Oxyporus maxillosus, copyright Nikolai Vladimirov.

Belongs within: Staphylinoidea.
Contains: Pseudopsinae, Scaphidiinae, Osoriinae, Piestinae, Oxytelinae, Proteininae, Omaliinae, Paederinae, Staphylininae, Mycetoporini, Phloeocharinae, Silphidae, Tachyporinae, Scydmaeninae, Aleocharinae, Steninae, Euaesthetinae, Leptotyphlinae, Pselaphinae, Thoracophorini.

The Staphylinidae is an extremely large family of usually small, gracile beetles with a flexible abdomen. Many staphylinids have reduced elytra that expose the greater part of a long, flexible abdomen, but there are notable exceptions. Some subfamilies, such as Scydmaeninae and many Omaliinae, have most or all of the abdomen covered by the elytra. Molecular phylogenetic analyses also indicate that some other groups with complete elytra classified to date in separate families, such as the Silphidae, may also be derived from within the Staphylinidae (McKenna et al. 2015). Staphylinids with complete elytra can usually be distinguished from other beetles by the presence of six visible abdominal ventrites and the lack of lobes on the fourth tarsomeres (Newton et al. 2001). Ocelli are commonly absent but are present in some subfamilies such as Omaliinae.

The majority of staphylinids are predatory, but a number of species feed on carrion, algae or fungi (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). Some, such as a number of members of the Aleocharinae and Pselaphinae, are specialised inquilines of social insects. They may have a flattened, limuloid body form that possibly provides physical protection from their hosts, or they may have a physogastric abdomen and/or exudatory trichomes that gives them a physical or chemical resemblance to the host insects (Seevers 1957). Some staphylinids are subsocial with adults caring for larvae in nests or burrows (Newton et al. 2001).

Subgroups of the Staphylinidae include the Apateticinae which have elytra covering most of the abdomen, lobed tarsomeres and gradually clavate antennae. The Habrocerinae have a very compact, shining body with few large setae and extremely slender, verticillate antennae. The genus Trichophya has similar antennae to the Habrocerinae but the body is more densely punctate and setose (Newton et al. 2001).

Staphylinidae [Oxyporidae, Oxytelidae, Piestides, Staphilinii, Staphyliniae]
    |--+--+--Apateticinae LC20
    |  |  |    |--Apatetica princeps LC20
    |  |  |    `--Nodynus Waterhous 1876 GN09
    |  |  |         `--N. leucofasciatus (Lewis 1879 GN09
    |  |  `--+--Habrocerinae LC20
    |  |     |    |--Nomimocerus Coiffait & Sáiz 1965 NT01
    |  |     |    `--Habrocerus Erichson 1839 NT01
    |  |     |         |--H. capillaricornis (Gravenhorst 1806) NT01
    |  |     |         |--H. magnus LeConte 1878 NT01
    |  |     |         `--H. schwarzi Horn 1877 NT01
    |  |     `--+--Trichophya Mannerheim 1830 NT01 [incl. Eumitocerus Casey 1886 NT01; Trichophyinae LC20]
    |  |        |    |--T. pilicornis (Gyllenhal 1810) NT01
    |  |        |    `--T. tarsalis LC20
    |  |        `--Trigonurinae LC20
    |  |             |--Trigonurus Mulsant 1847 GN09
    |  |             |    |--T. caelatus LeConte 1874 GN09
    |  |             |    `--T. crotchii LC20
    |  |             `--Abolescus glabratus LC20
    |  `--+--+--Pseudopsinae LC20
    |     |  `--Scaphidiinae LC20
    |     `--+--Osoriinae LC20
    |        `--+--Piestinae LC20
    |           `--Oxytelinae LC20
    `--+--+--Micropeplinae [Micropeplidae] LC20
       |  |    |--Peplomicrus mexicanus Campbell 1978 B14
       |  |    |--Micropeplus Latreille 1809 NT01
       |  |    |    |--M. dokuchaevi GE05
       |  |    |    |--M. fulvus LC20
       |  |    |    `--M. punctatus LC20
       |  |    |--Kalissus LeConte 1874 NT01
       |  |    |    `--K. nitidus LeConte 1874 NT01
       |  |    `--Protopeplus cretaceus LC20
       |  `--+--Proteininae LC20
       |     `--Omaliinae LC20
       `--+--+--+--Paederinae LC20
          |  |  `--Staphylininae LC20
          |  `--Olisthaerus Dejean 1833 LC20, NT01 [Olisthaerinae]
          |       |--O. megacephalus (Zetterstedt 1828) LC20, NT01
          |       `--+--O. substriatus (Gyllenhal 1827) LC20, NT01
          |          `--Mycetoporini LC20
          `--+--+--Phloeocharinae LC20
             |  `--+--Silphidae LC20
             |     `--Tachyporinae LC20
             `--+--+--Scydmaeninae LC20
                |  `--Solieriinae LC20
                |       |--Solierius Bernhauer 1921 GN09
                |       |    `--S. obscurus (Solier 1849) B14
                |       `--Prosolierius B14
                |            |--P. crassicornis B14
                |            |--P. mixticornis B14
                |            `--P. tenuicornis B14
                `--+--Aleocharinae LC20
                   `--+--+--+--Steninae LC20
                      |  |  `--Euaesthetinae LC20
                      |  `--+--+--Megalopinus Eichelbaum 1915 GN09 (see below for synonymy)
                      |     |    |--M. caelatus (Gravenhorst 1802) NT01
                      |     |    |--M. cruciger (Sharp 1886) B14
                      |     |    |--M. rufipes (LeConte 1863) NT01
                      |     |    `--M. sanguinitriguttatus (Scheerpeltz 1972) GN09
                      |     `--+--Leptotyphlinae LC20
                      |        `--Oxyporus Fabriciaus 1775 GN09 (see below for synonymy)
                      |             |--O. femoralis BC16
                      |             |--O. lateralis Gravenhorst 1802 GN09
                      |             |--O. mannerheimi C01
                      |             |--O. maxillosus B14
                      |             |--O. occipitalis Fauvel 1864 GN09
                      |             |--O. rufipennis LeConte 1963 GN09
                      |             |--O. rufus (Linnaeus 1758) B14 [=Staphylinus rufus G20]
                      |             |--O. vittatus NT01
                      |             `--O. yixianus LC20
                      `--+--+--Neophonus [Neophoninae] LC20
                         |  |    `--N. bruchi Fauvel 1905 B14
                         |  `--+--Dasycerinae [Dasyceridae] LC20
                         |     |    |--Dasycerus Brongniart 1800 B00
                         |     |    |    |--*D. sulcatus Brongniart 1800 B00
                         |     |    |    |--D. angulicollis LC20
                         |     |    |    |--D. bicolor B14
                         |     |    |    `--D. carolinensis Horn 1882 B14
                         |     |    `--Protodasycerus aenigmaticus LC20
                         |     `--Pselaphinae LC20
                         `--+--Charhyphus Sharp 1887 LC20, NT01 (see below for synonymy)
                            |    |--C. arizonensis Herman 1972 NT01
                            |    `--C. picipennis (LeConte 1863) NT01
                            `--+--+--Thoracochirus LC20
                               |  `--Plastus LC20
                               |       |--P. magnificus LC20
                               |       `--+--P. miles LC20
                               |          `--P. unicolor LC20
                               `--+--Neolispinus LC20
                                  `--+--Eleusinini NT01
                                     |    |--Renardia Motschulsky 1865 [incl. Eumalus Sharp 1887] NT01
                                     |    |    |--R. canadensis (Horn 1871) NT01
                                     |    |    `--R. nigrella (LeConte 1863) [incl. R. jubilaea Motschulsky 1865] NT01
                                     |    `--Eleusis Laporte 1835 LC20, NT01 [incl. Isomalus Erichson 1839 NT01]
                                     |         |--E. humilis (Erichson 1840) [incl. E. fasciata (LeConte 1863)] NT01
                                     |         |--E. mutica LC20
                                     |         |--E. pallida (LeConte 1863) NT01
                                     |         `--E. parva Blackb. 1892 M96
                                     `--Thoracophorini LC20

