Asteraceae

Ainsliaea latifolia, copyright P. B. Pelser & J. F. Barcelona.


Belongs within: Asterales.
Contains: Blumea, Balsamorhiza, Geigeria, Hemizonia, Lasthenia, Lessingia, Lipochaeta, Cremanthodium, Machaeranthera, Saussurea, Arnica, Eriophyllum, Heterotheca, Hulsea, Layia, Malacothrix, Pyrrocoma, Tetradymia, Wyethia, Mutisioideae, Carduoideae, Cichorioideae, Asteroideae.

The Asteraceae, also known as Compositae, are a large family of plants distinguished by their production of composite flowers: a large number of minute flowers are clustered together on a common base, giving the superficial appearance of a single flower. The individual flowers may be tubular or ligulate. In the classic radiate 'daisy' arrangement, the central flowers are tubular with a circumferential ring of ligulate flowers but other forms have all florets either one form or the other. Past classifications accordingly divided the composite-flowered plants between the subfamilies Liguliflorae and Tubuliflorae, but this division has since been recognised as somewhat artificial. Instead, the South American Barnadesioideae have been recognised as the sister group to the remaining Asteraceae; members of this clade lack a 22 kb inversion in the chloroplast genome found in all other members of the family. Other basal groups include the Gochnatioideae, containing species found in the Americas characterised by glabrous styles and anthers with appendiculate appendages (Panero & Funk 2002). Hecastocleis shockleyi, prickleleaf, is a low, prickly shrub found on rocky slopes in the southwestern United States.

Characters (from Black & Robertson 1965): Herbs or shrubs with alternate or opposite exstipulate leaves. Flowers regular or irregular, bisexual or unisexual, sessile or almost so, collected together on a common receptacle or floral base in heads surrounded by an involucre of bracts arranged in one or several rows; surface of receptacle nake or furnished with bracts (chaffy scales), normally one to each flower but sometimes split into fine bristles; calyx mounted on summit of ovary and consisting of ring of bristles or scales or of a small cup or crown called the pappus, or rarely absent; corolla sympetalous, either regular and tubular, the tube expanded upwards into a long or short limb which is more or less deeply cut into five, rarely four, valvate lobes or teeth, or irregular with the teeth or lobes united and extended outwards on one side into a flat usually linear or oblong tongue or ligule, or sometime outer female flowers very slender (filiform) with two or three minute teeth; stamens as many as corolla-lobes, alternate with them and inserted in tube, anthers linear, two-celled, opening inwards by longitudinal slits and usually united in tube round style; ovary inferior, one-celled, with one erect anatropous ovule; style divided at summit in fertile flowers into two (rarely more) long or short stigmatic branches; fruit a small indehiscent achene, naked or crowned by pappus; seed exalbuminous, with thin testa often adherent to pericarp; embryo straight, with short inferior radicle.

Asteraceae [Compositae, Lactucoideae, Tubuliflorae]
    |--Barnadesia Ka03 [Barnadesieae, Barnadesioideae PF02]
    |    `--B. caryophylla Ka03
    `--+--Mutisioideae PF02
       `--+--Gochnatioideae [Gochnatieae] PF02
          |    |--Gochnatia Kunth in HBK 1820 PF02
          |    |--Cnicothamnus PF02
          |    |--Cyclolepis PF02
          |    |--Richterago [incl. Actinoseris] PF02
          |    `--Chucoa PF02
          `--+--Hecastocleis Gray 1882 [Hecastocleideae, Hecastocleioideae] PF02
             |    `--H. shockleyi H93
             `--+--Carduoideae PF02
                `--+--+--Gymnarrhena Desfontaines 1818 [Gymnarrheneae, Gymnarrhenoideae] PF02
                   |  `--+--Cichorioideae PF02
                   |     `--+--Corymbium Linnaeus 1737 [Corymbieae, Corymbioideae] PF02
                   |        `--Asteroideae PF02
                   `--Pertyoideae [Pertyeae] PF02
                        |--Pertya Schultz 1862 PF02
                        |--Ainsliaea latifolia PF02, D07
                        |--Diaspananthus PF02
                        |--Macroclinidium PF02
                        `--Myripnois PF02

