Oxyporus maxillosus, copyright Nikolai Vladimirov.

Belongs within: Staphylinoidea.
Contains: Doryloxenus, Proteininae, Phloeocharinae, Pselaphinae, Oxytelinae, Aleocharinae, Scaphidiinae, Osoriinae, Silphidae, Piestinae, Tachyporinae, Omaliinae, Scydmaeninae, Steninae, Euaesthetinae, Leptotyphlinae, Staphylininae.

The Staphylinidae is an extremely large family of usually small, gracile beetles with a flexible abdomen. Many staphylinids have reduced elytra that expose the greater part of a long, flexible abdomen, but there are notable exceptions. Some subfamilies, such as Glypholomatinae, Microsilphinae, Scydmaeninae and many Omaliinae, have most or all of the abdomen covered by the elytra. Molecular phylogenetic analyses also indicate that some other groups with complete elytra classified to date in separate families, such as the Silphidae and Coloninae, may also be derived from within the Staphylinidae (McKenna et al. 2015). The Coloninae have usually been classified within the family Leiodidae though they differ from other members of the family in that the eighth antennomere is not distinctly smaller than succeeding segments (Peck 2001). Staphylinids with complete elytra can usually be distinguished from other beetles by the presence of six visible abdominal ventrites and the lack of lobes on the fourth tarsomeres (Newton et al. 2001). Ocelli are commonly absent but are present in some subfamilies such as Glypholomatinae and Omaliinae.

The majority of staphylinids are predatory, but a number of species feed on carrion, algae or fungi (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). The cave-dwelling colonine Hadesia vasiceki feeds by filtering food particles with a dense array of setae on the ventral mouthparts from water flowing over cave walls (Bouchard 2014). Some, such as a number of members of the Aleocharinae and Pselaphinae, are specialised inquilines of social insects. They may have a flattened, limuloid body form that possibly provides physical protection from their hosts, or they may have a physogastric abdomen and/or exudatory trichomes that gives them a physical or chemical resemblance to the host insects (Seevers 1957). Some staphylinids are subsocial with adults caring for larvae in nests or burrows (Newton et al. 2001).

Staphylinidae [Oxyporidae, Oxytelidae, Staphilinii, Staphyliniae]
    |--+--Scaphidiinae MW15
    |  `--+--Paraphloeostilba MW15
    |     `--+--Osoriinae MW15
    |        `--Coloninae [Colonidae] P90
    |             |--Hadesia vasiceki Müller 1911 B14
    |             `--Colon Herbst 1797 MW15, P90 (see below for synonymy)
    |                  |--C. bidentatum P01
    |                  |--C. brunneum [=Scaphidium (Myloechus) brunneus] G20
    |                  `--C. pubescens Lucas 1846 E12
    `--+--Glypholomatinae MW15
       |    |--Glypholoma rotundulum Thayer & Newton 1979 MW15, B14
       |    `--Juroglypholoma antiquum MW15
       `--+--+--Leucotachinus MW15
          |  `--Silphidae MW15
          `--+--Apateticinae GN09
             |    |--Apatetica GN09
             |    `--Nodynus Waterhous 1876 GN09
             |         `--N. leucofasciatus (Lewis 1879 GN09
             `--+--Trigonurus Mulsant 1847 [Trigonurinae] GN09
                |    `--T. caelatus LeConte 1874 GN09
                `--+--Piestinae GN09
                   `--+--Tachyporinae GN09
                      `--+--Omaliinae GN09
                         `--+--Oxyporus Fabriciaus 1775 GN09 [incl. Pseudoxyporus Nakane & Sawada 1956 NT01; Oxyporinae]
                            |    |--O. femoralis BC16
                            |    |--O. lateralis Gravenhorst 1802 GN09
                            |    |--O. mannerheimi C01
                            |    |--O. maxillosus B14
                            |    |--O. occipitalis Fauvel 1864 GN09
                            |    |--O. rufipennis LeConte 1963 GN09
                            |    |--O. rufus (Linnaeus 1758) B14 [=Staphylinus rufus G20]
                            |    `--O. vittatus NT01
                            `--+--Megalopinus Eichelbaum 1915 GN09 (see below for synonymy)
                               |    |--M. caelatus (Gravenhorst 1802) NT01
                               |    |--M. cruciger (Sharp 1886) B14
                               |    |--M. rufipes (LeConte 1863) NT01
                               |    `--M. sanguinitriguttatus (Scheerpeltz 1972) GN09
                               `--+--Solieriinae GN09
                                  |    |--Solierius Bernhauer 1921 GN09
                                  |    |    `--S. obscurus (Solier 1849) B14
                                  |    `--Prosolierius B14
                                  |         |--P. crassicornis B14
                                  |         |--P. mixticornis B14
                                  |         `--P. tenuicornis B14
                                  `--+--+--Scydmaeninae MW15
                                     |  `--+--Steninae GN09
                                     |     `--Euaesthetinae GN09
                                     `--+--Leptotyphlinae GN09
                                        `--+--Staphylininae GN09
                                           `--Pseudopsinae GN09
                                                |  i. s.: Asemobius Horn 1895 NT01
                                                |           `--A. caelatus Horn 1895 B14
                                                |--Pseudopsis Newman 1834 GN09
                                                |    `--P. montoraria Herman 1975 GN09
                                                `--+--Nanobius Herman 1977 GN09
                                                   |    `--N. serricollis (LeConte 1875) GN09
                                                   `--Zalobius LeConte 1874 GN09
                                                        |--Z. nancyae Herman 1977 NT01
                                                        `--Z. spinicollis LeConte 1874 GN09

