Staphylinidae

Oxyporus maxillosus, copyright Nikolai Vladimirov.


Belongs within: Staphyliniformia.
Contains: Doryloxenus, Osoriinae, Clavigeritae, Pselaphitae, Jubini, Goniaceritae, Euplectitae, Batrisitae, Trichopseniinae, Oxytelinae, Aleocharinae, Scaphidiinae, Silphidae, Tachyporinae, Omaliinae, Scydmaeninae, Stenus, Euaesthetinae, Paederinae, Staphylininae.

The Staphylinidae is an extremely large family of usually small, gracile beetles with a flexible abdomen. Many staphylinids have reduced elytra that expose the greater part of a long, flexible abdomen, but there are notable exceptions. The members of the subfamily Pselaphinae, for instance, have reduced elytra but the abdomen is also non-flexible and relatively short (Lawrence & Britton 1991). Members of some other subfamilies, such as Glypholomatinae, Microsilphinae, Scydmaeninae and many Omaliinae, have most or all of the abdomen covered by the elytra. Molecular phylogenetic analyses also indicate that some other groups with complete elytra classified to date in separate families, such as the Silphidae and Coloninae, may also be derived from within the Staphylinidae (McKenna et al. 2015).

The majority of staphylinids are predatory, but a number of species feed on carrion, algae or fungi (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). The cave-dwelling colonine Hadesia vasiceki feeds by filtering food particles with a dense array of setae on the ventral mouthparts from water flowing over cave walls (Bouchard 2014). Some, such as a number of members of the Aleocharinae and Pselaphinae, are specialised inquilines of social insects. They may have a flattened, limuloid body form that possibly provides physical protection from their hosts, or they may have a physogastric abdomen and/or exudatory trichomes that gives them a physical or chemical resemblance to the host insects (Seevers 1957). Some members of the subfamily Paederinae contain compounds in their haemolymph that can cause severe irritation if they come into contact with human skin.

Staphylinidae [Staphyliniae]
    |--+--Scaphidiinae MW15
    |  `--+--Paraphloeostilba MW15
    |     `--+--Renardia MW15
    |        `--Coloninae [Colonidae] B14
    |             |--Hadesia vasiceki Müller 1911 B14
    |             `--Colon Herbst 1797 MW15, P90
    |                  |--C. brunneum V09
    |                  `--C. pubescens Lucas 1847 E12
    `--+--Glypholomatinae MW15
       |    |--Glypholoma rotundulum Thayer & Newton 1979 MW15, B14
       |    `--Juroglypholoma antiquum MW15
       `--+--+--Leucotachinus MW15
          |  `--Silphidae MW15
          `--+--Apateticinae GN09
             |    |--Nodynus Waterhous 1876 GN09
             |    |    `--N. leucofasciatus (Lewis 1879 GN09
             |    `--Apatetica GN09
             `--+--Trigonurus Mulsant 1847 [Trigonurinae] GN09
                |    `--T. caelatus LeConte 1874 GN09
                `--+--Piestinae [Piestides] GN09
                   |    |--Piestus B14
                   |    |    |--P. pygmaeus Laporte 1835 GN09
                   |    |    `--P. spinosus (Fabricius 1801) B14
                   |    |--Eupiestus B14
                   |    |--Hypotelus B14
                   |    |--Abolescus B14
                   |    |--Prognathoides mjobergi LB91
                   |    `--Siagonium Kirby & Spence 1815 GN09
                   |         `--S. punctatum (LeConte 1866) GN09
                   `--+--Tachyporinae GN09
                      `--+--Omaliinae GN09
                         `--+--Oxyporinae GN09
                            |    |--Pseudoxyporus B14
                            |    `--Oxyporus Fabriciaus 1775 GN09
                            |         |--O. lateralis Gravenhorst 1802 GN09
                            |         |--O. mannerheimi C01
                            |         |--O. maxillosus B14
                            |         |--O. occipitalis Fauvel 1864 GN09
                            |         |--O. rufipennis LeConte 1963 GN09
                            |         `--O. rufus (Linnaeus 1758) B14
                            `--+--Megalopsidiinae GN09
                               |    |--Megalopsidia B70
                               |    `--Megalopinus Eichelbaum 1915 GN09
                               |         |--M. caelatus N90
                               |         |--M. cruciger (Sharp 1886) B14
                               |         `--M. sanguinitriguttatus (Scheerpeltz 1972) GN09
                               `--+--Solieriinae GN09
                                  |    |--Solierius Bernhauer 1921 GN09
                                  |    |    `--S. obscurus (Solier 1849) B14
                                  |    `--Prosolierius B14
                                  |         |--P. crassicornis B14
                                  |         |--P. mixticornis B14
                                  |         `--P. tenuicornis B14
                                  `--+--+--Scydmaeninae MW15
                                     |  `--+--Steninae GN09
                                     |     |    |--Stenus N90
                                     |     |    `--Dianous Leach 1819 GN09
                                     |     |         `--D. nitidulus LeConte 1874 GN09
                                     |     `--Euaesthetinae GN09
                                     `--+--Leptotyphlinae GN09
                                        |    |--Chionotyphlus alaskensis Smetana 1986 B14
                                        |    |--Eutyphlops GN09
                                        |    `--Idahotyphlus alleni Gusarov 2003 GN09
                                        `--+--Pseudopsinae GN09
                                           |    |  i. s.: Asemobius caelatus Horn 1895 B14
                                           |    |--Pseudopsis Newman 1834 GN09
                                           |    |    `--P. montoraria Herman 1975 GN09
                                           |    `--+--Nanobius Herman 1977 GN09
                                           |       |    `--N. serricollis (LeConte 1875) GN09
                                           |       `--Zalobius LeConte 1874 GN09
                                           |            `--Z. spinicollis LeConte 1874 GN09
                                           `--+--Paederinae GN09
                                              `--Staphylininae GN09

