Canada goldenrod Solidago canadensis, from the Connecticut Botanical Society.

Belongs within: Asteroideae.
Contains: Aster, Olearia, Calotis, Erigeron, Bellidinae, Celmisia, Ericameria.

The composite-flowered tribe Astereae includes asters (Aster), goldenrods (Solidago) and related taxa. Members of the group are distinguished by the morphology of the fertile disc-flowers, in which the marginal stigmatic lines do not reach the summits of the style-branches. Within the Astereae, members of the subtribe Asterinae have a well-developed pappus, as opposed to the reduced pappus of the Bellidinae (Black & Robertson 1965). Pleurophyllum species are robust perennial herbs found on the Subantarctic islands of New Zealand (Allan 1961).

Characters (from Black & Robertson 1965): Style-branches of fertile disc-flowers flattish, with two marginal papillose stigmatic lines along lower part of branches and long or short non-stigmatic appendage at summit bearing short collecting hairs on outside; flower-heads heterogamous radiate; receptacle usually naked; pappus consisting of bristles, awns or scales, rarely absent; leaves alternate.

    |--Doellingeria umbellata RU03
    |--+--Gundlachia corymbosa RU03
    |  `--Xylothamia RU03
    |       |--X. parrasana [=Haplopappus parrasanus] RU03
    |       |--‘Haplopappus’ sonoriensis RU03
    |       |--X. triantha RU03
    |       `--X. truncata RU03
    `--+--+--Ericameria RU03
       |  `--+--Pentachaeta exilis RU03
       |     `--+--Rigiopappus leptocladus RU03
       |        `--Tracyina rostrata RU03
       `--+--‘Chrysothamnus’ gramineus RU03
          `--+--Sericocarpus tortifolius RU03
             `--+--Chrysothamnus RU03
                |    |--+--C. depressus RU03
                |    |  `--C. viscidiflorus RU03
                |    `--+--C. linifolius RU03
                |       `--C. pulchellus RU03
                `--+--Chrysoma pauciflosculosa RU03
                   `--Solidago RU03
                        |--S. altissima MH98
                        |--S. canadensis RU03
                        |--S. chilensis D03
                        |--S. gigantea K91
                        |--S. graminifolia M73
                        |--S. juncea M73
                        |--S. rugosa M47
                        |--S. sempervirens M47
                        `--S. virgaurea MH98

Astereae incertae sedis:
  Asterinae BR65
    |--Aster BR65
    |--Achnophora tatei BR65
    |--Olearia BR65
    |--Calotis BR65
    |--Erigeron BR65
    |--Podocoma BR65
    |    |--P. cuneifolia BR65
    |    `--P. nana BR65
    |--Minuria BR65
    |    |--M. annua [=Minuriella annua] BR65
    |    |--M. cunninghamii BR65
    |    |--M. denticulata BR65
    |    |--M. integerrima BR65
    |    |--M. leptophylla BR65
    |    |--M. rigida BR65
    |    `--M. suaedifolia BR65
    `--Vittadinia Rich. 1832 BR65, A61
         |  i. s.: V. cervicularis KM08
         |         V. humerata G04
         |--V. sect. Vittadinia BR65
         |    |--V. triloba BR65 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |    |--V. t. var. triloba BR65
         |    |    |--V. t. var. dissecta BR65
         |    |    `--V. t. var. lanuginosa BR65
         |    |--V. pterochaeta [=V. australis var. pterochaeta] BR65
         |    `--V. tenuissima [=V. australis var. tenuissima] BR65
         `--V. sect. Eurybiopsis BR65
              |--V. megacephala [=V. australis var. megacephala] BR65
              `--V. scabra BR65
  Hazardia RU03
    `--‘Haplopappus’ vernicosus RU03
  Stenactis annua [=Aster annuus] C55
  Haplopappus M-FR08
    |--H. coronopifolius D03
    |--H. gracilis GM96
    |--H. ravenii A72
    |--H. spinulosus A72
    |--H. tenuisectus LW70
    |--H. venetus M-FR08
    `--H. wigginsii A72
  Bellidinae BR65
  Pleurophyllum Hooker 1844 A61
    |--P. criniferum Hooker 1844 A61 (see below for synonymy)
    |--P. hookeri Buchan. 1884 A61
    `--P. speciosum Hooker 1844 A61 [incl. Aster pleurophyllum Muell. 1865 ME70]
  Celmisia A61
  Pachystegia Cheeseman 1925 A61
    `--P. insignis (Hooker) Cheeseman 1925 (see below for synonymy) A61
         |--P. i. var. insignis A61
         `--P. i. var. minor Cheeseman 1925 [=Olearia insignis var. minor Cheeseman 1916] A61

Pachystegia insignis (Hooker) Cheeseman 1925 [=Olearia insignis Hooker 1855; incl. O. marginata Colenso 1883] A61

Pleurophyllum criniferum Hooker 1844 A61 [=Aster criniferum (Hooker) Muell. 1865 ME70; incl. P. hombronii Decne 1853 A61, Albinia oresigenesa Homb. & Jacq. ex Decne 1853 A61]

Vittadinia triloba BR65 [=Brachycome triloba Gaudichaud 1826 BR65; incl. *V. australis Richard 1832 A61, BR65, Eurybiopsis australis Hooker 1853 A61]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[A72] Atchley, W. R. 1972. The chromosome karyotype in estimation of lineage relationships. Systematic Zoology 21 (2): 199-209.

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae-Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8—Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 6. Mt Manning Range. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 35-47.

[GM96] Griffiths, A. J. F., J. H. Miller, D. T. Suzuki, R. C. Lewontin & W. M. Gelbart. 1996. An Introduction to Genetic Analysis (6th ed.) W. H. Freeman and Company: New York.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11-19.

[K91] Koehler, H. H. 1991. A five year study on the secondary succession of Gamasina on a ruderal site: the influence of recultivation. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 373-383. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[LW70] Lowe, C. H., J. W. Wright, C. J. Cole & R. L. Bezy. 1970. Natural hybridization between the teiid lizards Cnemidophorus sonorae (parthenogenetic) and Cnemidophorus tigris (bisexual). Systematic Zoology 19 (2): 114-127.

[M73] Mason, L. G. 1973. The habitat and phenetic variation in Phymata americana Melin (Heteroptera). Systematic Zoology 22 (3): 271-279.

[M47] Mayr, E. 1947. Ecological factors in speciation. Evolution 1: 263-288.

[ME70] Moore, L. B. & E. Edgar. 1970. Flora of New Zealand vol. 2. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Monocotyledones except Gramineae. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[M-FR08] Morais-Filho, J. C., & G. Q. Romero. 2008. Microhabitat use by Peucetia flava (Oxyopidae) on the glandular plant Rhyncanthera dichotoma (Melastomataceae). Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 374-378.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180-190.

[RU03] Roberts, R. P., & L. E. Urbatsch. 2003. Molecular phylogeny of Ericameria (Asteraceae, Astereae) based on nuclear ribosomal 3´ ETS and ITS sequence data. Taxon 52: 209-228.

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