Asteraceae incertae sedis:
  Liatris Gaertner ex von Schreber 1791 (nom. cons.) [incl. Lacinaria Hill 1762] GYS03
    |--L. cylindracea ZF84
    |--L. ligulistylis GYS03
    `--L. scariosa (Linnaeus) von Willdenow 1803 (see below for synonymy) GYS03
         |--L. s. var. scariosa (see below for synonymy) GYS03
         |--L. s. var. nieuwlandii (Lunell) Voss 1995 (see below for synonymy) GYS03
         `--L. s. var. novae-angliae (Lunell) Gandhi, Young & Somers 2003 (see below for synonymy) GYS03
  Blumea Ku03
  Fitchia H03
  Tetramolopium H03
  Tuberostylis H03
  Catamixis YY22
  Dinoseris YY22
  Hymenoclea YY22
    |--H. monogyra H93
    `--H. salsola H93
         |--H. s. var. salsola H93
         |--H. s. var. patula H93
         `--H. s. var. pentalepis H93
  Acamptopappus YY22
    |--A. shockleyi H93
    `--A. sphaerocephalus H93
         |--A. s. var. sphaerocephalus H93
         `--A. s. var. hirtellus H93
  Achaetogeron YY22
  Achmophora YY22
  Achyrachaena mollis H93
  Adelostigma YY22
  Aganippea YY22
  Aiolotheca YY22
  Allendea YY22
  Aniauria YY22
  Amblyocarpum YY22
  Amellus YY22
  Amphiglossa thuja CV06
  Amphoricarpus YY22
  Anaglypha YY22
  Anaxeton YY22
  Antithrixia YY22
  Aphanactis YY22
  Aphanostephus YY22
  Agyroxiphium YY22
  Arnicastrum YY22
  Arrowsmithia YY22
  Astephania YY22
  Asteromoea YY22
  Axiniphyllum YY22
  Balsamorhiza YY22
  Baltimora YY22
  Bellida YY22
  Bellium minutum PT98
  Berlandiera lyrata YY22, BT72
  Bileveillea YY22
  Blainvillea acmella PP07
  Blepharizonia plumosa H93
    |--B. p. ssp. plumosa H93
    `--B. p. ssp. viscida H93
  Boltonia YY22
  Brachychaeta YY22
  Bradburia YY22
  Bryomorphe YY22
  Burrielia YY22
  Cacosmia YY22
  Cadiscus YY22
  Callistephus chinensis BR65, MN03
  Calostephane marlothiana CV06
  Calyptrocarpus YY22
  Carpesium YY22
  Ceruana YY22
  Chaetopappa ericoides [=Leucelene ericoides] H93
  Chardinia YY22
  Charieis YY22
  Chionolaena YY22
  Chlamydites YY22
  Chroilema YY22
  Chromolepis YY22
  Chrysactinia YY22
  Chrysogonum YY22
  Clibadium villosum MM96
  Coleocoma YY22
  Commidendron YY22
  Crocidium multicaule H93
  Crossostephium YY22
  Cyathocline SS02
    |--C. lutea SS02
    |--C. manilaliana Prabhakar Raju & Venkata Raju 1999 SS02
    `--C. purpurea SS02
  Cylindrocline YY22
  Cypselodontia YY22
  Delameres YY22
  Denekia YY22
  Dichrocephala integrifolia D07
  Dicranocarpus YY22
  Diplostephium C61
    |--D. anactinotum C61
    |--D. antioquense Cuatrecasas 1961 C61
    |--D. denticulatum C61
    |--D. eriophorum R96
    |--D. revolutum R96
    |--D. rosmarinifolium R96
    |--D. saxatile Cuatrecasas 1961 C61
    `--D. tabanense C61
  Dipterocome YY22
  Disparago YY22
  Doronicum YY22
    |--D. austriacum C55a
    |--D. caucasicum C55a
    |--D. pardalianches C55b
    |--D. plantagineum C55b
    |--D. roylei O88
    `--D. scorpioides C55a
  Enydra YY22
  Ermeiastrum YY22
  Eutetras YY22
  Evax H93
    |--E. multicaulis H93
    |--E. prolifera H93
    `--E. pygmaea PT98
  Felicia CV06
    |--F. alba CV06
    |--F. gunillae CV06
    `--F. smaragdina CV06
  Fresenia YY22
  Gamolepis YY22
  Garcilassa YY22
  Garuleum schinzii CV06
    |--G. s. ssp. schinzii CV06
    `--G. s. ssp. crinitum CV06
  Geigeria CV06
  Glossocardia LK14
    |--G. bidens LK14
    `--G. bosvallea PP07
  Glycideras YY22
  Goldmanella YY22
  Golionema YY22
  Grangea maderaspatana PP07
  Grantia YY22
  Gratwickia YY22
