PT01
  Antidesma E03
    |--A. diandrum P03
    `--A. montanum K03
  Bridelia K03
    |--B. crenulata SR07
    |--B. rettisa KJ05
    `--B. stipularis K03
  Glochidion E03
    |--G. littorale P88
    |--G. macrostigma K03
    `--G. zeylanicum UB06
  Jatropha E03
    |--J. curcas K03
    `--J. gossypifolia B04
  Manihot E03
    |--M. aipi C55
    |--M. epruinosa RS98
    |--M. esculenta K03
    |--M. glaziovii RS98
    `--M. utilissima [=Mandioca utilissima] MM96
  Hura E03
  Dichostemma H03
  Kairothamnus E03
  Gymnanthes lucida E03, J87
  Strophioblachia E03
  Agrostistachys capitata E03, H03
  Doryxylon E03
  Shirakiopsis sanchezii E03, H03
  Distichirops E03
  Aporosa E03
  Homonoia E03
  Chaetocarpus E03
  Baccaurea E03
    |--B. lanceolata K03
    `--B. puberula K03
  Macaranga E03
  Sauropus E03
    |--S. androgynus P88
    |--S. bacciformis H03
    |--S. macranthus H03
    `--S. villosus H03
  Acidocroton YY22
  Acidoton E03
  Actinostemon E03
  Adenochlaena YY22
  Adenocline YY22
  Adenopeltis YY22
  Afrotrewia YY22
  Agyneia YY22
  Alcoceria YY22
  Algernonia YY22
  Allenia YY22
  Alphandia E03
  Amanoa E03
  Anabaenella YY22
  Andrachne E03
  Angostylis YY22
  Anthostema YY22
  Aonikena YY22
  Apodiscus YY22
  Argithamnia YY22
  Argomuellera E03
  Aristogeitonia E03
  Astrococcus E03
  Avellantia YY22
  Baliospermum montanum SR07
  Bertya YY22
  Blachia E03
  Bonania YY22
  Breynia E03
    |--B. cernua HM03
    `--B. oblongifolia MM09
  Calpigyne YY22
  Cephalocroton E03
  Cephalocrotonopsis YY22
  Cephalomappa E03
  Chiropetalum YY22
  Chloradenia YY22
  Chondrostylis E03
  Chrozophora E03
    |--C. brocchiana AGF98
    |--C. plicata AGF98
    |--C. rottelari VB02
    `--C. tinctoria Y98
  Cladogynos E03
  Clavistylis YY22
  Cluytiandra YY22
  Cnesmone E03
  Colliguaya YY22
  Corythea YY22
  Crotonopsis YY22
  Dalembertia YY22
  Dicoelia E03
  Ditaxis neomexicana E03, DL07
  Dysopsis E03
  Eleutherostigma YY22
  Epiprinus E03
  Erismanthus E03
  Fragariopsis YY22
  Grimmeodendron YY22
  Haematostemon E03
  Hippomane E03
  Hypocoton YY22
  Joannesia YY22
  Julocroton YY22
  Klaineanthus YY22
  Lasiococca E03
  Leidesia YY22
  Longetia YY22
  Lortia YY22
  Mabea taquari E03, L-M-HG08
  Mareya E03
  Megistostigma E03
  Micrococca mercurialis SR07
  Monadenium YY22
  Necepsia E03
  Neopalisaya YY22
  Neopycnocoma YY22
  Neoroepera YY22
  Nepenthandra YY22
  Omphalea E03
  Ophthalmoblapton YY22
  Pachystroma YY22
  Pachystylidium E03
  Palissya YY22
  Paracroton pendulus SR07
    |--P. p. ssp. pendulus SR07
    `--P. p. ssp. zeylanicus SR07
  Pedilanthus tithymaloides E03, K03
  Petalodiscus YY22
  Platygyne YY22
  Plukenetia [incl. Apodandra] E03
  Poranthera KM08
    |--P. alpina W27
    |--P. huegelii GK00
    `--P. microphylla KM08
  Pseudanthus virgatus GK00
  Pterococcus Hasskarl 1842 (nom. cons.) FT93
  Pycnocoma E03
  Ramelia YY22
  Ricinocarpus YY22
  Sagotia E03
  Schizostigma YY22
  Sebastiania YY22
  Seidelia YY22
  Senefeldera YY22
  Speranskia YY22
  Sphaerostylis YY22
  Stenadenium YY22
  Stillingia E03
  Sumbavia YY22
  Sumbaviopsis E03
  Synadenium YY22
  Syndyophyllum E03
  Tannodia E03
  Tetraplandra YY22
  Tragiella E03
  Trigonostemon E03
  Trisyngyne YY22
  Wetriaria YY22
  Wielandia YY22
  Zimmermannia E03
  Adelia E03
  Adenophaedra E03
  Adriana KM08
    |--A. quadripartita SM06
    `--A. urticoides KM08
  Alchorneopsis portoricensis E03, SWK87
  Alcinaeanthus YY22
  Aparisthmium cordatum E03, L-M-HG08
  Aporosella YY22
  Astrocasia E03
  Athroandra YY22
  Baccaureopsis YY22
  Blumeodendron E03
  Bocquillonia YY22
  Buraeavia YY22
  Caelebogyne YY22
  Caryodendron E03