Staphylinidae incertae sedis:
  Paratorchus microphthalmus (Fauvel 1900) E02
  Stenomalium E02
  Anicula inferna P02
  Caririderma S02
  Prorhinopsenius Zhe02
  Brevicula gradus Whalley 1985 Zha02
  Achenium G89
    |--A. cribriceps Fauv. 1886 G89
    |--A. distinctum Lucas 1846 E12
    `--A. haemorrhoidale Lucas 1846 E12
  Hesperomimus DK08
  Megarthroides AY04
  Eupsorus AY04
  Metacorneolabium AY04
  Canariobolitobius Schülke 2004 F05
    `--*C. filicornis (Wollaston 1864) [=Bolitobius filicornis] F05
  Domene F05
    |--D. (Domene) anichtchenkoi Feldmann 2005 F05
    `--D. (Lathromene) gallaeciana Feldmann & Hernando 2005 F05
  Paratyphlus maestratensis Hernando & Fancello 2004 F05
  ‘Heterosoma’ Bernhauer 1903 non Schaum 1845 LT61
  Protopselaphus Newton & Thayer 1995 [Protopselaphinae] NG05
  Trichophya Mannerheim 1830 [incl. Eumitocerus Casey 1886; Trichophyinae] NT01
    `--T. pilicornis (Gyllenhal 1810) NT01
  Doryloxenus S57
  Habrocerinae NT01
    |--Nomimocerus Coiffait & Sáiz 1965 NT01
    `--Habrocerus Erichson 1839 NT01
         |--H. capillaricornis (Gravenhorst 1806) NT01
         |--H. magnus LeConte 1878 NT01
         `--H. schwarzi Horn 1877 NT01
  Microsilpha [Microsilphinae, Microsilphini] B14
    `--M. ocelligera (Champion 1918) B14
  Empelus LeConte 1861 [Empelidae, Empelinae] NT01
    `--E. brunnipennis (Mannerheim 1852) [=Litochrus brunnipennis] B14
  Neophonus [Neophoninae] B14
    `--N. bruchi Fauvel 1905 B14
  Micropeplinae [Micropeplidae] N90
    |--Peplomicrus mexicanus Campbell 1978 B14
    |--Micropeplus Latreille 1809 NT01
    |    `--M. dokuchaevi GE05
    `--Kalissus LeConte 1874 NT01
         `--K. nitidus LeConte 1874 NT01
  Dasycerus Brongniart 1800 B00 [Dasyceridae, Dasycerinae B14]
    |--*D. sulcatus Brongniart 1800 B00
    |--D. bicolor B14
    `--D. carolinensis Horn 1882 B14
  Proteininae N90
  Phloeocharinae N90
  Pselaphinae NG05
  Oxytelinae N90
  Aleocharinae P05
  Leehermania prorova MW15
  Ischnoglossa prolixa O86
  Coptolimulus B74
  Coptophilus B74
  Eulissus chalcopterus B70
  Olisthaerus Dejean 1833 [Olisthaerinae] NT01
    |--O. megacephalus (Zetterstedt 1828) NT01
    `--O. substriatus (Gyllenhal 1827) NT01
  Myrmelibia kingi NT01
  Pareiobledius pruinosus NT01
  Lamprinus RD77

Colon Herbst 1797 MW15, P90 [=Kolon Herbst 1797 P01; incl. Chelicolon Szymczakowski 1964 P01, Desmidocolon Szymczakowski 1964 P01, Eurycolon Ganglbauer 1899 P01, Mesagyrtes Brown 1895 P01, Myloechus Latreille 1807 P01, Platycolon Portevin 1907 P01, Striatocolon Peck & Stephan 1996 P01, Tricolon Peck & Stephan 1996 P01]

Megalopinus Eichelbaum 1915 GN09 [incl. Megalops Erichson 1839 non Lacepède 1803 NT01, Megalopsidia Leng 1918 NT01; Megalopsidiinae]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AY04] Austin, A. D., D. K. Yeates, G. Cassis, M. J. Fletcher, J. La Salle, J. F. Lawrence, P. B. McQuillan, L. A. Mound, D. J. Bickel, P. J. Gullan, D. F. Hales & G. S. Taylor. 2004. Insects ‘Down Under’—diversity, endemism and evolution of the Australian insect fauna: examples from select orders. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 216–234.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[B70] Britton, E. B. 1970. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 495–621. Melbourne University Press.