  Greenella YY22
  Grypocarpha YY22
  Guardiola YY22
  Gymnodiscus YY22
  Gymnosperma YY22
  Gymnostephium YY22
  Heliopsis YY22
  Hemizonella YY22
  Hemizonia YY22
  Heptanthus YY22
  Hertia YY22
  Heterolepis YY22
  Heteropappus YY22
  Hidalgoa YY22
  Hinterhubera C61
    |--H. columbica C61
    |--H. ericoides C61
    `--H. nevadensis Cuatrecasas 1961 C61
  Hippia YY22
  Homochaete YY22
  Homochroma YY22
  Homogyne YY22
  Ichthyothere YY22
  Ifloga YY22
  Inulopsis YY22
  Ischnea YY22
  Isocarpha YY22
  Jaegena YY22
  Jasonia YY22
  Keerlia YY22
  Koehneola YY22
  Lachnophyllum YY22
  Laestadia YY22
  Laggera alata (Don.) Schultz ex Oliver 1873 (see below for synonymy) SS02
  Lagophylla YY22
    |--L. dichotoma H93
    |--L. glandulosa [incl. L. glandulosa var. serrata] H93
    |--L. minor H93
    `--L. ramosissima H93
         |--L. r. ssp. ramosissima H93
         `--L. r. ssp. congesta H93
  Lantanopsis hispidula J87
  Lasiocoma YY22
  Lasiopogon CV06
    |--L. ponticulus CV06
    `--L. volkii CV06
  Lasthenia YY22
  Lecocarpus YY22
  Leontonyx YY22
  Lepidostephium YY22
  Leptocarpha YY22
  Lessingia YY22
  Leucopholis YY22
  Leyssera YY22
  Lifago YY22
  Lindheimera YY22
  Lipochaeta YY22
  Macowania YY22
  Mairia YY22
  Melampodium YY22
  Melanodendron YY22
  Merrittia YY22
  Micractis YY22
  Microlecane YY22
  Microtrichia YY22
  Minurothamnus YY22
  Mollera YY22
  Monactis YY22
  Monarrhenus YY22
  Monolopia YY22
    |--M. gracilens H93
    |--M. lanceolata H93
    |--M. major H93
    `--M. stricta H93
  Monoptilon YY22
    |--M. bellidiforme H93
    `--M. bellioides H93
  Moonia YY22
  Myriactis YY22
  Nananthea YY22
  Nannoglottis O88
    |--N. hookeri O88
    `--N. souliei O88
  Nanothamnus YY22
  Narvalina domingensis J87
  Nerrittia YY22
  Nestlera YY22
  Nicolasia heterophylla CV06
    |--N. h. ssp. heterophylla CV06
    `--N. h. ssp. affinis CV06
  Nidorella mordenstamii CV06
  Nolletia tenuifolia CV06
  Odontospermum YY22
  Oedera YY22
  Olivaea YY22
  Ondetia linearis CV06
  Oreochrysum YY22
  Osmites YY22
  Osmitopsis YY22
  Otochlamya YY22
  Oxypappus YY22
  Parthenice YY22
  Parantennaria YY22
  Pechuelloeschea [=Pechuel-Löschea] YY22
  Perralderia YY22
  Petalacte YY22
  Petalactella YY22
  Petrollinia YY22
  Phacellothrix YY22
  Phaenocoma YY22
  Phalacrocarpum YY22
  Phemmera YY22
  Philactis YY22
  Philoglossa YY22
  Philyrophyllum brandbergense CV06
  Phymaspermum YY22
  Pinillosia YY22
  Podochaenium YY22
  Polygyne YY22
  Porphyrostemma YY22
  Printzia YY22
  Psiadia YY22
  Psilactis YY22
  Pulicaria PP07
    |--P. angustifolia PP07
    |--P. crispa PP07
    |--P. foliosa VB02
    |--P. paludosa [incl. P. hispanica] H93
    `--P. rajputanae PP07
  Raillardella YY22
    |--R. argentea H93
    |--R. pringlei H93
    `--R. scaposa H93
  Relhania YY22
  Remya YY22
  Rhantherium YY22
  Rhodogeron YY22
  Rhynchospermum YY22
  Riddelia YY22
  Riencourtia YY22
  Rochonia YY22
  Ruckeria YY22
  Rumfordia YY22
  Sabazia YY22
  Sachaia YY22
  Sartwellia YY22
  Schistocarpha YY22
  Schistostephium YY22
  Schizoptera YY22
  Schizotrichia YY22
  Sclerocarpus africanus PP07
  Scyphocoronis YY22
  Selloa glutinosa YY22, BT72
  Sheareria YY22
  Silphium YY22
  Sphacophyllum YY22
  Sphaeromorphaea YY22
  Sphagneticola trilobata [=Thelechitonia trilobata] H06
  Staurochlamys YY22
  Steirodiscus YY22
  Stemmatella YY22
  Stenocline YY22
  Stephanodoria YY22