  Chascotheca YY22
  Cheilosa E03
  Chlamydojatropha YY22
  Choriophyllum YY22
  Clarorivinia YY22
  Coccoceras YY22
  Cocconerion YY22
  Coelediscus YY22
  Cometia YY22
  Conceveiba E03
  Conceveibastrum YY22
  Crotonogyne YY22
  Cyathogyne YY22
  Cyclostemon YY22
  Cyrtogonone YY22
  Cyrtogyne YY22
  Deuteromallotus YY22
  Discocarpus E03
  Discoclaoxylon E03
  Discocleidion YY22
  Discoglypremna E03
  Ditta myricoides J87, SWK87
  Everettiodendron YY22
  Fontainea E03
  Gavarettia E03
  Givotia YY22
  Grossera YY22
  Hamilcoa YY22
  Hasskarlia YY22
  Hemicyclia YY22
  Heywoodia E03
  Holstia YY22
  Lachnostylis YY22
  Lasiocroton YY22
  Lepidoturus YY22
  Leptonemea YY22
  Leucocroton YY22
  Maesobotrya E03
  Manniophyton YY22
  Martretia YY22
  Mettenia YY22
  Mischodon YY22
  Neoboutonia E03
  Neojatropha YY22
  Neomanniophyton YY22
  Nulbraedia YY22
  Paivaeusa YY22
  Pausandra E03
  Piranhea E03
  Plagiostyles YY22
  Platystigma YY22
  Podadenia YY22
  Poggeophyton YY22
  Polydragma YY22
  Protomegabaria YY22
  Pseudagrostistachys E03
  Pseudocroton YY22
  Pseudolachnostylis E03
  Richeria E03
  Ricinodendron E03
  Savia E03
  Scortechinia YY22
  Secretania YY22
  Spondianthus E03
  Staphysora YY22
  Tetracarpidium YY22
  Tetracoccus YY22
  Tetraglochidion YY22
  Thecacoris E03
  Toxicodendron radicans YY22, BC01
  Trewia nudiflora E03, HU08
  Trigonopleura E03
  Uapaca YY22
  Uranthera YY22
  Veconcites YY22
  Wetria E03
  Actephila latifolia E03, H09
  Alchornea E09
    |--A. glandulosa MP00
    `--A. latifolia SWK87
  Aleurites moluccana E03, CA27
  Amperea GK00
    |--A. simulans GK00
    `--A. volubilis GK00
  Angostylidium YY22
  Baloghia YY22
  Beyeria KM08
    |--B. brevifolia G04b
    `--B. cinerea KM08
  Caperonia E03
  Claoxylon E03
  Cleidion E03
  Cleistanthus E03
    |--C. collinus S02
    `--C. sankunnianus Sivar. & Indu Balach. 1985 UB06
  Cordemoya YY22
  Dimorphocalyx E03
  Flueggea E03
  Garcia E03
  Lautembergia YY22
  Lebidieropsis YY22
  Melanolepis E03
  Reverchonia YY22
  Sapium E03
    |--S. buchii J87
    |--S. caribaeum SWK87
    |--S. haitiense J87
    |--S. jamaicense SWK87
    |--S. japonicum [=Excoecaria japonica] LO98
    |--S. laurocerasus SWK87
    `--S. sebiferum MH98
  Securinega YY22
    |--S. leucopyrus RaS02
    `--S. virosa BB07
  Tetrorchidium E03
  Tragia E03
    |--T. dinteri CV06
    `--T. lancifolia CV06
  Tanodia YY22
  Astraea lobata [=Croton lobatum] C55
  Mallotus E03
    |--M. japonicus LO98
    |--M. philippensis HU08
    `--M. repandus P03
  Triadica E03
  Microstachys E03
  Margaritaria E03
  Ptychopyxis E03
  Suregada Rottler 1803 [incl. Gelonium Willdenow 1806 non Gaertner 1791] A-R03
  Ashtonia E03
  Balakata luzonica E03
  Leptopus SK05
    |--L. australis SK05
    `--L. sanjappae Sumathi, Karthigeyan et al. 2005 SK05
  Spathiostemon E03
  Annesijoa E03
  Borneodendron E03
  Botryophora E03
  Choriceras E03
  Clonostylis E03
  Elateriospermum E03
  Falconeria E03
  Loerzingia E03
  Moultonianthus E03
  Neotrewia E03
  Octospermum E03
  Reutalis E03
  Richeriella E03
  Tapoides E03
  Vernicia E03
  Meineckia parvifolia SR07
  Spirostachys africana E03, Ru-S02
  Cavacoa E03
  Crotonogynopsis E03
  Mildbraedia E03
  Neoholstia E03
  Paranecepsia E03
  Sclerocroton E03
  Cnidoscolus aconitifolius E03, M-FR98
  Argythamnia E03
  Dendrothrix E03
  Sandwithia E03
  Senefelderopsis E03
  Celianella E03
  Glycydendron E03
  Jablonskia E03
  ‘Diplomorpha’ Griffith 1854 non Meisner 1841 FT93
  Hyeronima MP00
    |--H. alchorneoides MP00
    |--H. clusioides SWK87
    `--H. domingensis J87
  Calycopeplus paucifolius G04a
  Excaecaria agallocha H09