Staphylinidae incertae sedis:
  Paratorchus microphthalmus (Fauvel 1900) E02
  Stenomalium E02
  Anicula inferna P02
  Caririderma S02
  Prorhinopsenius Zhe02
  Brevicula gradus Whalley 1985 Zha02
  Platyprosopus beduinus G89
  Achenium G89
    |--A. cribriceps Fauv. 1886 G89
    |--A. distinctum Lucas 1846 E12
    `--A. haemorrhoidale Lucas 1846 E12
  Trogophloeus exiguus G89
  Hesperomimus DK08
  Austrorhysus AY04
  Megarthroides AY04
  Anepius AY04
  Eupsorus AY04
  Metacorneolabium AY04
  Diestota O94
  Canariobolitobius Schülke 2004 F05
    `--*C. filicornis (Wollaston 1864) [=Bolitobius filicornis] F05
  Domene F05
    |--D. (Domene) anichtchenkoi Feldmann 2005 F05
    `--D. (Lathromene) gallaeciana Feldmann & Hernando 2005 F05
  Paratyphlus maestratensis Hernando & Fancello 2004 F05
  Xenotyphlus taylorensis N90
  Aleodorus N90
  Nematolinus longicollis N90
  Ontholestes C01
    |--O. murinus C01
    `--O. tessellatus I92
  ‘Heterosoma’ Bernhauer 1903 non Schaum 1845 LT61
  Protopselaphus Newton & Thayer 1995 [Protopselaphinae] NG05
  Trichophya [Trichophyinae] N90
  Doryloxenus S57
  Habrocerus [Habrocerinae] N90
    `--H. capillaricornis N90
  Microsilpha [Microsilphinae] B14
    `--M. ocelligera (Champion 1918) B14
  Empelus [Empelidae, Empelinae] B14
    `--E. brunnipennis (Mannerheim 1852) [=Litochrus brunnipennis] B14
  Neophonus [Neophoninae] B14
    `--N. bruchi Fauvel 1905 B14
  Micropeplinae [Micropeplidae] N90
    |--Micropeplus dokuchaevi GE05
    `--Peplomicrus mexicanus Campbell 1978 B14
  Dasycerus [Dasyceridae, Dasycerinae] B14
    |--D. bicolor B14
    `--D. carolinensis Horn 1882 B14
  Proteininae N90
    |--Megarthrus pictus N90
    |--Proteinus Latreille 1802 L02
    |    `--*P. pulicarius (Linnaeus 1758) L02, L58 [=Dermestes pulicarius L02, Silpha pulicaria L02]
    `--Metopsia B14
         |--M. clypeata Müller 1821 B14
         `--M. similis B14
  Phloeocharinae N90
    |--Dytoscotes pacificus N90
    |--Vicelva vandykei (Hatch 1957) B14
    `--Phloeocharis N90
         |--P. californica N90
         `--P. mallorcina Feldmann 2004 F05
  Osoriinae N90
  Pselaphinae [Clavigeridae, Pselaphi, Pselaphidae, Pselaphii] NG05
    |  i. s.: Pselaphaulax MW01
    |         Seracamaurops PN02
    |         Troglamaurops PN02
    |         Cordiamaurops PN02
    |         Imtemps NG05
    |         Mipseltyrus levini C90
    |         Speleobamini C90
    |           |--Prespelea copelandi C90
    |           `--Speleobama C90
    |         Machadoites termitophilus N55
    |         Tinaroo ZS10
    |         Malleecola myrmecophila ZS10
    |--Clavigeritae R03
    `--+--Pselaphitae R03
       `--Brachyscelidae R03
            |  i. s.: Jubini R03
            |--Goniaceritae R03
            |--Euplectitae R03
            `--Batrisitae R03
  Trichopseniinae S57
  Oxytelinae N90
  Aleocharinae P05
  Leehermania prorova MW15
  Astrapaeus almi L02
  Ischnoglossa prolixa O86
  Coptolimulus B74
  Coptophilus B74
  Eulissus chalcopterus B70

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AY04] Austin, A. D., D. K. Yeates, G. Cassis, M. J. Fletcher, J. La Salle, J. F. Lawrence, P. B. McQuillan, L. A. Mound, D. J. Bickel, P. J. Gullan, D. F. Hales & G. S. Taylor. 2004. Insects ‘Down Under’—diversity, endemism and evolution of the Australian insect fauna: examples from select orders. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 216–234.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[B70] Britton, E. B. 1970. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 495–621. Melbourne University Press.