  Stilpnogyne YY22
  Styloclyne YY22
  Symphyllocarpus YY22
  Syncephalantha YY22
  Syntrichopappus YY22
    |--S. fremontii H93
    `--S. lemmonii H93
  Tetragonotheca YY22
  Tetranthus YY22
  Tetraperone YY22
  Thespidium YY22
  Thespis YY22
  Thymopsis YY22
  Tolbonia YY22
  Tragoceros YY22
  Trigonospermum YY22
  Triplocephalum YY22
  Urbinella YY22
  Vanclevea YY22
  Varilla YY22
  Venegazia YY22
  Vieraea YY22
  Villanova YY22
  Welwitschiella YY22
  Whitneya dealbata H93
  Wyomingia YY22
  Xanthisma YY22
  Zoegea YY22
  Euphrosyne YY22
  Arsium arvense YY22
  Astemma YY22
  Luciliopsis YY22
  Lycoseris YY22
  Parastrephia YY22
  Petrobium YY22
  Synchodendron YY22
  Tafalla YY22
  Archibaccharis YY22
  Rhetinodendron YY22
  Robinsonia YY22
  Leontopodium O88
    |--L. alpinum H09
    |--L. brachyactis O88
    |--L. haastioides O88
    |--L. himalayanum O88
    |--L. jacotianum O88
    |--L. makianum O88
    |--L. monocephalum O88
    |--L. nanum O88
    `--L. stracheyi O88
  Oligandra YY22
  Blepharipappus scaber [incl. B. scaber ssp. laevis] H93
  Cladanthus YY22
  Cremanthodium O88
  Eatonella nivea H93
  Geissopappus YY22
  Gonospermum YY22
  Gynoxys YY22
  Gynura YY22
  Ligularia fischeri O88
  Oligothrix YY22
  Othake YY22
  Pericome caudata H93
  Waldheimia O88
    |--W. glabra O88
    |--W. nivea O88
    `--W. tomentosa O88
  Petasites O88
    |--P. albus [=Tussilago alba] C55b
    |--P. frigidus H93
    |    |--P. f. var. frigidus H93
    |    `--P. f. var. palmatus H93
    |--P. niveus C55a
    `--P. tricholobus O88
  Nardosmia fragrans [=Tussilago fragrans] C55b
  Tussilago farfara C55a, C55b
  Machaeranthera FM80
  Brachyactis O88
    |--B. anomala O88
    |--B. pubescens O88
    `--B. roylei O88
  Cacalia O88
    |--C. chenopodiifolia O88
    |--C. penninervis O88
    `--C. pentaloba O88
  Cicerbita SS05
    |--C. cyanea O88
    |--C. filicina (Duthie) Mamgain & Rao 1989 [=Lactuca filicina Duthie ex Stebbins 1939] SS05
    |--C. macrantha O88
    |--C. macrorhiza O88
    |    |--C. m. var. macrorhiza O88
    |    `--C. m. var. saxatilis O88
    `--C. pancicii GR98
  Cousinia thomsonii O88
  Dendranthema O88
    |--D. mutellina O88
    |--D. nubigenum O88
    `--D. tenuiflorum O88
  Dubyaea hispida O88
  Jurinea C98
    |--J. dolomiaea O88
    `--J. mollis (Linnaeus) Reichenb. 1831 PL04 (see below for synonymy)
         |--J. m. ssp. mollis C98
         |    |--J. m. ssp. m. f. mollis C98
         |    `--J. m. ssp. m. f. erectobracteata Conti 1998 C98
         `--J. m. ssp. anatolica (Boissier) Stoj. & Stef. 1925 PL04
  Leibnitzia nepalensis O88
  Prenanthes violaefolia O88
  Saussurea CP02
  Soroseris O88
    |--S. deasyi O88
    |--S. gillii O88
    |    |--S. g. ssp. gillii O88
    |    `--S. g. ssp. occidentalis O88
    |--S. glomerata O88
    |--S. hookeriana O88
    |    |--S. h. ssp. hookeriana O88
    |    `--S. h. ssp. erysimoides O88
    `--S. pumila O88
  Youngia O88
    |--Y. depressa O88
    |--Y. gracilipes O88
    |--Y. japonica J87
    |--Y. racemifera O88
    |--Y. simulatrix O88
    `--Y. tenuifolia O88
         |--Y. t. ssp. tenuifolia O88
         `--Y. t. ssp. diversifolia O88
  Praxelis clematidea W03
  Atractylis Y98
    |--A. cancellata PT98 [=Acarna cancellata C55a]
    `--A. gummifera Y98
  Aetheorhiza bulbosa PT98
    |--A. b. ssp. bulbosa PT98
    `--A. b. ssp. microcephala PT98
  Asteriscus PT98
    |--A. aquaticus PT98