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AGF98] Abd El-Ghani, M. M., & A. G. Fahmy. 1998. Composition of and changes in the spontaneous flora of Feiran Oasis, S Sinai, Egypt, in the last 60 years. Willdenowia 28: 123-134.

[A-R03] Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. 2003. (1592) Proposal to conserve the name Tina (Sapindaceae) with a conserved type. Taxon 52: 373-374.

[AB-E04] Agapow, P.-M., O. R. P. Bininda-Emonds, K. A. Crandall, J. L. Gittleman, G. M. Mace, J. C. Marshall & A. Purvis. 2004. The impact of species concept on biodiversity studies. Quarterly Review of Biology 79 (2): 161-179.

[BB07] Baishya, A. K. & P. J. Bora. 2007. Cross community ethno-medico botany of Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve, Assam. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 121-154.

[B04] Briese, D. T. 2004. Weed biological control: applying science to solve seemingly intractable problems. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 304-317.

[BC01] Briese, D. T., & J. M. Cullen. 2001. The use and usefulness of mites in biological control of weeds. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 453-463. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CA27] Cockayne, L., & H. H. Allan. 1927. Notes on New Zealand floristic botany, including descriptions of new species, &c. (No. 5). Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 48-72.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175-189.

[DL07] Davis, C. C., M. Latvis, D. L. Nickrent, K. J. Wurdack & D. A. Baum. 2007. Floral gigantism in Rafflesiaceae. Science 315: 1812.

[E03] Esser, H.-J. 2003. Fruit characters in Malesian Euphorbiaceae. Telopea 10 (1): 169-177.

[FT93] Fensome, R. A., F. J. R. Taylor, G. Norris, W. A. S. Sarjeant, D. I. Wharton & G. L. Williams. 1993. A classification of living and fossil dinoflagellates. Micropaleontology Special Publication 7: i-viii, 1-351.

[FP01] Freitas, S. de, & N. D. Penny. 2001. The green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) of Brazilian agro-ecosystems. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 52: 245-395.

[G04a] Gibson, N. 2004a. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 6. Mt Manning Range. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 35-47.

[G04b] Gibson, N. 2004b. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49-62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323-402.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: Vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311-449.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[HM03] Holloway, J. D., & S. E. Miller. 2003. The composition, generic placement and host-plant relationships of the joviana-group in the Parallelia generic complex (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Catocalinae). Invertebrate Systematics 17: 111-128.

[HU08] Hore, U., & V. P. Uniyal. 2008. Diversity and composition of spider assemblages in five vegetation types of the Terai Conservation Area, India. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 251-258.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[KJ05] Katewa, S. S., A. Jain, B. L. Chaudhary & P. Galav. 2005. Some unreported medicinal uses of plants from the tribal area of Southern Rajasthan. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47 (1-4): 121-130.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11-19.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81-98.

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263-276.

[L-M-HG08] Lo-Man-Hung, N. F., T. A. Gardner, M. A. Ribeiro-Júnior, J. Barlow & A. B. Bonaldo. 2008. The value of primary, secondary, and plantation forests for Neotropical epigeic arachnids. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 394-401.

[MP00] Machado, G., & M. A. Pizo. 2000. The use of fruits by the neotropical harvestman Neosadocus variabilis (Opiliones, Laniatores, Gonyleptidae). Journal of Arachnology 28: 357-360.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180-190.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1-487.

[MM09] Mound, L. A. & M. Masumoto. 2009. Australian Thripinae of the Anaphothrips genus-group (Thysanoptera), with three new genera and thirty-three new species. Zootaxa 2042: 1-76.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: Flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95-116.

[P03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45 (1-4): 121-142.

[PT01] Pemberton, L. M. S., S.-L. Tsai, P. H. Lovell & P. J. Harris. 2001. Epidermal patterning in seedling roots of eudicotyledons. Annals of Botany 87: 649-654.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[RaS02] Radhakrishna, S., & M. Singh. 2002. Activity schedule and habitat use of the slender loris Loris tardigradus lydekkerianus. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 400-407.

[RS98] Ramsey, J., & D. W. Schemske. 1998. Pathways, mechanisms, and rates of polyploid formation in flowering plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 467-501.