[B74] Britton, E. B. 1974. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Supplement 1974 pp. 62–89. Melbourne University Press.

[B00] Brongniart, A. 1800. Sur un nouveau genre d'insecte des environs de Paris. Bulletin des Sciences, par la Societé Philomathique de Paris 2 (39): 115–116.

[BC16] Brunke, A. J., S. Chatzimanolis, H. Schillhammer & A. Solodovnikov. 2016. Early evolution of the hyperdiverse rove beetle tribe Staphylinini (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Staphylininae) and a revision of its higher classification. Cladistics 32 (4): 427–451.

[C01] Csiki, E. 1901. Bogarak [Coleopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 75–120. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[DK08] Dohm, P., D. Kovač, A. Freidberg & R. Bin Hashim. 2008. Biology of the Oriental bamboo-inhabiting fly Felderimyia gombakensis and observations on mating trophallaxis in Felderimyia (Insecta, Diptera, Tephritidae, Phytalmiinae, Acanthonevrini). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (2): 311–318.

[E02] Emberson, R. M. 2002. The beetle (Coleoptera) fauna of the Chatham Islands: additions and corrections. New Zealand Entomologist 25: 69–77.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso “Esploratore” dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880.—IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 5–72.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GN09] Grebennikov, V. V., & A. F. Newton. 2009. Good-bye Scydmaenidae, or why the ant-like stone beetles should become megadiverse Staphylinidae sensu latissimo (Coleoptera). European Journal of Entomology 106: 275–301.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[LT61] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1961. Remarks on the systematics of the Sarkodina (Protozoa), renamed homonyms and new and validated genera. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 74: 213–234.

[MW15] McKenna, D. D., A. L. Wild, K. Kanda, C. L. Bellamy, R. G. Beutel, M. S. Caterino, C. W. Farnum, D. C. Hawks, M. A. Ivie, M. L. Jameson, R. A. B. Leschen, A. E. Marvaldi, J. V. McHugh, A. F. Newton, J. A. Robertson, M. K. Thayer, M. F. Whiting, J. F. Lawrence, A. Ślipiński, D. R. Maddison & B. D. Farrell. 2015. The beetle tree of life reveals that Coleoptera survived end-Permian mass extinction to diversify during the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. Systematic Entomology 40 (4): 835–880.

[N90] Newton, A. F., Jr. 1990. Insecta: Coleoptera Staphylinidae adults and larvae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1137–1174. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[NT01] Newton, A. F., M. K. Thayer, J. S. Ashe & D. S. Chandler. 2001. Staphylinidae Latreille, 1802. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr & M. C. Thomas (eds) American Beetles vol. 1. Archostemata, Myxophaga, Adephaga, Polyphaga: Staphyliniformia pp. 272–418. CRC Press: Boca Raton.

[NG05] Nomura, S., & I. Abd Ghani. 2005. Faunistic notes on the pselaphine species of the supertribes Goniaceritae, Pselaphitae and Clavigeritae from Malaysia and Singapore (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Pselaphinae). Serangga 10 (1–2): 1–36.

[O86] Olliff, A. S. 1886. A revision of the Staphylinidae of Australia. Part I. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (2): 403–473, pl. 7.

[P05] Paśnik, J. 2005. Fossils of Staphylinidae from Baltic amber: a new genus and three new species (Insecta, Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (1): 97–100.

[P90] Peck, S. B. 1990. Insecta: Coleoptera Silphidae and the associated families Agyrtidae and Leiodidae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1113-1136. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[P01] Peck, S. B. 2001. Leiodidae Fleming, 1821. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr & M. C. Thomas (eds) American Beetles vol. 1. Archostemata, Myxophaga, Adephaga, Polyphaga: Staphyliniformia pp. 250–258. CRC Press: Boca Raton.

[P02] Ponomarenko, A. G. 2002. Superorder Scarabaeidea Laicharting, 1781. Order Coleoptera Linné, 1758. The beetles. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 164–176. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[S57] Seevers, C. H. 1957. A monograph on the termitophilous Staphylinidae (Coleoptera). Fieldiana Zoology 40: 1–334.

[S02] Shcherbakov, D. E. 2002. Order Forficulida Latreille, 1810. The earwigs and protelytropterans (=Dermaptera DeGeer, 1773 +Protelytroptera Tillyard, 1931). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 288–291. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[Zha02] Zhang, J.-F. 2002. The most primitive earwigs (Archidermaptera, Dermaptera, Insecta) from the Upper Jurassic of Nei Monggol Autonomous Region, northeastern China. Acta Micropalaeontologica Sinica 19 (4): 348–362.

[Zhe02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Ecological history of the terrestrial insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 331–388. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

Last updated: 16 December 2020.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="">FoS</a> = FoS