    `--A. graveolens CS77
  Carlina PL04
    |--C. corymbosa Linnaeus 1753 PL04
    |    |--C. c. ssp. corymbosa PL04
    |    `--C. c. ssp. graeca (Bociss.) Nyman 1879 PL04
    |--C. lanata PT98
    `--C. vulgaris G88
  Dittrichia PL04
    |--D. graveolens GK00
    `--D. viscosa (Linnaeus) Greuter 1973 PL04
  Geropogon hybridus PT98
  Hyoseris scabra PT98
  Notobasis syriaca PT98
  Ptilostemon chamaepeuce PT98, S98
  Rhagadiolus stellatus PT98
  Bombycilaena erecta GR98 [=Micropus erecta H91]
  Leucopsis (de Candolle 1836) Baker in Martius 1882 non Olivier 1792 (ICZN) FT93
  Kleinia neriifolia ES06
  Actinobole KM08
    |--A. condensatum KM08
    `--A. uliginosum G04a
  Asteridea G04b
    |--A. athrixioides G04b
    `--A. pulverulenta GK00
  Blennospora drummondii OS04
  Erymophyllum ramosum G04a
  Gilberta tenuifolia G04a
  Gilruthia osbornei G04a
  Streptoglossa G04a
    |--S. cylindriceps G04a
    |--S. liatroides G04a
    `--S. odora LK14
  Trichanthodium skirrophorum G04a
  Hyalosperma G04b
    |--H. cotula GK00
    |--H. demissum G04b
    `--H. simplex GK00
  Argentipallium niveum OS04
  Pterochaeta paniculata OS04
  Steptorhamphus tuberosus (von Jacquin) Grossh. 1934 PL04
  Caesulia axillaris P03
  Launaea PP07
    |--L. procumbens VB02
    `--L. resedifolia PP07
  Eremothamneae T00
    |--Eremothamnus marlothianus CV06
    `--Hoplophyllum T00
  Chamaemelum H93
    |--C. fuscatum [=Anthemis fuscata] H93
    `--C. nobile [=Anthemis nobilis] H93
  Vellereophyton dealbatum GK00
  Pithocarpa GK00
    |--P. corymbulosa GK00
    `--P. pulchella GK00
  Pogonolepis KM08
    |--P. muelleriana KM08
    `--P. stricta GK00
  Elytropappus rhinocerotis K02
  Antiphiona CV06
    |--A. fragrans CV06
    `--A. pinnatisecta CV06
  Pentatrichia CV06
    |--P. avasmontana CV06
    `--P. rehmii CV06
  Dauresia alliariifolia [=Senecio alliariifolius] CV06
  Gazania CV06
    |--G. linearis [incl. G. longiscapa] H93
    |--G. splendens R35
    `--G. thermalis CV06
  Gorteria diffusa CV06
    |--G. d. ssp. diffusa CV06
    `--G. d. ssp. parviligulata CV06
  Myxopappus hereroensis CV06
  Norlindhia aptera CV06
  Pegolettia CV06
    |--P. pinnatilobata CV06
    `--P. plumosa CV06
  Pentzia tomentosa CV06
  Pteronia CV06
    |--P. eenii CV06
    |--P. polygalifolia CV06
    |--P. pomonae CV06
    |--P. rangei CV06
    `--P. spinulosa CV06
  Rennera eenii CV06
  Tripteris nervosa CV06
  Campuloclinium macrocephalum H06
  Tithonia H06
    |--T. diversifolia H06
    `--T. rotundifolia H06
  Emilia P03
    |--E. fosbergii J87
    `--E. sonchifolia P03
  Piqueria trinerva J87
  Pembertonia latisquamea KM08
  Xerochrysum bracteatum MM09
  Oligochaeta ramosa PP07
  Tridax procumbens P03
  *Artemisiastrum palmeri [=Artemisia palmeri] M79
  Ammobium alatum V09
  Leptorhynchus squamatus M65
  Donia Br. 1813 A61
  Baileya H93
    |--B. multiradiata H93
    |--B. pauciradiata H93
    `--B. pleniradiata BM76
  Paragynoxys C61
    |--P. meridana C61
    `--P. undulatifolia Cuatrecasas 1961 C61
  Parasenecio CP02
    |--P. monantha CP02
    `--P. nokoensis CP02
  Acmella grandiflora LK14
    |--A. g. var. grandiflora LK14
    `--A. g. var. brachyglossa LK14
  Allopterigeron filifolius LK14
  Cyanthillium cinereum LK14
  Iotasperma australiense LK14
  Pentalepis LK14
    |--P. ecliptoides LK14
    `--P. trichodesmoides ML13
  Peripleura LK14
    |--P. spechtii LK14
    |    |--P. s. var. spechtii LK14