[Ru-S02] Russell-Smith, A. 2002. A comparison of the diversity and composition of ground-active spiders in Mkomazi Game Reserve, Tanzania and Etosha National Park, Namibia. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 383-388.

[SR07] Sankar, R. V., K. Ravikumar, N. M. Ganesh Babu & D. K. Ved. 2007. Botany of Anapady MPCA, Palghat district, Kerala with special emphasis on species of conservation concern. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 165-172.

[S02] Santharam, V. 2002. Fruit and nectar resources in a moist deciduous forest and their use by birds – a preliminary report. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 537-543.

[SM06] Semeniuk, C. A., L. A. Milne, P. Ladd & V. Semeniuk. 2006. Pollen in the surface sediments of wetlands in the Becher Point area, southwestern Australia: a baseline for use in interpreting Holocene sequences. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (1): 27-43.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[SK05] Sumathi, R., K. Karthigeyan, J. Jayanthi & P. G. Diwakar. 2005. Leptopus sanjappae (Euphorbiaceae), a new species from the Andaman Islands, India. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47 (1-4): 155-158.

[UB06] Udayan, P. S. & I. Balachandran. 2006. Cleistanthus sankunnianus Sivar. & Indu Balach.—a rare and little known endemic plant rediscovered from wild populations in Kollam district of Kerala state, India. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 48 (1-4): 217-218.

[VB02] Vijay, S. K., & T. N. Bhardwaja. 2002. Vegetation and phenodynamics of wetlands of central Rajasthan. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 573-581.

[W27] Wall, A. 1927. Some problems of distribution of indigenuous plants in New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 94-105.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

[Y98] Yannitsaros, A. 1998. Additions to the flora of Kithira (Greece) I. Willdenowia 28: 77-94.

Hypericum

Hypericum olympicum, photographed by Michael Kesl.


Belongs within: Clusiaceae.

Hypericum, the St John's worts, is a cosmopolitan genus of yellow-flowered plants, varying from herbs to small trees. The common St John's wort Hypericum perforatum has been used pharmaceutically.

Characters (from Li & Robson): Shrubs, subshrubs, or perennial herbs (rarely trees), glabrous or with simple hairs, with translucent ("pale") and often opaque, black or reddish ("dark") glands, laminar (immersed and sometimes abaxial) and marginal or intramarginal. Leaves opposite (occasionally whorled), sessile or short petiolate, venation pinnate to palmate (or rarely dichotomous), margin entire or gland-fringed. Inflorescence cymose. Flowers bisexual, homostylous (occasionally heterostylous), stellate or cupped. Sepals 5 and quincuncial or rarely 4 and decussate, unequal or equal, free or partly united. Petals (4 or)5, contorted, golden to lemon yellow (or rarely white), abaxially sometimes tinged or veined red, persistent or deciduous after anthesis, usually asymmetric. Stamens in (4 or) 5 fascicles, free and antipetalous, or some united to form apparently 4 or 3 fascicles with compound fascicle(s) antisepalous, or irregular and apparently not fasciculate, persistent or deciduous, each single fascicle with up to 70(-120) stamens; filaments slender, free from nearly base (occasionally to 2/3 united) or apparently completely free; anthers small, dorsifixed or ± basifixed, dehiscing longitudinally, with gland on connective; sterile fascicles (fasciclodes) absent [very rare]. Ovary 3-5-loculed with axile placentae or ± completely 1-loculed with (2 or)3(-5) parietal placentae, each placenta with (2 or) few to many ovules; styles (2 or)3-5, free or partly to completely united, more or less slender; stigmas small or more or less capitate. Fruit a septicidal capsule or rarely ± indehiscent, valves often with oil-containing vittae or vesicles. Seeds small, often carinate or narrowly unilaterally winged; testa variously sculptured, not arillate (very rarely carunculate); embryo slender, straight, with distinct slender cotyledons.

<==Hypericum
    |--H. androsemum JK80
    |--H. beanii CB01
    |--H. calycinum CB01
    |--H. canariense CB01
    |--H. fuertesii J87
    |--H. gramineum CB01
    |--H. hidcote CB01
    |--H. hirsutum CB01
    |--H. hypericoides J87
    |--H. japonicum CB01
    |--H. kouytchense CB01
    |--H. millefolium J87
    |--H. monanthemum O88
    |--H. moserianum CB01
    |--H. olympicum CB01
    |--H. patulum CB01
    |--H. perforatum CB01
    |    |--H. p. var. perforatum CB01
    |    `--H. p. var. angustifolium CB01
    |--H. pulchrum CB01
    |--H. pusillum C45
    |--H. quadrangulum CB01
    |--H. quinquenervium C55b
    |--H. reptans CB01
    |--H. revolutum B06
    |--H. richeri C55a
    |--H. rowallene CB01
    |--H. russeggeri S54
    |--H. stellatum CB01
    `--H. tetrapterum CB01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B06] Burgoyne, P. M. 2006. Review: Plants of the Simen. A flora of the Simen Mountains and surroundings, northern Ethiopia. Bothalia 36 (2): 253.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C45] Colenso, W. 1845. Memoranda of an excursion, made in the Northern Island of New Zealand, in the summer of 1841-2; intended as a contribution towards the natural productions of the New Zealand groupe: with particular reference to their botany (concluded). Tasmanian Journal of Natural Science 2: 241-308.