[B74] Britton, E. B. 1974. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Supplement 1974 pp. 62–89. Melbourne University Press.

[C90] Chandler, D. S. 1990. Insecta: Coleoptera Pselaphidae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1175–1190. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[C01] Csiki, E. 1901. Bogarak [Coleopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 75–120. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[DK08] Dohm, P., D. Kovač, A. Freidberg & R. Bin Hashim. 2008. Biology of the Oriental bamboo-inhabiting fly Felderimyia gombakensis and observations on mating trophallaxis in Felderimyia (Insecta, Diptera, Tephritidae, Phytalmiinae, Acanthonevrini). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (2): 311–318.

[E02] Emberson, R. M. 2002. The beetle (Coleoptera) fauna of the Chatham Islands: additions and corrections. New Zealand Entomologist 25: 69–77.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso «Esploratore» dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880.—IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 5–72.

[GN09] Grebennikov, V. V., & A. F. Newton. 2009. Good-bye Scydmaenidae, or why the ant-like stone beetles should become megadiverse Staphylinidae sensu latissimo (Coleoptera). European Journal of Entomology 106: 275–301.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[I92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[LB91] Lawrence, J. F., & E. B. Britton. 1991. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 543–683. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[LT61] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1961. Remarks on the systematics of the Sarkodina (Protozoa), renamed homonyms and new and validated genera. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 74: 213–234.

[MW15] McKenna, D. D., A. L. Wild, K. Kanda, C. L. Bellamy, R. G. Beutel, M. S. Caterino, C. W. Farnum, D. C. Hawks, M. A. Ivie, M. L. Jameson, R. A. B. Leschen, A. E. Marvaldi, J. V. McHugh, A. F. Newton, J. A. Robertson, M. K. Thayer, M. F. Whiting, J. F. Lawrence, A. Ślipiński, D. R. Maddison & B. D. Farrell. 2015. The beetle tree of life reveals that Coleoptera survived end-Permian mass extinction to diversify during the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. Systematic Entomology 40 (4): 835–880.

[MW01] Molleman, F., & D. E. Walter. 2001. Niche segregation and can-openers: scydmaenid beetles as predators of armoured mites in Australia. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 283–288 Publishing: Melbourne.

[N90] Newton, A. F., Jr. 1990. Insecta: Coleoptera Staphylinidae adults and larvae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1137–1174. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[N55] Noirot, C. 1955. Termites du centre et du sud-ouest de l’Angola récoltés par A. de Barros Machado. Diamang Publicações Culturais 27: 139–150.

[NG05] Nomura, S., & I. Abd Ghani. 2005. Faunistic notes on the pselaphine species of the supertribes Goniaceritae, Pselaphitae and Clavigeritae from Malaysia and Singapore (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Pselaphinae). Serangga 10 (1–2): 1–36.

[O86] Olliff, A. S. 1886. A revision of the Staphylinidae of Australia. Part I. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (2): 403–473, pl. 7.

[O94] Otte, D. 1994. The Crickets of Hawaii: origin, systematics and evolution. The Orthopterists’ Society: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.

[P05] Paśnik, J. 2005. Fossils of Staphylinidae from Baltic amber: a new genus and three new species (Insecta, Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (1): 97–100.

[P90] Peck, S. B. 1990. Insecta: Coleoptera Silphidae and the associated families Agyrtidae and Leiodidae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1113-1136. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[PN02] Poggi, R., G. Nonveiller, A. Colla, D. Pavićević & T. Rađa. 2001–2002. Thaumastocephalini, a new tribe of Pselaphinae for Thaumastocephalus folliculipalpus n. gen., n. sp., an interesting new troglobious species from central Dalmatia (Croatia) (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale “Giacomo Doria” 94: 1–20.

[P02] Ponomarenko, A. G. 2002. Superorder Scarabaeidea Laicharting, 1781. Order Coleoptera Linné, 1758. The beetles. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 164–176. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[R03] Raffray, A. 1903. Genera et catalogue des psélaphides. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 72: 484–604.

[S57] Seevers, C. H. 1957. A monograph on the termitophilous Staphylinidae (Coleoptera). Fieldiana Zoology 40: 1–334.

[S02] Shcherbakov, D. E. 2002. Order Forficulida Latreille, 1810. The earwigs and protelytropterans (=Dermaptera DeGeer, 1773 +Protelytroptera Tillyard, 1931). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 288–291. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the Wild Fauna and Flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

[Zha02] Zhang, J.-F. 2002. The most primitive earwigs (Archidermaptera, Dermaptera, Insecta) from the Upper Jurassic of Nei Monggol Autonomous Region, northeastern China. Acta Micropalaeontologica Sinica 19 (4): 348–362.

[Zhe02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Ecological history of the terrestrial insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 331–388. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

Last updated: 25 May 2017.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="http://www.fieldofscience.com/">FoS</a> = FoS