    |    `--P. s. var. kimberleyensis LK14
    `--P. virgata LK14
  Pleurocarpaea denticulata LK14
  Cenia turbinata C06
  Lapsana communis C06
  Acourtia microcephala [=Perezia microcephala] H93
  Acroptilon repens H93 [=Centaurea repens H93; incl. C. picris BR65]
  Adenophyllum H93
    |--A. cooperi [=Dyssodia cooperi] H93
    `--A. porophylloides [=Dyssodia porophylloides] H93
  Amphipappus fremontii H93
    |--A. f. var. fremontii H93
    `--A. f. var. spinosus H93
  Ancistrocarphus filagineus [=Stylocline filaginea; incl. S. filaginea var. depressa] H93
  Cymbolaena H93
  Anisocoma acaulis H93
  Argyranthemum H93
    |--A. foeniculaceum [=Chrysanthemum foeniculaceum; incl. C. anethifolium] H93
    `--A. frutescens H93
  Arnica H93
  Atrichoseris platyphylla H93
  Bebbia juncea H93
    |--B. j. var. juncea H93
    `--B. j. var. aspera H93
  Cacaliopsis nardosmia H93
  Calycadenia H93
    |--C. fremontii [incl. C. ciliosa, C. elegans] H93
    |--C. hooveri H93
    |--C. mollis H93
    |--C. multiglandulosa (see below for synonymy) H93
    |--C. oppositifolia H93
    |--C. pauciflora H93
    |--C. spicata H93
    |--C. truncata [incl. C. truncata ssp. microcephala, C. truncata ssp. scabrella] H93
    `--C. villosa H93
  Calycoseris H93
    |--C. parryi H93
    `--C. wrightii H93
  Chaetadelpha wheeleri H93
  Chamomilla H93
    |--C. occidentalis [=Matricaria occidentalis] H93
    `--C. suaveolens [incl. Matricaria matricarioides] H93
  Chloracantha spinosa [=Aster spinosus] H93
  Dimeresia howellii H93
  Dugaldia hoopesii [=Helenium hoopesii] H93
  Dyssodia papposa H93
  Eastwoodia elegans H93
  Enceliopsis H93
    |--E. covillei [incl. E. argophylla var. grandiflora] H93
    `--E. nudicaulis H93
  Eriophyllum H93
  Euthamia occidentalis [=Solidago occidentalis] H93
  Geraea H93
    |--G. canescens H93
    `--G. viscida H93
  Glyptopleura marginata [incl. G. setulosa] H93
  Helianthella H93
    |--H. californica H93
    |    |--H. c. var. californica H93
    |    |--H. c. var. nevadensis H93
    |    `--H. c. var. shastensis H93
    `--H. castanea H93
  Hesperevax H93
    |--H. acaulis [=Evax acaulis (Kellogg) Greene 1883] H93
    |    |--H. a. var. acaulis H93
    |    |--H. a. var. ambusticola H93
    |    `--H. a. var. robustior H93
    |--H. caulescens [=Evax caulescens; incl. E. involucrata] H93
    `--H. sparsiflora [=Evax sparsiflora] H93
         |--H. s. var. sparsiflora H93
         `--H. s. var. brevifolia [=Evax sparsiflora var. brevifolia] H93
  Heteranthemis viscidehirta H93
  Heterotheca H93
  Holocarpha H93
    |--H. heermannii H93
    |--H. macradenia H93
    |--H. obconica [incl. H. obconica ssp. autumnalis] H93
    `--H. virgata H93
         |--H. v. ssp. virgata H93
         `--H. v. ssp. elongata H93
  Holozonia filipes H93
  Hulsea H93
  Hymenopappus filifolius H93
    |--H. f. var. filifolius H93
    |--H. f. var. eriopodus H93
    |--H. f. var. lugens H93
    |--H. f. var. megacephalus H93
    `--H. f. var. nanus H93
  Hymenothrix H93
    |--H. loomisii H93
    |--H. wislezeni BT72
    `--H. wrightii H93
  Isocoma H93
    |--I. acradenia [=Haplopappus acradenius] H93
    |    |--I. a. var. acradenia H93
    |    |--I. a. var. bracteosa [=Haplopappus acradenius var. bracteosus] H93
    |    `--I. a. var. eremophila [=Haplopappus acradenius var. eremophilus] H93
    |--I. arguta [=Haplopappus venetus ssp. argutus] H93
    `--I. menziesii [incl. Haplopappus venetus, I. veneta] H93