[CB01] Cullen, J. M., & D. T. Briese. 2001. Host plant susceptibility to eriophyid mites used for weed biological control. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 342-348. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[JK80] John, J. & K.-P. Kolbe. 1980. The systematic position of the “Theales” from the viewpoint of serology. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 8: 241-248.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[S54] Seidenstücker, G. 1954. Cyphodema rubricum n. sp., eine neue Mirine aus Syrien (Ins. Hem. Het. Miridae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 35: 99-100.

Mimosoideae

Umbrella thorn acacia Acacia tortilis, photographed by Enric G.


Belongs within: Fabales.
Contains: Inga.

The Mimosoideae is a clade of leguminous plants (mostly trees or shrubs) containing the acacias and related species. Mimosoids generally have small glowers clustered into heads or spikes. The largest genus recognised in the clade has been Acacia, with about 1300 species from South America, Africa and Australia included therein; however, Acacia in this sense is now recognised as non-monophyletic and it has been divided between a number of segregate genera. Though originally named for an African species, the retypification of the genus with an Australian species has been proposed in order to retain the name for the largest of these segregates (Orchard & Maslin 2003). Acacia in this sense would include the great majority of Australian species; species from other continents would be placed in genera Vachellia and Senegalia.

Other mimosoid genera include the mesquites, Prosopis, a pantropical genus of spiny trees and shrubs that are significant parts of the vegetation of many arid regions. Members of the genus Mimosa include the sensitive plant M. pudica, so named for the way the leaves fold away when touched.

Characters (from Klitgaard & Lewis): Trees, shrubs, lianas, rarely aquatic herbs; root nodules generally present. Leaves compound, usually bipinnate or less frequently paripinnate, often with specialized "ant" glands, rarely with a tendril. Flowers radially symmetrical, usually small, aggregated into heads or spikes; sepals generally united at the base; petals valvate in bud, the median petal (similar in size and shape to the other four) not overlapped or overlapping the other four; stamens (3-)10-100(-100+), usually all similar in shape and size, filaments free or fused at the base, always exserted from the corolla. Seeds usually with an open pleurogram on each lateral surface.