Staphylinidae incertae sedis:
  Paratorchus microphthalmus (Fauvel 1900) E02
  Stenomalium E02
  Anicula inferna P02
  Caririderma S02
  Prorhinopsenius Zhe02
  Brevicula gradus Whalley 1985 Zha02
  Achenium G89
    |--A. cribriceps Fauv. 1886 G89
    |--A. distinctum Lucas 1846 E12
    `--A. haemorrhoidale Lucas 1846 E12
  Hesperomimus DK08
  Canariobolitobius Schülke 2004 F05
    `--*C. filicornis (Wollaston 1864) [=Bolitobius filicornis] F05
  Paratyphlus maestratensis Hernando & Fancello 2004 F05
  ‘Heterosoma’ Bernhauer 1903 non Schaum 1845 LT61
  Protopselaphus Newton & Thayer 1995 [Protopselaphinae] NG05
  Ischnoglossa prolixa O86
  Coptolimulus B74
  Coptophilus B74
  Eulissus chalcopterus B70
  Myrmelibia kingi NT01
  Pareiobledius pruinosus NT01
  Lamprinus RD77
  Bembicidiodes P92
  Planeustomus P92
  Palaeopsenius Seevers 1971 P92
    `--P. mexicanus Seevers 1971 P92
  Paracyptus Seevers 1971 P92
    `--P. minutissima Seevers 1971 P92
  Paracraspedomerus Moore 1960 [=Xystridiogaster Scheerpeltz 1966] M72
    `--*P. speculifrons [=Cafius speculifrons, *Xystridiogaster speculifrons] M72

Charhyphus Sharp 1887 LC20, NT01 [incl. Pseudeleusis Bernhauer 1923 NT01, Triga Fauvel 1878 non Gray 1867 NT01, Trigites Handlirsch 1907 NT01]

Megalopinus Eichelbaum 1915 GN09 [incl. Megalops Erichson 1839 non Lacepède 1803 NT01, Megalopsidia Leng 1918 NT01; Megalopsidiinae LC20]

Oxyporus Fabriciaus 1775 GN09 [incl. Pseudoxyporus Nakane & Sawada 1956 NT01; Oxyporinae LC20]

*Type species of generic name indicated


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Last updated: 10 April 2022.

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