         |--I. m. var. menziesii (see below for synonymy) H93
         |--I. m. var. sedoides [=Haplopappus venetus var. sedoides] H93
         `--I. m. var. vernonioides [=Haplopappus venetus ssp. veronioides] H93
  Layia H93
  Lembertia congdonii H93
  Lepidospartum H93
    |--L. latisquamum H93
    `--L. squamatum [incl. L. squamatum var. palmeri] H93
  Leucanthemum H93
    |--L. maximum H93 [=Chrysanthemum maximum Ramond 1800 H93, R00]
    `--L. vulgare [incl. Chrysanthemum leucanthemum] H93
  Luina hypoleuca H93
  Malacothrix H93
  Malperia tenuis H93
  Micropus H93
    |--M. amphibolus [=Stylocline amphibola] H93
    `--M. californicus H93
         |--M. c. var. californicus H93
         `--M. c. var. subvestitus H93
  Nicolletia occidentalis H93
  Nothocalais H93
    |--N. alpestris H93
    `--N. troximoides H93
  Orochaenactis thysanocarpha H93
  Osmadenia tenella [=Calycadenia tenella] H93
  Palafoxia arida H93
    |--P. a. var. arida H93
    `--P. a. var. gigantea [=P. linearis var. gigantea] H93
  Petradoria pumila H93
  Peucephyllum schottii H93
  Phalacroseris bolanderi [incl. P. bolanderi var. coronata] H93
  Pleurocoronis pluriseta [=Hoffmeisteria pluriseta] H93
  Porophyllum gracile H93
  Prenanthella exigua [=Lygodesmia exigua] H93
  Prionopsis ciliata [=Haplopappus ciliatus] H93
  Psathyrotes H93
    |--P. annua H93
    `--P. ramosissima H93
  Pseudobahia H93
    |--P. bahiifolia [=Monolopia bahiifolia] H93
    |--P. heermannii [=Eriophyllum heermannii] H93
    `--P. peirsonii H93
  Pyrrocoma H93
  Rafinesquia H93
    |--R. californica H93
    `--R. neomexicana H93
  Raillardiopsis H93
    |--R. muirii [=Raillardella muirii] H93
    `--R. scabrida [=Raillardella scabrida] H93
  Santolina H93
    |--S. chamaecyparisus H93
    |--S. marchii R-CT01
    `--S. rosmarinifolia RCT96
  Stebbinsoseris H93
    |--S. decipiens [=Microseris decipiens] H93
    `--S. heterocarpa [=Microseris heterocarpa] H93
  Uropappus lindleyi [=Microseris lindleyi; incl. M. linearifolia] H93
  Stenotus H93
    |--S. acaulis [=Haplopappus acaulis] H93
    |--S. lanuginosus H93
    `--S. stenophyllus [=Haplopappus stenophyllus] H93
  Stylocline H93
    |--S. citroleum H93
    |--S. gnaphaloides [=S. gnaphalioides (l. c.)] H93
    |--S. intertexta H93
    |--S. masonii H93
    |--S. micropoides H93
    |--S. psilocarphoides H93
    `--S. sonorensis H93
  Tetradymia H93
  Thymophylla pentachaeta H93
    |--T. p. var. pentachaeta H93
    `--T. p. var. belenidium [=Dyssodia pentachaeta var. belenidium; incl. D. thurberi] H93
  Tonestus H93
    |--T. eximius [=Haplopappus eximius] H93
    |--T. lyallii [=Haplopappus lyallii] H93
    `--T. peirsonii [=Haplopappus peirsonii] H93
  Townsendia H93
    |--T. condensata H93
    |--T. leptotes H93
    |--T. parryi H93
    `--T. scapigera H93
  Trichocoronis wrightii H93
  Trichoptilium incisum H93
  Trimorpha H93
    |--T. acris H93
    |    |--T. a. var. acris H93
    |    `--T. a. var. debilis [=Erigeron debilis] H93
    `--T. lonchophylla [=Erigeron lonchophylla] H93
  Venegasia carpesioides H93
  Venidium fastuosum H93
  Viguiera H93
    |--V. laciniata H93
    |--V. parishii [=V. deltoidea var. parishii] H93
    `--V. reticulata H93
  Wyethia H93
  Xylorhiza H93
    |--X. cognata [=Machaeranthera cognata] H93
    |--X. orcuttii [=Machaeranthera orcuttii] H93
    `--X. tortifolia [=Machaeranthera tortifolia] H93