<==Mimosoideae [Mimosaceae]
    |--Adenanthera pavonina P88
    |--Senegalia [=Acacia subg. Aculeiferum] OM03
    |--Inga K06
    |--Dichrostachys cinerea PP07
    |--Leucaena PP07
    |    |--L. glauca B88
    |    |--L. latisiliqua PP07
    |    `--L. leucocephala H06
    |--Pithecellobium P88
    |    |--P. dulce HSS13
    |    |--P. elegans KIW98
    |    |--P. monoliferum H42
    |    `--P. oppositifolium J87
    |--Archidendron P88
    |    |--A. ellipticum [=Pithecellobium ellipticum] P88
    |    |--A. hooglandii H03
    |    |--A. jiringa P88
    |    `--A. tenuiracemosum H03
    |--Vachellia OM03
    |    |--V. farnesiana HH03 [=Acacia farnesiana OM03]
    |    |--‘Mimosa’ nilotica [=Acacia nilotica; incl. A. scorpioides] OM03
    |    |    |--M. n. ssp. nilotica PP07
    |    |    `--‘Acacia’ n. ssp. indica PP07
    |    `--‘Acacia’ seyal OM03
    |--Mimosa MM96
    |    |--M. asperata C55
    |    |--M. hamata PP07
    |    |--M. invisa P88
    |    |--M. jacobita G09
    |    |--M. pigra H06
    |    |--M. pudica MM96
    |    |--M. rubicaulis P03
    |    `--M. sepiaria P88
    |--Albizia SK02
    |    |--A. amara RaS02
    |    |--A. falcataria R02 [=Paraserianthes falcataria P88]
    |    |--A. julibrissin WM09
    |    |--A. lebbeck H06
    |    |--A. lophantha SW03
    |    |--A. odoratissima S02
    |    `--A. procera H06
    |--Prosopis PP07
    |    |--P. caldenia MF05
    |    |--P. chilensis SN02
    |    |--P. cineraria PP07
    |    |--P. farcta HF03
    |    |--P. glandulosa H06
    |    |    |--P. g. var. glandulosa H06
    |    |    `--P. g. var. torreyana H06
    |    `--P. juliflora PP07
    |--Parkia K06
    |    |--P. auriculata K06
    |    |--P. cachimboensis K06
    |    |--P. gigantean K06
    |    |--P. gigantocarpa K06
    |    |--P. igneiflora K06
    |    |--P. nitida K06
    |    |--P. pendula K06
    |    |--P. platycephala K06
    |    `--P. speciosa CK06
    |--Desmanthus virgatus SJ73, C55 [incl. D. leptophyllus C55, D. strictus C55]
    `--Acacia Miller 1754 [=Acacia subg. Phyllodineae, Racosperma] OM03
         |--*A. penninervis [=Acacia (subg. *Phyllodineae) penninervis] OM03
         |--A. acradenia EF04
         |--A. acuminata OS04
         |--A. alata GK00
         |--A. ancistrocarpa HD04
         |--A. andrewsii G04b
         |--A. aneura B88
         |--A. applanata OS04
         |--A. aroma HH03
         |--A. ataxacantha HK98
         |--A. atkinsiana EF04
         |--A. aulacocarpa B88
         |--A. auriculiformis OM03
         |--A. baileyana H06
         |--A. biflora GK00
         |--A. binata G04b
         |--A. bivenosa EF04
         |--A. brachyclada G04b
         |--A. brachyphylla G04b
         |--A. browniana OS04
         |    |--A. b. var. browniana OS04
         |    `--A. b. var. intermedia OS04
         |--A. burrowii BW05
         |--A. castanostegia G04b
         |--A. catechu HH03
         |--A. catenulata M04
         |--A. caven HH03
         |--A. celastrifolia RL05
         |--A. cochlearis GK00
         |--A. colei OM03
         |--A. coolgardiensis G04a
         |    |--A. c. ssp. coolgardiensis G04a
         |    `--A. c. ssp. effusa G04a
         |--A. coriacea SM90
         |--A. coulteri OM03
         |--A. crassicarpa OM03
         |--A. cuneata B88
         |--A. cyclops SM06
         |--A. dealbata OM03
         |--A. decurrens OM03
         |    |--A. d. var. decurrens B88
         |    `--A. d. var. pauciglandulosa B88
         |--A. deficiens G04b
         |--A. discolor B88
         |--A. drepanolobium Ru-S02
         |--A. elata H06
         |--A. erinacea OS04
         |--A. evenulosa G04b
         |--A. extensa RL05
         |--A. ferruginea RaS02
         |--A. floribunda B88
         |--A. glauca MM96
         |--A. greggii DD06
         |--A. hamersleyensis EF04
         |--A. harpophylla M04
         |--A. hemiteles G04b
         |--A. heterochroa G04b
         |    |--A. h. ssp. heterochroa G04b
         |    `--A. h. ssp. robertii G04b
         |--A. heterophylla C55
         |--A. holosericea B12
         |--A. homalophylla W95
         |--A. horrida G17
         |--A. huegelii GK00
         |--A. implexa H06
         |--A. inaequilatera EF04
         |--A. incurva GK00
         |--A. intricata G04b
         |--A. iteaphylla GFS97
         |--A. kempeana G04a
         |--A. koa HH03
         |    |--A. k. var. koa HH03
         |    `--A. k. var. latifolia HH03
         |--A. laricina GK00
         |--A. lasiocalyx OS04
         |--A. lasiocarpa SM06
         |    |--A. l. var. lasiocarpa OS04
         |    `--A. l. var. sedifolia OS04
         |--A. leucophloea RaS02
         |--A. ligulata B05
         |--A. linophylla G04a
         |--A. longifolia B88
         |--A. macracantha OA02
         |--A. macrostachya GC05
         |--A. maideni B88
         |--A. maitlandii EF04
         |--A. mangium OM03
         |--A. marramamba EF04
         |--A. mearnsii OM03
         |--A. melanoxylon OM03
         |--A. merrallii G04b
         |--A. microbotrya OS04
         |--A. moirii G04b
         |    |--A. m. ssp. moirii G04b
         |    `--A. m. ssp. recurvistipula G04b
         |--A. mollissima W95
         |--A. montis-usti CV06
         |--A. myrtifolia GK00
         |--A. neriifolia GCC02
         |--A. nervosa GK00
         |--A. neurophylla G04a
         |--A. nubica B88
         |--A. orthocarpa HD04
         |--A. oswaldii MM09
         |--A. pachyacra CC03
         |--A. paradoxa H06
         |--A. pendula B88
         |--A. pennata HK98
         |--A. pennatula HH03
         |--A. pentadenia GK00
         |--A. peregrinalis OM03
         |--A. planifrons RaS02
         |--A. plectocarpa B12
         |--A. podalyriifolia H06
         |--A. poliochroa G04b
         |--A. prainii G04b
         |--A. pruinocarpa EF04
         |--A. pulchella SM06
         |    |--A. p. var. pulchella OS04
         |    |--A. p. var. glaberrima OS04
         |    `--A. p. var. goadbyi GK00
         |--A. pycnantha B88
         |--A. pyrifolia HD04
         |--A. quadrimarginea G04a
         |--A. quinquenervia G04b
         |--A. raddiana HF03 [=A. tortilis ssp. raddiana AGF98]
         |--A. ramulosa G04a
         |--A. retinodes E65
         |    |--A. r. var. retinodes E65
         |    `--A. r. var. oraria Black ex Eardley 1965 E65
         |--A. rivalis B88
         |--A. robusta BCS02
         |--A. robynsiana CV06
         |--A. rostellifera SM06
         |--A. saligna OM03
         |--A. sclerosperma EF04
         |--A. senegal Ru-S02
         |--A. singula G04b
         |--A. smallii HH03
         |--A. sophorae B88 [=A. longifolia var. sophorae H02]
         |--A. stenophylla M04
         |--A. stenoptera RL05
         |--A. stowardii EF04
         |--A. sulcata G04b
         |    |--A. s. var. sulcata G04b
         |    `--A. s. var. platyphylla G04b
         |--A. tetragonophylla G04a
         |--A. tetraneura G04b
         |--A. tortilis AGF98
         |--A. uncinella G04b
         |--A. unifissilis G04b
         |--A. urophylla GK00
         |--A. varia GK00
         |--A. victoriae M04
         |--A. visco HH03
         |--A. willdenowiana GK00
         |--A. xiphophylla EF04
         |--A. yorkrakinensis G04b
         `--A. zanzibarica Ru-S02

