Water snowflake Nymphoides indica, copyright Alex Popovkin.

Belongs within: Campanulidae.
Contains: Campanulaceae, Stylidiaceae, Goodeniaceae, Asteraceae.

The Asterales are a diverse clade of flowering plants including the composite-flowered plants, bellflowers and related taxa, characterised by the possession of notably small seeds (

Characters (from Starch generally absent; apotracheal parenchyma absent; leaves spiral; corolla apiculi inflexed; stamens free from corolla; pollen grains often tricellular; orbicules absent; nectary present; style long; ovules many/carpel, integument >7 cells across, endothelium present, hypostase absent; antipodal cells ephemeral; embryo suspensor filamentous, micropylar and chalazal endosperm haustoria present; x = 9; mitochondrial rpl2 gene lost. Asterales [Asteranae, Asteriflorae, Campanulales, Campanulanae]
    |  i. s.: Donatia Forster & Forster 1776 A61 [Donatiaceae T00]
    |           |--*D. fascicularis A61
    |           `--D. novae-zealandiae Hooker 1853 A61
    |--+--Campanulaceae K03
    |  `--Rousseaceae CM16
    |       |--Roussea simplex CM16
    |       `--+--Carpodetus Forster & Forster 1776 CM16, A61
    |          |    `--C. serratus Forster & Forster 1776 A61 [incl. C. dentatus C06, C. forsteri C06]
    |          `--+--Abrophyllum ornans CM16
    |             `--Cuttsia viburnea CM16
    `--+--Pentaphragma [Pentaphragmataceae] CM16
       |    `--P. ellipticum CM16
       `--+--+--+--Phelline [Phellinaceae] CM16
          |  |  |    |--P. comosa K03
          |  |  |    `--P. lucida CM16
          |  |  `--Argophyllaceae K03
          |  |       |--Argophyllum T00
          |  |       `--Corokia Cunn. 1839 CM16, A61
          |  |            |--C. buddleoides Cunn. 1839 A61
          |  |            |    |--C. b. var. buddleoides A61
          |  |            |    `--C. b. var. linearis Cheesem. 1925 A61
          |  |            |--C. cotoneaster Raoul 1844 A61
          |  |            |--C. macrocarpa Kirk 1899 A61
          |  |            `--C. × virgata Turrill 1912 (see below for synonymy) A61
          |  `--Alseuosmiaceae K03
          |       |--Periomphale T00
          |       |--Crispiloba T00
          |       |--Wittsteinia [incl. Memecylanthus] T00
          |       `--Alseuosmia Cunn. 1839 A61
          |            |--A. atriplicifolia Cunningham 1839 A61
          |            |--A. banksii Cunningham 1839 A61
          |            |--A. ligustrifolia Cunningham 1839 [=A. linariifolia var. ligustrifolia] A61
          |            |--A. linariifolia Cunningham 1839 [incl. A. hookeria Colenso 1846] A61
          |            |--A. macrophylla Cunningham 1839 A61
          |            |--A. palaeiformis Cunningham 1839 A61
          |            |--A. pusilla Colenso 1885 [incl. A. quercifolia var. glauca Kirk 1899] A61
          |            `--A. quercifolia Cunningham 1839 [incl. A. ilex Cunningham 1839] A61
          `--+--Stylidiaceae CM16
             `--+--+--Goodeniaceae CM16
                |  |--Asteraceae K03
                |  `--Boopis [Calyceraceae] K03
                |       |--B. anthemoides K03
                |       `--B. graminea K03
                `--Menyanthaceae [Menyanthoideae] K03
                     |--Menyanthes trifoliata K03
                     |--Liparophyllum Hooker 1847 A61
                     |    `--L. gunnii Hooker 1847 [=Limnanthemum gunnii Hooker 1860] A61
                     |--Nymphoides Hill 1756 K03, BR65
                     |    |--N. aurantiaca LK14
                     |    |--N. beaglensis LK14
                     |    |--N. crenata LK14
                     |    |--N. disperma LK14
                     |    |--N. geminata K03
                     |    |--N. indica K03 [=Limnanthemum indicum P88]
                     |    |--N. minima LK14
                     |    |--N. parviflorum YG03
                     |    |--N. parvifolia LK14
                     |    |--N. peltatum K03
                     |    `--N. quadriloba LK14
                     |--Limnanthemum Gmelin 1791 (nom. cons. prop.) BR65
                     |    |--L. crenatum BR65
                     |    |--L. cristatum C55
                     |    |--L. exiliflorum BR65
                     |    |--L. forbesianum C55
                     |    |--L. geminatum BR65
                     |    `--L. stygium BR65
                     `--Villarsia Bosc 1798 BR65, B98
                          |--*V. aquatica Bosc 1798 B98
                          |--V. albiflora GK00
                          |--V. capitata GK00
                          |--V. exaltata (Sims) Mueller 1868 (see below for synonymy) BR65
                          |--V. nymphoides [=Limnanthemum nymphoides, Menyanthes nymphoides] C55
                          |--V. parnassiifolia (see below for synonymy) BR65
                          |--V. submersa GK00
                          `--V. violifolia GK00

Corokia × virgata Turrill 1912 [C. buddleoides × C. cotoneaster; incl. C. cheesemanii Carse 1913] A61

Villarsia exaltata (Sims) Mueller 1868 [=Limnanthemum exaltatum (Sims) Mueller 1875, Menyanthes exaltata (Solander) Sims 1807; incl. Villarsia reniformis Brown 1810, Limnanthemum reniforme (Brown) Tate 1890] BR65

Villarsia parnassiifolia [=Swertia parnassiifolia Labillardière 1804, Limnanthemum parnassiifolia (Labillardière) Mueller 1875] BR65

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[B98] Bosc, C. 1798. Description du Villarsia. Bulletin des Sciences, par la Societé Philomathique de Paris 1 (16): 121–122.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[CM16] Crowl, A. A., N. W. Miles, C. J. Visger, K. Hansen, T. Ayers, R. Haberle & N. Cellinese. 2016. A global perspective on Campanulaceae: biogeographic, genomic, and floral evolution. American Journal of Botany 103 (2): 233–245.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[K03] Kårehed, J. 2003. The family Pennantiaceae and its relationships to Apiales. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141: 1–24.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[YG03] Yadav, S. R., & S. P. Gaikwad. 2003. A revision of the Indian Aponogetonaceae. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45: 39–76.

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