Calycadenia multiglandulosa [incl. C. multiglandulosa ssp. bicolor, C. multiglandulosa ssp. cephalotes, C. hispida, C. hispida ssp. reducta, C. multiglandulosa ssp. robusta] H93

Isocoma menziesii var. menziesii [incl. Haplopappus venetus ssp. furfuraceus, I. menziesii ssp. oxyphyllus] H93

Jurinea mollis (Linnaeus) Reichenb. 1831 PL04 [=Carduus mollis Linnaeus 1759 C98; incl. C. moschatus Gussone 1825 C98, Jurinea mollis ssp. moschata (Gussone) Nyman 1879 C98, J. mollis var. moschata (Gussone) Visiani 1847 C98, J. moschata (Gussone) de Candolle 1838 C98]

Laggera alata (Don.) Schultz ex Oliver 1873 [=Erigeron alatum Don. 1825, Blumea alata (Don) de Candolle 1836] SS02

Liatris scariosa (Linnaeus) von Willdenow 1803 [=Serratula scariosa Linnaeus 1753, Lacinaria scariosa (Linnaeus) Hill 1762, Vernonia scariosa (Linnaeus) Poiret in Lamarck 1808] GYS03

Liatris scariosa var. nieuwlandii (Lunell) Voss 1995 [=Lacinaria scariosa var. nieuwlandii Lunell 1912, Liatris × nieuwlandii (Lunell) Gaiser 1946, Liatris novae-angliae var. nieuwlandii (Lunell) Shinners 1943] GYS03

Liatris scariosa var. novae-angliae (Lunell) Gandhi, Young & Somers 2003 [=Lacinaria scariosa var. novae-angliae Lunell 1912, Liatris novae-angliae (Lunell) Shinners 1943] GYS03

Liatris scariosa (Linnaeus) von Willdenow 1803 var. scariosa [incl. Liatris borealis Nuttall ex McNab 1835, Lacinaria scariosa var. borealis (Nuttall) Lunell 1912, Lacinaria scariosa var. virginiana Lunell 1912, Liatris scariosa var. virginiana (Lunell) Gaiser 1948] GYS03

*Type species of generic name indicated

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