Nomen nudum: Acacia latipes Gibson & Keighery 2000 GK00

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AGF98] Abd El-Ghani, M. M., & A. G. Fahmy. 1998. Composition of and changes in the spontaneous flora of Feiran Oasis, S Sinai, Egypt, in the last 60 years. Willdenowia 28: 123-134.

[BW05] Beard, J. J. & D. E. Walter. 2005. A new species of Tuckerella (Prostigmata: Tetranychoidea: Tuckerellidae) from Australia with descriptions of all stages and a discussion of the tritonymphal stage. Acarologia 45 (1): 49-60.

[B05] Beard, J. S. 2005. Drainage evolution in the Lake Disappointment Catchment, Western Australia – a discussion. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (2): 57-64.

[BCS02] Bodasing, M., T. Crouch & R. Slotow. 2002. The influence of starvation on dispersal in the social spider, Stegodyphus mimosarum (Araneae, Eresidae). Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 373-382.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[B12] Braby, M. F. 2012. The butterflies of El Questro Wilderness Park, with remarks on the taxonomy of the Kimberley fauna, Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (2): 161-175.

[CK06] Campbell, P., & T. H. Kunz. 2006. Cynopterus horsfieldii. Mammalian Species 802: 1-5.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CC03] Craig, M. D., & A. Chapman. 2003. Effects of short-term drought on the avifauna of Wanjarri Nature Reserve: what do they tell us about drought refugia? Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 86 (4): 133-137.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175-189.

[DD06] Doty, J. B., & R. C. Dowler. 2006. Denning ecology in sympatric populations of skunks (Spilogale gracilis and Mephitis mephitis) in west-central Texas. Journal of Mammalogy 87 (1): 131-138.

[E65] Eardley, C. M. 1965. Diagnoses to new taxa. In Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae-Compositae (J. M. Black & E. L. Robertson) pp. 945-946. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[EF04] Etten, E. J. B. van, & J. E. D. Fox. 2004. Vegetation classification and ordination of the central Hamersley Ranges, Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 63-79.

[GFS97] Gerson, U., W. E. Frost & S. F. Swift. 1997. A new genus of the family Eupalopsellidae from Australia (Acari: Prostigmata). International Journal of Acarology 23 (3): 185-189.

[G04a] Gibson, N. 2004a. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 6. Mt Manning Range. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 35-47.

[G04b] Gibson, N. 2004b. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49-62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323-402.

[G17] Girault, A. A. 1917. Descriptiones stellarum novarum. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 80-101).

[G09] Goyder, D. J. 2009. Blepharodon crabronum (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae), a new species from the pre-Cambrian serranias of eastern Bolivia. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 179-181.

[GC05] Granjon, L., J.-F. Cosson, E. Quesseveur & B. Sicard. 2005. Population dynamics of the multimammate rat Mastomys huberti in an annually flooded agricultural region of central Mali. Journal of Mammalogy 86 (5): 997-1008.

[GCC02] Grant, C. D., C. J. Campbell & N. R. Charnock. 2002. Selection of species suitable for derelict mine site rehabilitation in New South Wales, Australia. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 139: 215-235.

[HK98] Hahn, A., & H. Kusserow. 1998. Spatial and temporal distribution of algae in soil crusts in the Sahel of W Africa: Preliminary results. Willdenowia 28: 227-238.

[HF03] Halperin, J. & J. Fremuth. 2003. Contribution to the knowledge of Curculionoidea (Coleoptera) and their host plants in Israel. Zoology in the Middle East 29: 93-100.

[H02] Harris, A. 2002. Recent range extensions of some introduced Hymenoptera, with observations. Weta 24: 20-21.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: Vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311-449.

[H06] Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36 (2): 201-222.

[HH03] Hernández, J. R., & J. F. Hennen. 2003. Rust fungi causing galls, witches’ brooms, and other abnormal plant growths in northwestern Argentina. Mycologia 95 (4): 728-755.

[H42] Hill, G. F. 1942. Termites (Isoptera) from the Australian Region (including Australia, New Guinea and islands south of the Equator between 140°E. longitude and 170°W. longitude). Commonwealth of Australia Council for Scientific and Industrial Research: Melbourne.

[HSS13] Hirschfeld, E., A. Swash & R. Still. 2013. The World's Rarest Birds. Princeton University Press: Princeton (New Jersey).

[HD04] How, R. A., & J. Dell. 2004. Reptile assemblage of the Abydos Plain, north-eastern Pilbara, Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (3): 85-95.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[KIW98] Kearns, C. A., D. W. Inouye & N. M. Waser. 1998. Endangered mutualisms: the conservation of plant-pollinator interactions. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 83-112.

[MF05] Monserrat, V. J. & S. de Freitas. 2005. Contribución al conocimiento de los crisópidos de Coquimbo, Patagonia y Tierra del Fuego (Argentina, Chile) (Insecta, Neuroptera, Chrysopidae). Graellsia 61 (2): 163-179.

[M04] Mound, L. A. 2004. Australian Thysanoptera - biological diversity and a diversity of studies. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 248-257.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1-487.

[MM09] Mound, L. A. & M. Masumoto. 2009. Australian Thripinae of the Anaphothrips genus-group (Thysanoptera), with three new genera and thirty-three new species. Zootaxa 2042: 1-76.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19-28.

[OA02] Ochoa, J. A., & L. E. Acosta. 2002. Orobothriurus atiquipa, a new bothriurid species (Scorpiones) from Lomas in southern Peru. Journal of Arachnology 30: 98-103.

[OM03] Orchard, A. E., & B. R. Maslin. 2003. (1584) Proposal to conserve the name Acacia (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae) with a conserved type. Taxon 52: 362-363.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P. & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 15-78.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[RaS02] Radhakrishna, S., & M. Singh. 2002. Activity schedule and habitat use of the slender loris Loris tardigradus lydekkerianus. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 400-407.

[RL05] Rafferty, C., & B. B. Lamont. 2005. Selective feeding by macropods on vegetation regenerating following fire. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 155-165.

[R02] Riley, J. 2002. Population sizes and the status of endemic and restricted-range bird species on Sangihe Island, Indonesia. Bird Conservation International 12: 53-78.

[Ru-S02] Russell-Smith, A. 2002. A comparison of the diversity and composition of ground-active spiders in Mkomazi Game Reserve, Tanzania and Etosha National Park, Namibia. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 383-388.

[SN02] Sangha, H. S., & R. Naoroji. 2002. Blue-throated flycatcher Cyornis rubeculoides Vigors in the Thar Desert. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 534-535.

[S02] Santharam, V. 2002. Fruit and nectar resources in a moist deciduous forest and their use by birds – a preliminary report. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 537-543.

[SM06] Semeniuk, C. A., L. A. Milne, P. Ladd & V. Semeniuk. 2006. Pollen in the surface sediments of wetlands in the Becher Point area, southwestern Australia: a baseline for use in interpreting Holocene sequences. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (1): 27-43.

[SJ73] Slobodchikoff, C. W. & C. D. Johnson. 1973. A phenetic and a phylogenetic approach to the classification of a genus of seed beetles (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Systematic Zoology 22 (3): 280-294.

[SM90] Smith, G. T., & S. R. Morton. 1990. Responses by scorpions to fire-initiates succession in arid Australian spinifex grasslands. Journal of Arachnology 18: 241-244.

[SW03] Song, D., & Q. Wang. 2003. Systematics of the longicorn beetle genus Coptomma Newman (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae). Invertebrate Systematics 17: 429-447.

[SK02] Sumithramma, N., A. R. V. Kumar, K. Chandrashekara & D. Rajagopal. 2002. Plant selection for nesting by Oecophylla smaragdina, Hymenoptera: Formicidae: do physical features affect the choice of the plant? Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 408-412.

[WM09] Wang, H., M. J. Moore, P. S. Soltis, C. D. Bell, S. F. Brockington, R. Alexandre, C. C. Davis, M. Latvis, S. R. Manchester & D. E. Soltis. 2009. Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (10): 3853-3858.

[W95] Wang, Q. 1995. A taxonomic revision of the Australian genus Phoracantha Newman (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Invertebrate Taxonomy 9: 865-958.